This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages) This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. The specific problem is: Needs fact checking. Please help improve this article if you can. (May 2023) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) This article possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. (May 2023) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
The Hall of Space Technology in the Tsiolkovsky State Museum of the History of Cosmonautics, Kaluga, Russia. The exhibition includes the models and replicas of the following Russian inventions:

This timeline of Russian innovation encompasses key events in the history of technology in Russia.

The entries in this timeline fall into the following categories:

This timeline includes scientific and medical discoveries, products and technologies introduced by various peoples of Russia and its predecessor states, regardless of ethnicity, and also lists inventions by naturalized immigrant citizens. Certain innovations achieved internationally may also appear in this timeline in cases where the Russian side played a major role in such projects.

All-Russia exhibition 1896 in Nizhny Novgorod. An electric tram, an earlier invention by Fyodor Pirotsky, drives between the pavilions featuring breakthrough designs by Vladimir Shukhov: the world's first steel tensile structures, gridshells, thin-shells and the first hyperboloid steel tower. The exhibition demonstrated the first lightning detector and an early radio receiver of Alexander Popov, caterpillar tractor of Fyodor Blinov, the first Russian automobile, and other technical achievements.
The wooden churches of Kizhi, built completely without nails and featuring such traditional elements of Russian architecture as the tented roof, multiple onion domes and bochka roofs.

Kievan Rus'

10th century

A Russian girl wearing kokoshnik and sarafan.
The kokoshnik is a traditional Russian head-dress for women. It is patterned to match the style of the sarafan and can be pointed or round. It is tied at the back of the head with long thick ribbons in a large bow. The forehead is sometimes decorated with pearls or other jewelry. The word kokoshnik appeared in the 16th century, however the earliest head-dress pieces of a similar type were found in the 10th to 12th century burials in Veliky Novgorod. It was worn by girls and women on special occasions until the Russian Revolution, and was subsequently introduced into Western fashion by Russian émigrés.[1]
Kvass / Okroshka
Kvass or kvas, sometimes called in English a "bread drink", is a fermented beverage made from black rye or rye bread, which contributes to its light or dark colour. By the content of alcohol resulted from fermentation, it is classified as non-alcoholic: up to 1.2% of alcohol, which is so low that it is considered acceptable for consumption by children. While the early low-alcoholic prototypes of kvass were known in some ancient civilizations, its modern, almost non-alcoholic form originated in Eastern Europe. Kvass was first mentioned in the Russian Primary Chronicle, which tells how Prince Vladimir the Great gave kvass among other beverages to the people, while celebrating the Christianization of Kievan Rus'. Kvass is also known as a main ingredient in okroshka, a Russian cold soup.[2][3]
Six-domed Saint Sophia Cathedral in Novgorod built on place of the original 13-domed wooden church, 11th century.
Multidomed church
The multidomed church is a typical form of Russian church architecture, which distinguishes Russia from other Eastern Orthodox nations and Christian denominations. Indeed, the earliest Russian churches built just after the Christianization of Kievan Rus', were multi-domed, which led some historians to speculate what Russian pre-Christian pagan temples might have looked like. Namely, these early churches were 13-domed wooden Saint Sophia Cathedral in Novgorod (989) and 25-domed stone Desyatinnaya Church in Kiev (989–996). The number of domes typically has a symbolical meaning in Russian architecture, for example 13 domes symbolize Christ with 12 Apostles, while 25 domes mean the same with additional 12 Prophets from the Old Testament. Multiple domes of Russian churches were often made of wood and were comparatively smaller than the Byzantine domes.[4][5]
Red currant kissel.
Kissel or kisel is a dessert that consists of sweetened juice, typically that of berries, thickened with oats, cornstarch or potato starch, with red wine or dried fruits added sometimes. The dessert can be served either hot or cold, and if made using less thickening starch it can be consumed as a beverage, which is common in Russia. Kissel was mentioned for the first time in the Primary Chronicle, where it forms part of the story of how a besieged Russian city was saved from nomadic Pechenegs.[3][6]

11th century

A birch-bark letter with spelling lessons and drawings made by a 6–7 year old Novgorodian boy named Onfim.
Birch bark document
A birch bark document is a document written on pieces of birch bark. This form of writing material was developed independently by several ancient cultures. In Rus' the usage of the specially prepared birch bark as a cheap replacement for pergament or paper became widespread soon after the Christianization of the country. The earliest Russian birch bark documents (likely written in the first quarter of the 11th century) have been found in Veliky Novgorod. In total, more than 1000 such documents have been discovered, most of them in Novgorod and the rest in other ancient cities in Russia, Ukraine and Belarus. Many birch bark documents were written by common people rather than by clergy or nobility. This fact led some historians to suggest that before the Mongol invasion of Rus' the level of literacy in the country might have been considerably higher than in contemporary Western Europe.[7]
A 17th-century koch in a museum in Krasnoyarsk
Koch / Icebreaker
The koch was an ancient form of icebreaker, being a special type of one or two small wooden sailing ships with a mast, used for voyages in the icy conditions of the Arctic seas and Siberian rivers. The koch was developed by the Russian Pomors in the 11th century, when they started settling on the White Sea shores. The koch's hull was protected by a belt of ice-floe resistant flush skin-planking (made of oak or larch) along the variable water-line, and had a false keel for on-ice portage. If a koch was in danger of being trapped in the ice-fields, its rounded bodylines below the surface would allow for the ship to be pushed up out of the water and onto the ice with no damage. In the 19th century similar protective features were adopted to modern icebreakers.[8]
Ancient Russian Gudok.
The gudok is an ancient East Slavic string musical instrument, played with a bow. It usually had three strings, two of them tuned in unison and played as a drone, the third tuned a fifth higher. All three strings were in the same plane at the bridge, so that a bow could make them all sound at the same time. Sometimes the gudok also had several sympathetic strings (up to eight) under the sounding board. These made the gudok's sound warm and rich. It was also possible to play while standing or dancing, which made it popular among skomorokhs. The name gudok comes from the 17th century, however the same type of instrument existed from 11th to 16th century, but was called smyk.[9]
Medovukha is an old Slavic honey-based alcoholic beverage very similar to mead, but much cheaper and faster to make. Since the old times the Slavs exported the fermented mead as a luxury product to Europe in huge quantities. Fermentation occurs naturally over 15 to 50 years, originally rendering the product very expensive and only accessible to the nobility. However, in the 11th century East Slavs found that fermentation occurred much faster when the honey mixture was heated, enabling medovukha to become a commonly available drink in the territory of Rus'. In the 14th century, the invention of distillation made it possible to create a prototype of the modern medovukha, however vodka was invented at the same time and gradually surpassed medovukha in popularity.[10]
A lubok depiction of the "Wall against Wall" (Stenka na Stenku) fist fighting.
1048 Russian fist fighting
Russian fist fighting is an ancient Russian combat sport, similar to modern boxing. However, it features some indigenous techniques and often fought in collective events called Stenka na Stenku ("Wall against Wall"). It has existed since the times of Kievan Rus', first mentioned in the Primary Chronicle in the year 1048. The government and the Russian Orthodox Church often tried to prohibit the fights; however, fist fighting remained popular until the 19th century, while in the 20th century some of the old techniques were adopted for the modern Russian martial arts.[3][11]

