This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: "Social status" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (July 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Social status is the level of social value a person is considered to hold.[1][2] More specifically, it refers to the relative level of respect, honor, assumed competence, and deference accorded to people, groups, and organizations in a society. Status is based in widely shared beliefs about who members of a society think holds comparatively more or less social value, in other words, who they believe is better in terms of competence or moral traits.[3] Status is determined by the possession of various characteristics culturally believed to indicate superiority or inferiority (e.g., confident manner of speech or race). As such, people use status hierarchies to allocate resources, leadership positions, and other forms of power. In doing so, these shared cultural beliefs make unequal distributions of resources and power appear natural and fair, supporting systems of social stratification.[4] Status hierarchies appear to be universal across human societies, affording valued benefits to those who occupy the higher rungs, such as better health, social approval, resources, influence, and freedom.[2]


The sociologist Max Weber outlined three central aspects of stratification in a society: class, status, and power. In his scheme, which remains influential today, people possess status in the sense of honor because they belong to specific groups with unique lifestyles and privileges.[5] Modern sociologists and social psychologists broadened this understanding of status to refer to one's relative level of respectability and honor more generally.[6]

Some writers have also referred to a socially valued role or category a person occupies as a "status" (e.g., gender, social class, ethnicity, having a criminal conviction, having a mental illness, etc.).[7] As social network analysts, Stanley Wasserman and Katherine Faust Stanley cautioned "there is considerable disagreement among social scientists about the definitions of the related concepts of social position, social status, and social role." They note that while many scholars differentiate those terms, they can define those terms in a way that clashes with the definitions of another scholar; for example they state that "[Ralph] Linton uses the term 'status' in a way that is identical to our use of the term "position".[8]


Status hierarchies depend primarily on the possession and use of status symbols. These are cues or characteristics that people in a society agree indicate how much status a person holds and how they should be treated.[9] Such symbols can include the possession of valued attributes, like being conventionally beautiful or having a prestigious degree. Other status symbols include wealth and its display through conspicuous consumption.[10] Status in face-to-face interaction can also be conveyed through certain controllable behaviors, such as assertive speech, posture,[11] and emotional displays.[12] Social network analysts have also shown that one's affiliations can also be a source of status. Several studies document that being popular [13] or demonstrating dominance over peers [14] increases a person's status. Network studies of firms also find that organizations derive their own status in market contexts from the status of their affiliates, like corporate partners and investors.[1]

Because status is always relative to other people, that means a person can enter many situations throughout their life or even a single day in which they hold high, equal, or low status depending on who is around them. For instance, a doctor holds high status when interacting with a patient, equal status in a meeting with fellow doctors, and low status when meeting with their hospital's chief of medicine. A person can also be a 'big fish in a small pond' such that they have higher status than everyone else in their organization, but low or equal status relative to professionals in their entire field.[15]

Some perspectives on status emphasize its relatively fixed and fluid aspects. Ascribed statuses are fixed for an individual at birth, while achieved status is determined by social rewards an individual acquires during his or her lifetime as a result of the exercise of ability and/or perseverance.[16] Examples of ascribed status include castes, race, and beauty among others. Meanwhile, achieved statuses are akin to one's educational credentials or occupation: these things require a person to exercise effort and often undergo years of training. The term master status has been used to describe the status most important for determining a person's position in a given context, like possessing a mental illness.[17][18]

Some theories however, like status characteristics theory, eschew the idea of a master status (in the sense of a social attribute that has an out-sized effect on one's position across all contexts).[19] Broadly, theoretical research finds that status arising from membership in social categories is attenuated by having oppositely valued task ability or group memberships (e.g., in U.S. society, a black woman with high technical ability).[20] For instance, with respect to gender, experimental tests repeatedly found that women are highly deferential only in the presence of men.[21][22][23] Other research finds that even the interactional disadvantages suffered by possessing a mental illness are attenuated when such people are also highly skilled on whatever task faces a group of people.[19] Although for disadvantaged groups, status disadvantage is not completely negated by positively valued information, their social status does not depend predominantly on any one group membership. As such, research in this program has yet to identify a social characteristic that operates like a robust trans-situational master status.

