Boy plowing with a tractor at sunset in Don Det, Laos.
Boy plowing with a tractor at sunset in Don Det, Laos.

Rural sociology is a field of sociology traditionally associated with the study of social structure and conflict in rural areas. It is an active academic field in much of the world, originating in the United States in the 1910s with close ties to the national Department of Agriculture and land-grant university colleges of agriculture.[1]

While the issue of natural resource access transcends traditional rural spatial boundaries, the sociology of food and agriculture is one focus of rural sociology, and much of the field is dedicated to the economics of farm production. Other areas of study include rural migration and other demographic patterns, environmental sociology, amenity-led development, public-lands policies, so-called "boomtown" development, social disruption, the sociology of natural resources (including forests, mining, fishing and other areas), rural cultures and identities, rural health-care, and educational policies. Many rural sociologists work in the areas of development studies, community studies, community development, and environmental studies. Much of the research involves developing countries or the Third World.


United States

Rural sociology was a concept first brought by Americans in response to the large amounts of people living and working on the grounds of farms. [2] Rural sociology was the first and for a time the largest branch of American sociology. Histories of the field were popular in the 1950s and 1960s.[3][4]


Rural sociology in Europe developed not in the old established universities but in the new countries that emerged after 1919 and were strongly influenced by the political philosophy of Agrarianism, which promoted the farmer as the strength of society. Czechoslovakia opened three research centers, and others opened in Romania and Yugoslavia.[5]

Mission statements

The mission statements of university departments of rural sociology have expanded to include more topics, such as sustainable development. For example, at the University of Missouri the mission is:

"The Department of Rural Sociology at the University of Missouri employs the theoretical and methodological tools of rural sociology to address challenges of the 21st century – preserving our natural resources, providing safe and nutritious food for an expanding population, adapting to climate changes, and maintaining sustainable rural livelihoods."[6]

The University of Wisconsin set up one of the first departments of rural sociology. It has now dropped the term "rural" and changed its name to the "Department of Community and Environmental Sociology."[7] Similarly, the Rural Sociology Program at the University of Kentucky has evolved into the. "Department of Community and Leadership Development," while transferring the graduate program in rural sociology to the Sociology Department.[8] Cornell University's department of rural sociology has also changed its name to the department of Development Sociology.[9]


Scholarly associations in rural sociology include:


Several academic journals are published in the field of (or closely related to) rural sociology, including:

See also


  1. ^ Nelson, 1969
  2. ^ Lowe, Philip (2010). "Enacting Rural Sociology: Or what are the Creativity Claims of the Engaged Sciences?". Sociologia Ruralis. 50 (4): 311–330. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9523.2010.00522.x. ISSN 1467-9523.
  3. ^ Lowry Nelson, Rural Sociology: Its Origins and Growth in the United States (1969)
  4. ^ Edmund deS. Brunner, The Growth of a Science: A Half-Century of Rural Sociological Research in the United States (1957)
  5. ^ Nicholas Mirkowich, "Beginnings of Rural Sociology in Yugoslavia," Rural Sociology (1940) 5#3 pp. 351-4 online
  6. ^ See "About Rural Sociology and Sustainable Development"
  7. ^ See "Who We Are"
  8. ^ See "The Department of Community and Leadership Development"
  9. ^ "Department of Development Sociology : Academic Units : Cornell Warren Hall". Retrieved 2016-03-20.
  10. ^ See webpage
  11. ^ See listing
  12. ^ See homepage
  13. ^ See homepage
  14. ^ See homepage

Further reading