12th century

Pernach (left) and two shestopyors.
The pernach is a type of flanged mace developed since the 12th century in the region of Kievan Rus' and later widely used throughout Europe. The name comes from the Russian word перо (pero) meaning feather, reflecting the form of pernach that resembled an arrow with fletching. The most popular variety of pernach had six flanges and was called shestopyor (from Russian shest' and pero, that is six-feathered). Pernach was the first form of the flanged mace to find wide usage. It was perfectly suited to defeat plate armour and plate mail. In later times it was often used as a symbol of power by military leaders in Eastern Europe.[12]
The shashka is a special kind of sabre, a very sharp, single-edged, single-handed, and guardless sword. In appearance, the shashka is midway between a full sabre and a straight sword. It has a slightly curved blade, and could be effective for both slashing and thrusting. Originally the shashka was developed in the 12th century by Circassians in the Northern Caucasus. These lands were integrated into the Russian Empire in the 18th century. By that time shashka was adopted as their main cold weapon by Russian Cossacks.[13]
The treshchotka, sometimes referred in plural as treshchotki, is a Russian folk music idiophone instrument which is used to imitate hand clapping. Basically it is a set of small boards on a string that get clapped together as a group. There are no known documents confirming the usage of the treshchotka in ancient Russia, however, the remnants of what might have been the earliest 12th-century treshchotka were recently found in Novgorod.[14]
1149 bear spear
The bear spear or rogatina was a medieval type of spear used in bear hunting and also to hunt other large animals, like wisents and war horses. The sharpened head of a bear spear was enlarged and usually had the form of a bay leaf. Right under the head there was a short crosspiece that helped to fix the spear in the body of an animal. Often it was placed against the ground on its rear point, which made it easier to absorb the impact of the attacking beast. The Russian chronicles first mention rogatina as a military weapon in the year 1149, and as a hunting weapon in the year 1255.[15]

13th century

The sokha is a light wooden plough which could be pulled by one horse. Its origin was in northern Russia, most likely in the Novgorod Republic, where it was used as early as in the 13th century. A characteristic feature of sokha construction is the bifurcated plowing tip (рассоха), so that a sokha has two plowshares, later made of metal, which cut the soil. The sokha is an evolution of a scratch-plough by an addition of a spade-like detail which turns the cut soil over (in regular ploughs the curved mouldboard both cuts and turns the soil).[16]
Preparation of pelmeni, with khokhloma handicraft seen on the background.
Pelmeni is a dish originating from Siberia, now considered part of Russian national cuisine. It is a type of dumpling consisting of a filling that is wrapped in thin unleavened dough. The word pelmeni comes from the Finno-Ugric Komi, Udmurt, and Mansi languages. It is unclear when pelmeni entered the cuisines of indigenous Siberian people and when it first appeared in Russian cuisine, but most likely it was during the Mongol conquests and Mongol-Tatar invasion of Rus' in the 13th century, when Mongol-Tatars took the basic idea from the Chinese dumplings and brought it to Siberia and Eastern Europe.[17]
Onion domes of Cathedral of the Annunciation at the Moscow Kremlin.
Onion dome
The onion dome is a dome whose shape resembles an onion. Such domes are often larger in diameter than the drum upon which they are set, and their height usually exceeds their width. The whole bulbous structure tapers smoothly to a point. The so-called onion dome is the dominant form for church domes in Russia, and though the earliest preserved Russian domes of the type date from the 16th century, illustrations of the old chronicles indicate that they were used since the late 13th century.[18]

Grand duchy of Moscow

Zvonnitsa of Transfiguration Cathedral in Vyazemy near Moscow.

14th century



Anbur script The alphabet was introduced by a Russian missionary, Stepan Khrap, also known as Saint Stephen of Perm (Степан Храп, св. Стефан Пермский) in 1372. The name Abur is derived from the names of the first two characters: An and Bur. The alphabet derived from Cyrillic and Greek, and Komi tribal signs, the latter being similar in the appearance to runes or siglas poveiras, because they were created by incisions, rather than by usual writing. The alphabet was in use until the 17th century, when it was superseded by the Cyrillic script. Abur was also used as cryptographic writing for the Russian language.