Uses of status

Although a person's status does not always correspond to merit or actual ability, it does allow the members of a group to coordinate their actions and quickly agree on who among them should be listened to. When actual ability does correspond to status, then status hierarchies can be especially useful. They allow leaders to emerge who set informed precedents and influence less knowledgeable group members, allowing groups to use the shared information of their group to make more correct decisions.[24] This can be especially helpful in novel situations where group members must determine who is best equipped to complete a task. In addition, there are large material and immaterial rewards for contributing to groups, which incentivize highly capable members to contribute in the first place.[25] Finally, status can be useful for communicating clear messages. One series of vignette studies showed that even when research participants learned that a gift recipient did not prefer the highest status option before the participant, the participants still preferred to give gifts that were socially recognized as high-status because it meant their intentions would be understood as considerate.[26]

In different societies

Whether formal or informal, status hierarchies are present in all societies.[2] In a society, the relative honor and prestige accorded to individuals depends on how well an individual is perceived to match a society's values and ideals (e.g., being pious in a religious society or wealthy in a capitalist society). Status often comes with attendant rights, duties, and lifestyle practices.[5]

In modern societies, occupation is usually thought of as the main determinant of status,[27] but other memberships or affiliations (such as ethnic group, religion, gender, voluntary associations, fandom, hobby) can have an influence.[6] Achieved status, when people are placed in the stratification structure based on their individual merits or achievements like education or training, is thought to be reflective of modern developed societies. Consequently, achieved status implies that social mobility in a society is possible, as opposed to caste systems characterized by immobility based solely on ascribed status.

In pre-modern societies, status differentiation is widely varied. In some cases it can be quite rigid, such as with the Indian caste system. In other cases, status exists without class and/or informally, as is true with some Hunter-Gatherer societies such as the Khoisan, and some Indigenous Australian societies. In these cases, status is limited to specific personal relationships. For example, a Khoisan man is expected to take his wife's mother quite seriously (a non-joking relationship), although the mother-in-law has no special "status" over anyone except her son-in-law—and only then in specific contexts.

Status maintains and stabilizes social stratification. Mere inequality in resources and privileges is likely to be perceived as unfair and thus prompt retaliation and resistance from those of lower status, but if some individuals are seen as better than others (i.e., have higher status), then it seems natural and fair that high-status people receive more resources and privileges.[6] Historically, Max Weber distinguished status from social class,[5] though some contemporary empirical sociologists combine the two ideas to create socioeconomic status or SES, usually operationalized as a simple index of income, education and occupational prestige.

In nonhuman animals

Social status hierarchies have been documented in a wide range of animals: apes,[28] baboons,[29] wolves,[30] cows/bulls,[31] hens,[32] even fish,[33] and ants.[34] Natural selection produces status-seeking behavior because animals tend to have more surviving offspring when they raise their status in their social group.[35] Such behaviors vary widely because they are adaptations to a wide range of environmental niches. Some social dominance behaviors tend to increase reproductive opportunity,[36] while others tend to raise the survival rates of an individual’s offspring.[37] Neurochemicals, particularly serotonin,[38] prompt social dominance behaviors without need for an organism to have abstract conceptualizations of status as a means to an end. Social dominance hierarchy emerges from individual survival-seeking behaviors.

Status inconsistency

Main article: Status inconsistency

Status inconsistency is a situation where an individual's social positions have both positive and negative influences on his or her social status. For example, a teacher may have a positive societal image (respect, prestige) which increases their status but may earn little money, which simultaneously decreases their status. In task-focused interpersonal encounters, people unconsciously combine this information to develop impressions of their own and others' relative rank.[20] At one time, researchers thought status inconsistency would be a source of stress, though evidence for this hypothesis proved inconsistent, leaving some to conclude conflicting expectations through occupying incompatible roles may be the true stressor.[39]

Social stratification

Main article: Social stratification

Status is one of the major components of social stratification, the way people are hierarchically placed in a society. The members of a group with similar status interact mainly within their own group and to a lesser degree with those of higher or lower status in a recognized system of social stratification.[40] Although status is culture-specific, some of the more common bases for status-based stratification include:


Max Weber's three dimensions of stratification

Main article: Three-component theory of stratification

The German sociologist Max Weber developed a theory proposing that stratification is based on three factors that have become known as "the three p's of stratification": property, prestige and power. He claimed that social stratification is a result of the interaction of wealth (class), prestige status (or in German Stand) and power (party).[41]

Max Weber developed various ways that societies are organized in stratification systems. These ways are social status, class power and political power.

There has been discussion about how Weber's three dimensions of stratification are more useful for specifying social inequality than more traditional terms like Socioeconomic Status.[42]

Status group

Main article: Status group

Max Weber developed the idea of "status group" which is a translation of the German Stand (pl. Stände). Status groups are communities that are based on ideas of lifestyles and the honor the status group both asserts, and is given by others. Status groups exist in the context of beliefs about relative prestige, privilege, and honor and can be of both a positive and negative sort. People in status groups are only supposed to engage with people of like status, and in particular, marriage inside or outside the group is discouraged. Status groups can include professions, club-like organizations, ethnicity, race, and other groups for which pattern association.[43]

See also


  1. ^ a b Sauder, Michael; Lynn, Freda; Podolny, Joel (2012). "Status: Insights from Organizational Sociology". Annual Review of Sociology. 38: 267–283. doi:10.1146/annurev-soc-071811-145503. S2CID 73700406.
  2. ^ a b c Anderson, Cameron; Hildreth, John; Howland, Laura (2015). "Is the Desire for Status a Fundamental Human Motive? A Review of the Empirical Literature". Psychological Bulletin. 141 (3): 574–601. doi:10.1037/a0038781. PMID 25774679. S2CID 17129083.
  3. ^ Sedikides, C.; Guinote, A. (2018). ""How Status Shapes Social Cognition: Introduction to the Special Issue,"The Status of Status: Vistas from Social Cognition". Social Cognition. 36 (1): 1–3. doi:10.1521/soco.2018.36.1.1.
  4. ^ Ridgeway, Cecilia L.; Correll, Shelley (2006). "Consensus and the Creation of Status Beliefs". Social Forces. 85: 431–453. doi:10.1353/sof.2006.0139. S2CID 145216264.
  5. ^ a b c Weber, Max. 1946. "Class, Status, Party." pp. 180–95 in From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology, H. H. Gerth and C. Wright Mills (eds.). New York: Oxford University.
  6. ^ a b c Ridgeway, Cecilia (2014). "Why status matters for inequality" (PDF). American Sociological Review. 79: 1–16. doi:10.1177/0003122413515997. S2CID 17880907.
  7. ^ Pescosolido, Bernice; Martin, Jack (2015). "The Stigma Complex". Annual Review of Sociology. 41: 87–116. doi:10.1146/annurev-soc-071312-145702. PMC 4737963. PMID 26855471.
  8. ^ Stanley Wasserman; Katherine Faust; Stanley (University of Illinois Wasserman, Urbana-Champaign) (25 November 1994). Social Network Analysis: Methods and Applications. Cambridge University Press. p. 348. ISBN 978-0-521-38707-1.
  9. ^ Mazur, Allan (2015). "A Biosocial Model of Status in Face-To-Face Groups". Evolutionary Perspectives on Social Psychology. Evolutionary Psychology: 303–315. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-12697-5_24. ISBN 978-3-319-12696-8.
  10. ^ Veblen, Thornstein (1899). The Theory of the Leisure Class: An Economic Study of Institutions. MacMillan.
  11. ^ Mazur, Allan (2015), "A Biosocial Model of Status in Face-To-Face Groups", Evolutionary Perspectives on Social Psychology, Evolutionary Psychology, Springer International Publishing, pp. 303–315, doi:10.1007/978-3-319-12697-5_24, ISBN 9783319126968
  12. ^ Tiedens, Larissa Z. (2001). "Anger and advancement versus sadness and subjugation: The effect of negative emotion expressions on social status conferral". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 80 (1): 86–94. CiteSeerX doi:10.1037/0022-3514.80.1.86. ISSN 0022-3514. PMID 11195894.
  13. ^ Lynn, Freda; Simpson, Brent; Walker, Mark; Peterson, Colin (2016). "Why is the Pack Persuasive? The Effect of Choice Status on Perceptions of Quality". Sociological Science. 3: 239–263. doi:10.15195/v3.a12.
  14. ^ Faris, Robert (2012-06-01). "Aggression, Exclusivity, and Status Attainment in Interpersonal Networks". Social Forces. 90 (4): 1207–1235. doi:10.1093/sf/sos074. ISSN 0037-7732. S2CID 144789481.
  15. ^ Frank, Robert H. (1985). Choosing the right pond : human behavior and the quest for status. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-503520-8. OCLC 11089364.
  16. ^ Linton, Ralph (1936). The Study of Man. Appleton Century Crofts.
  17. ^ Robert Brym; John Lie (11 June 2009). Sociology: Your Compass for a New World, Brief Edition: Enhanced Edition. Cengage Learning. p. 88. ISBN 978-0-495-59893-0.
  18. ^ Ferris, Kelly, and Jill Stein. "The Self and Interaction." Chapter 4 of The Real World: An Introduction to Sociology. W. W. Norton & Company Inc, Dec. 2011. Accessed 20 September 2014.
  19. ^ a b Lucas, Jeffrey; Phelan, Jo (2012). "Stigma and Status: The Interrelation of Two Theoretical Perspectives". Social Psychology Quarterly. 75 (4): 310–333. doi:10.1177/0190272512459968. PMC 4248597. PMID 25473142.
  20. ^ a b Berger, Joseph; Norman, Robert Z.; Balkwell, James W.; Smith, Roy F. (1992). "Status Inconsistency in Task Situations: A Test of Four Status Processing Principles". American Sociological Review. 57 (6): 843–855. doi:10.2307/2096127. ISSN 0003-1224. JSTOR 2096127.