1376 Sarafan

15th century

Streltsy with muskets and bardiches.


Boyars with gorlatnaya hats on a painting by Andrey Ryabushkin.

Boyar hat



Russian oven

Typical Russian oven in a peasant izba.


Russian Vodka in various bottles and cups.

c. 1430 Russian vodka

Early 16th century

The kokoshniks of the Holy Trinity Church in Nikitinki, Moscow.

Kokoshnik (architecture)

The Church of Ascension in Kolomenskoye, Moscow, an early tented roof church. Kokoshniks are seen at the base of the tent.

1510s Tented roof masonry

1530 Middle Muscovite

Tsardom of Russia

Late 16th century

Russian abacus.

Russian abacus

1550 Streltsy

1552 Battery-tower

Saint Basil's Cathedral.

1561 Saint Basil's Cathedral

1566 Great Abatis Line

A view of the Tsar Cannon, showing its massive bore and cannonballs, and the Lion's head cast into the carriage.

1586 Tsar Cannon

17th century

The bochka roofs of the Transfiguration Church in Kizhi, holding onion domes above.

Bochka roof

Gorodki arranged in the pushka (cannon) pattern behind the gorod line.


Roller coaster

A typical wooden Bird of Happiness.

Bird of Happiness

Dymkovo toy

Dymkovo toys.
Troika pulling a sleigh.


1630 Late Muscovite Russian architecture characterized by many large cathedral-type churches with five onion-like cupolas, surrounding them with tents of bell towers and aisles.

1659 Khokhloma

Khokhloma tableware on a Soviet postage stamp.
Nikolay Diletsky's circle of fifths in Idea grammatiki musikiyskoy (Moscow, 1679)

1679 Circle of fifths

Tula pryanik.

1685 Tula pryanik

1688 Balalaika

A Podstakannik with a glass inside



Early 18th century

A classic 20-facet Soviet table-glass.


Modern Russian rubles and kopecks.

1704 Decimal currency

1717 Metal lathe compound slide

1718 Yacht club

A view of St. Petersburg by Alexey Zubov, 1716. Shows yachts and war ships on the Neva River.

Russian Empire


A corner of the acoustic room inside the Leaning Tower of Nevyansk, with some rebar seen.

1725 Rebar


The Leaning Tower of Nevyansk has a metallic rod on top, grounded through the rebar (some are seen below).

1732 Cast iron cupola / Lightning rod

1733 Peter and Paul Cathedral

The Tsar Bell.

1735 Tsar Bell

Inside the ice palace of Empress Anna of Russia.

1739 Ice palace


1741 Quick-firing gun

A quick-firing gun battery of Andrey Nartov


1754 Coaxial rotor / Model helicopter

Bronze Licorne: caliber 152mm, effective range 1278m, height 174cm, weight 707kg, cast in 1849 in the Bryansk Arsenal master Nazarov, currently displayed at the Military-Historical Museum of Artillery, Engineers and Signal Corps, St. Petersburg.

1756 Law of Mass Conservation

1757 Licorne (Russian field gun)


1761 Atmosphere of Venus

1762 Off-axis reflecting telescope


1770 Amber Room

1770 Thunder Stone

1776 Orenburg shawl

1778 Russian samovar


1784 Orlov Trotter


Russian guitar


1793 Screw drive elevator

1795 Fedoskino miniature / Russian lacquer art

1796 Peaked cap

19th century

1802 Modern powdered milk

1802 Continuous electric arc

1805 Droshky any of various 2 or 4 wheeled, horse-drawn, public carriages (early taxicabs).


1811 Sailor cap

1812 Electric telegraph

1812 Naval mine

1814 Beehive frame


1820 Antarctica

1820s Russian Revival architecture is the generic term for a number of different movements within Russian architecture that arose in second quarter of the 19th century and was an eclectic melding of pre-Peterine Russian architecture and elements of Byzantine architecture.

1820 Monorail

1825 Zhostovo painting

1828 Electromagnetic telegraph

1829 Industrial production process of sunflower oil

1829 Three bolt diving equipment


1832 Data recording equipment

1833 Lenz's law

1835 Centrifugal fan

1838 Electrotyping

1839 Electric boat

1839 Galvanoplastic sculpture


1847 Field anesthesia

1848 Modern oil well


1850s Neo-Byzantine architecture in the Russian Empire emerged in the 1850s and became an officially endorsed preferred architectural style for church construction during the reign of Alexander II of Russia (1855–1881), replacing the Russo-Byzantine style of Konstantin Thon.

1851 Struve Geodetic Arc

1851 Russian Railway Troops

1854 Modern field surgery

1854 Stereo camera

1857-1861 Theory of chemical structure

1857 Radiator

1858 Saint Isaac's Cathedral

1859 Aluminothermy


1860s Russian salad

1861 Beef Stroganoff

1864 Modern icebreaker

1868 Grow light

1869 Hectograph

1869 Periodic table of the elements



1872 Electric lamp

1872 Aldol reaction

1873 Odhner Arithmometer

1873 Armored cruiser

1874 Headlamp

1875 Railway electrification system

1876 AC transformer

1876 Yablochkov candle

1877 Torpedo boat tender

1877 Tracked wagon

1878 Cylindrical oil tank

1879 Modern oil tanker


1880s Winogradsky column

1888s Three-phase electric power

1880 Vitamins

1880 Electric tram

1881 Carbon arc welding

1883 Cathedral of Christ the Saviour

1884 Mozhaysky's airplane

1884 Electric submarine

1888 Caterpillar farm tractor

1888 Shielded metal arc welding

1888 Solar cell (based on the outer photoelectric effect)

1889 Three-phase induction motor

1889 Three-phase transformer

1889 Mosin–Nagant rifle


1890 Matryoshka doll

1890 Powered exoskeleton

1890 Chemosynthesis

1891 Thermal chemical cracking

1891 Long-distance transmission of three-phase electric power

1891 Three-phase hydroelectric power plant

1892 Viruses

1894 Nephoscope

1895 Lightning detector / Radio receiver

1896 Thin-shell structure

1896 Tensile structure

1896 Hyperboloid structure

1897 Gridshell

1898 Polar icebreaker

1899 Radiation pressure

20th century

Mstyora miniature

1901 Classical conditioning

1901 Chromatography

1902 Fire fighting foam

1903 Theoretical foundations of spaceflight

1903 Cytoskeleton

1903 Motor ship

1904 Radio jamming

1904 Foam extinguisher

1905 Auscultatory blood pressure measurement

1905 Korotkov sounds

1905 Insubmersibility

1906 Electric seismometer

1907 Aerosledge

1907 Pulsejet

1907 Bayan

1907 Church of the Savior on Blood


1910 Polybutadiene

1910 Montage (filmmaking) or Kuleshov Effect (by Lev Kuleshov)

1910 Non-Aristotelian logic By Nikolai Vasilyev

1911 Knapsack parachute

1911 Television

1911 Stanislavski's system

1913 Zaum

1913 Airliner

1913 Half-track

1914 Aerobatics

1914 Gyrocar

1914 Tachanka

1914 Strategic bomber

1914 Aerial ramming

1915 Activated charcoal gas mask

1915 Vezdekhod

1915 Tsar Tank

1916 Trans-Siberian Railway

1916 Optophonic piano[86]

1916 Avtomat rifle. Unlike 1890's Cei gas rifle, the Avtomat was designed for 25-round detachable magazines. Contemporary Occidental writers have struggled to classify the Fedorov Avtomat. Some consider it to be an "early predecessor" or "ancestor" to the modern assault rifle,[87][88][89][90] while others believe that the Fedorov Avtomat was the world's first assault rifle.[91]

Fedorov Avtomat, Military Museum of the Chinese People's Revolution

Soviet Russia and Soviet Union

Late 1910s

1917 Socialist realism

1918 Air ioniser

1918 Budenovka

1918 Ushanka

1918 Jet pack (not built)

1919 Film school

1919 Theremin

1919 Constructivism (art)


1920s Constructivist architecture

1921 Aerial refueling

1923 Iconoscope

1923 Palekh miniature

1924 Flying wing

1924 Optophonic Piano

1924 Stem cells

1924 Primordial soup hypothesis (Abiogenesis)

1924 Diesel electric locomotive

1925 Interlaced video

1926 Graphical sound

1927 Light-emitting diode

1927 Polikarpov Po-2 biplane

1928 Gene pool

1928 Rabbage

1929 Cadaveric blood transfusion

1929 Kinescope

1929 Pobedit

1929 Teletank / Military robot


Spring-loaded camming device

Abalakov thread climbing device

Electric rocket motor

1930s Modern ship hull design

1930 Blood bank[citation needed]

1930 Single lift-rotor helicopter

1930 Paratrooping

1931 Pressure suit

1931 Hypergolic rocket propellants

1931 Rhythmicon / Drum machine

1931 Flame tank

1932 Postconstructivism

1932 Postal code

1932 Children's railway

1932 Terpsitone

1932 Underwater welding

1933 Human kidney transplant

1933 Sampling theorem

1933 Tandem rotor helicopter

1933 Stalinist architecture

1934 Tupolev ANT-20

1934 Cherenkov detector

1935 Kirza

1935 Moscow Metro

1935 Kremlin stars

1936 Acoustic microscopy

1936 Airborne firefighting[106]

1937 Artificial heart

1937 Modern evolutionary synthesis

1937 Superfluidity

1937 Drag chute

1937 Drifting ice station

1937 Welded sculpture

1937 Fire-fighting sport

1937-1957 ANS synthesizer[110]

1938 Deep column station

1938 Sambo

1939 Kirlian photography

1939 Vought-Sikorsky VS-300

1939 Ilyushin Il-2

1939 Self-propelled multiple rocket launcher


1940s Ballast cleaner[citation needed]