  21. ^ Johnson, Cathryn (1993). "Gender and Formal Authority". Social Psychology Quarterly. 56 (3): 193–210. doi:10.2307/2786778. JSTOR 2786778.
  22. ^ Johnson, Cathryn (1994). "Gender, Legitimate Authority, and Leader-Subordinate Conversations". American Sociological Review. 59 (1): 122–135. doi:10.2307/2096136. JSTOR 2096136.
  23. ^ Johnson, Cathryn; Clay-Warner, Jody; Funk, Stephanie (1996). "Effects of Authority Structures and Gender on Interaction in Same-Sex Task Groups". Social Psychology Quarterly. 59 (3): 221–236. doi:10.2307/2787020. JSTOR 2787020.
  24. ^ Clark, C. Robert; Clark, Samuel; Polborn, Mattias K. (2006-08-01). "Coordination and Status Influence". Rationality and Society. 18 (3): 367–391. doi:10.1177/1043463106066379. ISSN 1043-4631.
  25. ^ Willer, Robb (2009-02-01). "Groups Reward Individual Sacrifice: The Status Solution to the Collective Action Problem". American Sociological Review. 74 (1): 23–43. doi:10.1177/000312240907400102. ISSN 0003-1224.
  26. ^ Correll, Shelley J.; Ridgeway, Cecilia L.; Zuckerman, Ezra W.; Jank, Sharon; Jordan-Bloch, Sara; Nakagawa, Sandra (2017-04-01). "It's the Conventional Thought That Counts: How Third-Order Inference Produces Status Advantage". American Sociological Review. 82 (2): 297–327. doi:10.1177/0003122417691503. ISSN 0003-1224.
  27. ^ Blau, Peter Michael (1978). The American occupational structure. Otis Dudley Duncan, Andrea Tyree. New York: Free Press. ISBN 0-02-903670-4. OCLC 3669292.
  28. ^ Chimpanzee Politics (1982, 2007) deWaal, Frans, Johns Hopkins University Press
  29. ^ Sapolsy, R.M. (1992). "Cortisol concentrations and the social significance of rank instability among wild baboons". Journal of Psychoneuroendocrinology. 17 (6): 701–09. doi:10.1016/0306-4530(92)90029-7. PMID 1287688. S2CID 23895155.
  30. ^ "Accessed 10 September 2012". Archived from the original on 6 May 2014. Retrieved 8 May 2018.
  31. ^ Rutberg, Allen T. (2010). "Factors Influencing Dominance Status in American Bison Cows (Bison bison)". Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie. 63 (2–3): 206–212. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0310.1983.tb00087.x.
  32. ^ Schjelderup-Ebbe, T. 1922. Beitrage zurSozialpsycholgie des Haushuhns. Zeitschrift Psychologie 88: 225–52. Reprinted in Benchmark Papers in Animal Behaviour/3. Ed. M.W.Schein. 1975
  33. ^ Natalie Angier (1991-11-12). "In Fish, Social Status Goes Right to the Brain - New York Times". Archived from the original on 2014-05-06. Retrieved 2014-05-24.
  34. ^ Wilson, E.O, The Insect Societies (1971) Belknap Press of Harvard University Press
  35. ^ Wilson, E.O, Sociobiology (1975, 2000) Belknap Press of Harvard University Press
  36. ^ Wrangham, R. and Peterson, D. (1996). Demonic males. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 978-0-395-87743-2.
  37. ^ Smuts, B.B., Cheney, D.L. Seyfarth, R.M., Wrangham, R.W., & Struhsaker, T.T. (Eds.) (1987). Primate Societies. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-76715-9
  38. ^ Raleigh, Michael J. (1985). "Dominant social status facilitates the behavioral effects of serotonergic agonists". Brain Res. 348 (2): 274–82. doi:10.1016/0006-8993(85)90445-7. PMID 3878181. S2CID 38842663.
  39. ^ Stryker, Sheldon; Macke, Anne Statham (1978). "Status Inconsistency and Role Conflict". Annual Review of Sociology. 4: 57–90. ISSN 0360-0572.
  40. ^ McPherson, Miller; Smith-Lovin, Lynn; Cook, James M (2001-08-01). "Birds of a Feather: Homophily in Social Networks". Annual Review of Sociology. 27 (1): 415–444. doi:10.1146/annurev.soc.27.1.415. ISSN 0360-0572. S2CID 2341021.
  41. ^ Tony Waters and Dagmar Waters, translators and eds., (2015). Weber's Rationalism and Modern Society. Palgrave Macmillan.
  42. ^ Waters, Tony and Dagmar Waters 2016 Are the terms "socio-economic status" and "social status" a warped form of reasoning for Max Weber?" Palgrave Communications 2, Article number: 16002 (2016) Waters, Tony; Waters, Dagmar (2016). "Are the terms "socio-economic status" and "class status" a warped form of reasoning for Max Weber?". Palgrave Communications. 2. doi:10.1057/palcomms.2016.2.
  43. ^ Weber 48–56

Further reading