1940s TRIZ

1940s Sikorsky R-4

1940 T-34 tank

1941 Competitive rhythmic gymnastics

1941 Maksutov telescope

1941 Degaussing

1942 Winged tank

1942 Gramicidin S

1944 Microtron

1944 EPR spectroscopy

1945 T-54/55 tank

1945 Passive resonant cavity bug

1946 Heart-lung transplant

1947 Modern multistage rocket

1947 MiG-15

1947 AK-47

1947 Lung transplant (Non-human)

1947 Light beam microphone

1949 Staged combustion cycle

1949 Reactive armour


1950s Head transplant

1950s Magnetotellurics

1950 MESM

1950 Berkovich tip

1951 Belousov–Zhabotinsky reaction

1951 Explosively pumped flux compression generator

1952 Masers

1952 Seven Sisters (Moscow)

1952 Carbon nanotubes

1952 Anthropometric cosmetology or Ilizarov apparatus

1954 Nuclear power plant

1955 MiG-21

1955 Ballistic missile submarine

1955 Fast-neutron reactor

1955 Leningrad Metro

1955 Tokamak

1957 ANS synthesizer

1957 Synchrophasotron

1957 Spaceport

1957 Intercontinental ballistic missile

1957 Orbital space rocket

1957 Artificial satellite

1957 Space capsule

1957 Raketa hydrofoil

1958 Modern ternary computer

1959 Nuclear icebreaker

1959 Space probe

1959 Missile boat

1959 Kleemenko cycle

1959 Staged combustion cycle


1960s Rocket boots

1960 Reentry capsule

1961 Human spaceflight

1961 RPG-7

1961 Lawrencium

1961 Anti-ballistic missile

1961 Space food

1961 Space suit

1961 Tsar Bomb

1961 Platform screen doors

1961 Ekranoplan

1961 Mil Mi-8

1962 Detonation nanodiamond

1962 AVL tree datastructure

1962 3D holography

1962 Modern stealth technology

1963 KTM-5

1963 Oxygen cocktail

1964 Rutherfordium

1964 Druzhba pipeline

1964 Plasma propulsion engine

1964 Kardashyov scale

1965 Extra-vehicular activity

1965 Molniya orbit satellite

1965 Voitenko compressor

1965 Proton rocket

1965 Air-augmented rocket

1966 Nobelium

1966 Lander spacecraft

1966 Orbiter

1966 Regional jet

1966 Caspian Sea Monster

1966 Soyuz rocket

1966 Orbital module

1967 Space toilet

1967 Ostankino Tower

1967 The Motherland Calls

1967 Computer for operations with functions

1967 Automated space docking

1967 Venus lander

1968 Dubnium

1968 Mil V-12

1968 Supersonic transport

1969 Comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko

1969 Intercontinental Submarine-launched ballistic missile


1970s Semiconductor Heterostructures

1970s Radial keratotomy

1970 Excimer laser

1970 Robotic sample return

1970 Space rover

1971 Space station

1971 Kaissa (chess program)

1972 Hall effect thruster

1972 Mil Mi-24

1972 Nuclear desalination

1973 Reflectron

1973 Skull crucible

1974 Electron cooling

1975 Underwater assault rifle

1975 Arktika-class icebreaker

1975 Androgynous Peripheral Attach System

1976 Mobile ICBM

1977 Vertical launching system

1977 Kirov-class battlecruiser

1978 Cargo spacecraft

1978 Active protection system

1979 Space-based radio telescope[124]


Kalina cycle

1980s EHF therapy

1980 Typhoon-class submarine

1981 Quantum dot

1981 Tupolev Tu-160

1982 Helicopter ejection seat

1984 Tetris

1986 Modular space station

1987 MIR submersible

1987 RD-170 rocket engine

1988 An-225

1989 Kola Superdeep Borehole

1989 Supermaneuverability

1989 Tupolev Tu-155

Early 1990s

1989-1991 BARS apparatus

1991 Thermoplan

1991 Scramjet

Russian Federation


RD-180 Engine

1992 Znamya (space mirror)

1992 Nuclotron

1993 "Novichok"

1993 RAR

1997 Two-level single-vault transfer station

1998 Beriev Be-200

1998 Submarine-launched spacecraft

1999 7z

1999 Sea Launch

1999 Flerovium


2000s Heterotransistor

2000 Livermorium

2000 Abstract state machine

2001 Space tourism

2001 Mirny Mine

2001 Superconducting nanowire single-photon detector

2003 Park Pobedy metro escalators

2003 Nihonium

2003 Moscovium

2004 Nginx

2004 Graphene

2005 Orbitrap

2006 Oganesson

2007 NS 50 Let Pobedy

2007 Father of all bombs

2008 Denisovans


2010 Chatroulette

2010 Tennessine

2011 w:ru:71-409

2011 Nuclear power station barge

2011 Nord Stream 1

2011 Spektr-R

2012 Russky Island Bridge

2016 T-14 Armata


2020 COVID-19 vaccine

See also


  1. ^ ""Русь изначальная":одежда и украшения. Женский головной убор". Archived from the original on 20 November 2010.
  2. ^ The history of kvas Archived 29 May 2010 at the Wayback Machine at site (in Russian)
  3. ^ a b c "Пушкинский Дом (ИРЛИ РАН) > Новости". Archived from the original on 16 March 2015.
  4. ^ Russian Church Design Archived 1 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine by Lisa Kies.
  5. ^ About Russian Domes and Cupolas Archived 28 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine at Sky Palace world architecture site.
  6. ^ Kissels Archived 15 February 2010 at the Wayback Machine at (in Russian)
  7. ^ "Древнерусские берестяные грамоты". Archived from the original on 23 February 2011.
  8. ^ Navigation in ice conditions. Experience of Russian sailors Archived 23 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine by Nataly Marchenko at (Svalbard Science Forum)
  9. ^ String instruments Archived 24 September 2010 at the Wayback Machine at the site Russian musical instruments. (in Russian)
  10. ^ Medovukha Archived 8 September 2009 at the Wayback Machine at the site Culinary Edem (in Russian)
  11. ^ Russian fist fighting Archived 19 May 2007 at the Wayback Machine at the site Russian Civilization (in Russian)
  12. ^ Medieval flanged maces Archived 27 September 2009 at the Wayback Machine by Shawn M. Caza.
  13. ^ The culture and customs of Adygs at the site (in Russian)
  14. ^ "Russian Folk Instruments". Archived from the original on 21 September 2010.
  15. ^ Кирпичников А. Н., «Древнерусское оружие», 1971 / Kirpichnikov A.N. The Ancient Russian weapons, 1971. (in Russian)
  16. ^ The study of the history of ancient ploughs of the Novgorod land Archived 20 May 2010 at Wikiwix by V. Ya. Konetsky. (in Russian)
  17. ^ Pelmeni. A Tasty History Archived 20 June 2010 at the Wayback Machine by Josh Wilson at The School of Russian and Asian Studies site.
  18. ^ The shapes of domes of ancient Russian churches Archived 16 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine by Sergey Zagraevsky at the site of (in Russian)
  19. ^ No Wrong Way to Swing Bat Archived 15 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine at the site of The St. Petersburg Times.
  20. ^ Zvonnitsa Archived 27 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine in the Great Soviet Encyclopedia (in Russian)
  21. ^ Churches Under Bells Archived 26 May 2010 at the Wayback Machine at the site (Churches of Russia) (in Russian)
  22. ^ What Is a Traditional Russian Sarafan? at (in Russian)
  23. ^ Russian sarafan at (in Russian)
  24. ^ Кирпичников А. Н., «Военное дело на Руси в XIII—XV вв.» Л., 1976 / Kirpichnikov A.N. Warfare in Russia in the 13th-15th centuries. Leningrad, 1976. (in Russian)
  25. ^ Киреева Е. В. «История костюма. Европейский костюм от античности до XX века.» Москва. Просвещение. 1976 / Kireeva E. V. The history of costume. European costume from Antiquity into the 20th century. Moscow, Prosvescheniye, 1976. (in Russian)
  26. ^ V.F.Shperk, "The History of Fortification" (В. Ф. Шперк, История фортификации Archived 27 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine) (1957) (in Russian)
  27. ^ Ukha Archived 24 April 2010 at the Wayback Machine at (in Russian)
  28. ^ "Русская печь XX века". Archived from the original on 8 May 2009.
  29. ^ Russian oven Archived 13 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine at (in Russian)
  30. ^ How to cook solyanka and rassolnik Archived 19 November 2011 at the Wayback Machine at (in Russian)
  31. ^ Pokhlebkin V. V. / Похлёбкин В. В. (2007). The history of vodka / История водки (in Russian). Moscow: Tsentrpoligraph / Центрполиграф. p. 272. ISBN 978-5-9524-1895-0.
  32. ^ Kokoshnik (architecture) Archived 25 April 2010 at Wikiwix in the Great Soviet Encyclopedia (in Russian)
  33. ^ The first stone tented roof church and the origins of the tented roof architecture Archived 16 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine by Sergey Zagraevsky at (in Russian)
  34. ^ Russian Abacus Archived 27 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine at (in Russian)
  35. ^ Russian Fortresses, 1480–1682, Osprey Publishing, ISBN 1-84176-916-9
  36. ^ Brumfield, William Craft (1997). Landmarks of Russian Architecture: A Photographic Survey. Routledge. ISBN 978-90-5699-537-9.
  37. ^ Brunov, N. I. (1988). Hram Vasilia Blazhennogo v Moskve (Храм Василия Блаженного в Москве. Покровский собор) (in Russian). Iskusstvo.
  38. ^ Abatis Lines Archived 7 May 2005 at with maps at (in Russian)
  39. ^ Andrey Chokhov Archived 21 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine at (in Russian)
  40. ^ a b М.Е. Портнов. Царь-Пушка и Царь-Колокол. Московский Рабочий, Москва, 1990 / M.E.Portnov. Tsar Cannon and Tsar Bell, Moskovsky Rabochiy, Moscow 1990, ISBN 5-239-00778-0 (in Russian)
  41. ^ Bochka (architecture) Archived 4 May 2010 at Wikiwix at the Great Soviet Encyclopedia (in Russian)
  42. ^ The history of gorodki Archived 20 November 2009 at the Wayback Machine at (in Russian)
  43. ^ Roller Coasters A Thrill Seeker's Guide to the Ultimate Scream Machines pg 14 (1st Published Edition)
  44. ^ "Bird of Happiness: Wooden Guardian of Family Hearth :: Visual Arts :: Culture & Arts :: Russia-InfoCentre". Archived from the original on 22 March 2015. Retrieved 13 March 2015.
  45. ^ The Encyclopedia of Vyatka Land. Vol. 10, Handicrafts. Vyatka, 2000. ISBN 5-85271-041-5. (in Russian)
  46. ^ "Under construction". Archived from the original on 25 March 2010.
  47. ^ Russian troika Archived 30 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine at (in Russian)
  48. ^ Jingle bells Archived 22 May 2010 at Wikiwix at (in Russian)
  49. ^ "Khokhloma Ware: Folk art for the masses". 29 December 2007. Archived from the original on 9 June 2015. Retrieved 13 March 2015.
  50. ^ Jensen, Claudia R. (1992). "A Theoretical Work of Late Seventeenth-Century Muscovy: Nikolai Diletskii's "Grammatika" and the Earliest Circle of Fifths". Journal of the American Musicological Society 45, no. 2 (Summer): 305–331., pp. 306–307.
  51. ^ Tula gingerbread Archived 27 October 2010 at the Wayback Machine at (in Russian)
  52. ^ Balalaika Archived 26 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine by Dmitry Belinskiy, from the newspaper Krymskaya Pravda. (in Russian)
  53. ^ The Day of Granenyi Stakan Archived 20 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine at (in Russian)
  54. ^ The history of Russian ruble and copeck Archived 19 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine, part 4 (in Russian)
  55. ^ "World's Oldest". Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 13 March 2015.
  56. ^ "History of yacht clubs in Russia".
  57. ^ a b "№42 (332) / Офис первого русского олигарха". Archived from the original on 8 February 2010.
  58. ^ Peter and Paul Cathedral Archived 23 May 2010 at the Wayback Machine at (in Russian)
  59. ^ Principles of helicopter aerodynamics by J. Gordon Leishman, p. 7.
  60. ^ Scott-Clark, Catherine; Levy, Adrian (June 2004). The Amber Room: The Fate of the World's Greatest Lost Treasure: Catherine Scott-Clark, Adrian Levy: 9780802714244: Books. ISBN 0802714242.
  61. ^ Amber Cabinet of the Catherine Palace in Tsarskoye Selo Archived 23 September 2010 at the Wayback Machine by L.V. Nikiforova (in Russian)
  62. ^ Самовары Лисицыных / Samovars of Lisitsyns Archived 1 February 2010 at the Wayback Machine at the site of Sloboda, a Tula-based newspaper. (in Russian)
  63. ^ Conveyor technology: Elevator Archived 5 August 2011 at Wikiwix at
  64. ^ "The unknown russian monorail". Archived from the original on 17 February 2017.
  65. ^ Virtual Museum of Information technology Archived 20 April 2010 at the Wayback Machine (in Russian)
  66. ^ "". Archived from the original on 16 December 2009.
  67. ^ History of diving in Russia Archived 21 December 2009 at the Wayback Machine (in Russian)
  68. ^ a b c "The history of galvanoplating in Russia". Archived from the original on 5 March 2012.
  69. ^ "Птица Слава: тайные сказы | Василий Смелянский". Archived from the original on 21 June 2006.
  70. ^ "family San Galli: a European success". Archived from the original on 4 February 2015. Retrieved 13 March 2015.
  71. ^ "The hot boxes of San Galli". Archived from the original on 7 February 2010.
  72. ^ St Isaac's Cathedral Archived 10 July 2005 at the Wayback Machine at
  73. ^ Prolonging the navigation Archived 16 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine by Pavel Veselov. 1993. № 6. pp. 36-37. (in Russian)
  74. ^ Boris Mollo, page 137 "Uniforms of the Imperial Russian Army", ISBN 0-7137-0920-0
  75. ^ A. Ivanov and P. Jowett, page 19 "The Russo-Japanese War 1904-05", ISBN 1 84176 708 5
  76. ^ a b "Изобретатель трактора (Ф. Блинов). Д. Лозовой, А. Лозовой - ИНЖЕНЕРНОЕ ДЕЛО И ПРОМЫШЛЕННОСТЬ - Русские ученые, инженеры и путешественники - История России - Россия в красках". Archived from the original on 27 July 2011.
  77. ^ Hopkins, Frederick Gowland (11 December 1929). The Earlier History of Vitamin Research (Speech). Nobel Prize Award Ceremony. Stockholm. Archived from the original on 10 June 2017. It is now generally agreed that the first clear evidence, based upon experiment, for the existence of dietary factors of the nature of vitamins came from the school of Bunge at Basel. In 1881 Lunin, one of the workers in that school, fed mice upon an artificial mixture of the separate constituents of milk; of all the constituents, that is, which were then known, namely the proteins, fats, carbohydrates, and salts. He found that upon such a mixture the animals failed to survive and was led to conclude that "a natural food such as milk must therefore contain besides these known principal ingredients small quantities of unknown substances essential to life". Such a statement, already half a century old, when allowed to stand out clear and apart from a context which tended to bury it, seems to contain the essentials of what is believed today.
  78. ^ "БИОГРАФИЯ.РУ - биографии исторических личностей, цитаты знаменитостей, книги в формате DjVu". Archived from the original on 30 December 2010.
  79. ^ "THE RUSSIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH - THE CATHEDRAL OF CHRIST THE SAVIOR". Archived from the original on 1 April 2015. Retrieved 13 March 2015.
  80. ^ Nikolay Slavyanov's biography Archived 29 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine at (in Russian)
  81. ^ Icebreaker Yermak Archived 7 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine at the (in Russian)
  82. ^ Loran and the fire extinguisher Archived 27 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine at (in Russian)
  83. ^ "История огнетушителя - Terra incognita". Archived from the original on 6 March 2012.
  84. ^ Vernadsky, Georgy (1969). "Rise of Science in Russia 1700–1917". Russian Review. Blackwell Publishing. 28 (1): 37–52. doi:10.2307/126984. ISSN 0036-0341. JSTOR 126984.
  85. ^ Morton, Maurice (1999) [1987]. Rubber Technology (3 ed.). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. p. 236. ISBN 0-412-53950-0.
  86. ^ "The Optophonic Piano (1916)". The Audio Playground Synthesizer Museum. Archived from the original on 27 November 2001.
  87. ^ Cite error: The named reference Westwood2005 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  88. ^ Cite error: The named reference Fowler was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  89. ^ Walter, John (2003). Military Rifles of Two World Wars. Greenhill. p. 19. ISBN 978-1-85367-536-2.
  90. ^ Musgrave, Daniel D.; Nelson, Thomas B. (1967). The World's Assault Rifles and Automatic Carbines. T.B.N. Enterprises. p. 149; see also discussion on p. 15.
  91. ^ Rottman, Gordon (2011). The AK-47: Kalashnikov-series assault rifles. Osprey Publishing. p. 7. ISBN 978-1-84908-835-0.
  92. ^ "Победит". Большая советская энциклопедия (in Russian) (3 ed.). М.: Советская энциклопедия. 1975. Retrieved 21 June 2020.
  93. ^ Васильев, Н. Н.; Исаакян, О. Н.; Рогинский, Н. О.; Смолянский, Я. Б.; Сокович, В. А.; Хачатуров, Т. С. (1941). "ПОБЕДИТ". Технический железнодорожный словарь (in Russian). М.: Трансжелдориздат. Archived from the original on 7 July 2017.
  94. ^ "Mechanical Advantage". Archived from the original on 13 October 2014.
  95. ^ "Needle Sports". Archived from the original on 16 August 2011. Retrieved 13 March 2015.
  96. ^ yolkhere (30 April 2012). "Cheryomukhin TsAGI 1-EA (ЦАГИ 1-ЭА) first Soviet helicopter". Archived from the original on 29 August 2016 – via YouTube.
  97. ^ Savine, Alexandre. "TsAGI 1-EA." Archived 26 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine, 24 March 1997. Retrieved 12 December 2010.
  98. ^ "Vita Germetika: A Brief History of Creating and Development of Soviet-Russian space suits". Archived from the original on 26 September 2007.
  99. ^ "The First Postal (ZIP) Code in the World". Ukrainian Philatelic and Numismatic Society. 2009-04-20. Archived from the original on 2010-04-23. Retrieved 2010-03-04.
  100. ^ "What is underwater welding & how does it work? - Divers Academy". Divers Academy International. Retrieved 2021-11-23.
  101. ^ Matevossian E, Kern H, Hüser N, Doll D, Snopok Y, Nährig J, Altomonte J, Sinicina I, Friess H, Thorban S (Dec 2009). "Surgeon Yurii Voronoy (1895–1961) – a pioneer in the history of clinical transplantation: in Memoriam at the 75th Anniversary of the First Human Kidney Transplantation". Transplant International. 22 (12): 1132–1139. doi:10.1111/j.1432-2277.2009.00986.x. PMID 19874569. S2CID 12087935.
  102. ^;; (retrieved 12 February 2018)
  103. ^ Cherenkov's biography Archived 24 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine at
  104. ^ В. И. Шмакова Комбинат «Искож» // Энциклопедия земли Вятской Киров: «О-Краткое», 2008. — Т. 10. Книга вторая. / V.I. Shmakova. "Iskozh" fabric // The Encyclopedia of Vyatka Land. Kirov, "О-Краткое", 2008. Vol. 10. part 2. ISBN 978-5-91402-040-5 (in Russian)
  105. ^ "Moscow Subway System Second Only to Tokyo in Usage". VOA. 29 March 2010. Archived from the original on 31 March 2010. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
  106. ^ Ford, Bruce (July 2006). "Russian Smokejumpers: The Pre-War Years". Smokejumper Magazine. National Smokejumper Association. Archived from the original on 18 October 2011. Retrieved 22 November 2011.
  107. ^ "North Pole drifting stations (1930s-1980s)". Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Archived from the original on 20 July 2011.
  108. ^ "The history of welding". Archived from the original on 11 April 2010.
  109. ^ Fire-fighting sport Archived 1 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine (in Russian)
  110. ^ Kreichi, Stanislav (10 November 1997). "The ANS Synthesizer: Composing on a Photoelectronic Instrument". Theremin Center. Archived from the original on 28 April 2006. Retrieved 13 December 2005.
  111. ^ Mayakovskaya station Archived 29 April 2010 at the Wayback Machine on the official site of the Moscow metro. (in Russian)
  112. ^ Creation of Sambo Archived 15 February 2006 at the Wayback Machine – by Michail Lukashev, first published in Physical Culture and Sport magazine N9-10/91.(in Russian)
  113. ^ George Parada (n.d.), “Panzerkampfwagen T-34(r) Archived 2008-06-10 at the Wayback Machine” at Achtung Panzer! website, retrieved on 17 November 2008.
  114. ^ Gareth R. Eaton; et al. (1998). Foundations of modern EPR. World Scientific. pp. 45–46. ISBN 981-02-3295-0.
  115. ^ Poyer, Joe. The AK-47 and AK-74 Kalashnikov Rifles and Their Variations. North Cape Publications. 2004.
  116. ^ Rikitake, T. (1948). "Notes on electromagnetic induction within the Earth". Bull. Earthq. Res. Inst. 24 (1): 4.
  117. ^ Tikhonov, A.N. (1950). "On determining electrical characteristics of the deep layers of the Earth's crust". Doklady. 73 (2): 295–297. CiteSeerX NAID 10004593077.
  118. ^ Cagniard, L (1953). "Basic theory of the magneto-telluric method of geophysical prospecting". Geophysics. 18 (3): 605–635. Bibcode:1953Geop...18..605C. doi:10.1190/1.1437915.
  119. ^ Monthioux, Marc; Kuznetsov, V (2006). "Who should be given the credit for the discovery of carbon nanotubes?" (PDF). Carbon. 44 (9): 1621. doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2006.03.019. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 August 2006.
  120. ^ Радушкевич, Л. В. (1952). О Структуре Углерода, Образующегося При Термическом Разложении Окиси Углерода На Железном Контакте (PDF). Журнал Физической Химии (in Russian). 26: 88–95. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 June 2008.
  121. ^ Nuclear icebreakers Archived 13 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine at
  122. ^ esa. "Soyuz launch vehicle: The most reliable means of space travel". European Space Agency. Archived from the original on 1 February 2012. Retrieved 13 March 2015.
  123. ^ Nuclear Powered Icebreakers Archived 15 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine, Bellona Foundation
  124. ^ Из истории ОАО "Корпорация "Комета" (in Russian). Kometa Corporation. Archived from the original on 29 July 2014. Retrieved 7 April 2013.
  125. ^ "". Archived from the original on 4 March 2013.
  126. ^ 'White swan” - Russian supersonic aircraft Archived 2 June 2009 at the Wayback Machine at
  127. ^ "Что такое майнинг? Как майнить криптовалюту?". Archived from the original on 8 March 2010.
  128. ^ Nuclotron overview Archived 14 July 2012 at at
  129. ^ World's largest icebreaker Archived 27 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine Ships Monthly. May 2007.
  130. ^ Harding, Luke (12 September 2007). "Russia unveils the 'father of all bombs'". Guardian Unlimited. Retrieved 12 September 2007.
  131. ^ Kрамник, Илья (12 September 2007). Кузькин отец (in Russian). Archived from the original on 17 September 2007. Retrieved 12 September 2007.