The Hall of Space Technology in the Tsiolkovsky State Museum of the History of Cosmonautics, Kaluga, Russia. The exhibition includes the models and replicas of the following Russian inventions:the first satellite, Sputnik 1 (the ball shape under the ceiling)the first spacesuits (lower-left corner)the first human spaceflight module, Vostok 1 (center)the first Molniya-type satellite (upper right corner)the first space rover, Lunokhod 1 (eight-wheeled vehicle bottom-right)the first space station, Salyut 1 (left)the first modular space station, Mir (upper left)
The Hall of Space Technology in the Tsiolkovsky State Museum of the History of Cosmonautics, Kaluga, Russia. The exhibition includes the models and replicas of the following Russian inventions:

This timeline of Russian Innovation encompasses key events in the history of technology in Russia, from the Early East Slavs up to the Russian Federation.

The entries in this timeline fall into the following categories:

This timeline includes scientific and medical discoveries, products and technologies introduced by various peoples of Russia and its predecessor states, regardless of ethnicity, and also lists inventions by naturalized immigrant citizens. Certain innovations achieved internationally may also appear in this timeline in cases where the Russian side played a major role in such projects.

All-Russia exhibition 1896 in Nizhny Novgorod. An electric tram, an earlier invention by Fyodor Pirotsky, drives between the pavilions featuring breakthrough designs by Vladimir Shukhov: the world's first steel tensile structures, gridshells, thin-shells and the first hyperboloid steel tower. The exhibition demonstrated the first lightning detector and an early radio receiver of Alexander Popov, caterpillar tractor of Fyodor Blinov, the first Russian automobile, and other technical achievements.
All-Russia exhibition 1896 in Nizhny Novgorod. An electric tram, an earlier invention by Fyodor Pirotsky, drives between the pavilions featuring breakthrough designs by Vladimir Shukhov: the world's first steel tensile structures, gridshells, thin-shells and the first hyperboloid steel tower. The exhibition demonstrated the first lightning detector and an early radio receiver of Alexander Popov, caterpillar tractor of Fyodor Blinov, the first Russian automobile, and other technical achievements.
The wooden churches of Kizhi, built completely without nails and featuring such traditional elements of Russian architecture as the tented roof, multiple onion domes and bochka roofs.
The wooden churches of Kizhi, built completely without nails and featuring such traditional elements of Russian architecture as the tented roof, multiple onion domes and bochka roofs.

Early East Slavs

Baked milk.
Baked milk / Ryazhenka
Baked milk is made by simmering milk on low heat for eight hours or longer. The product has a light brown color, a specific taste and the ability to be stored safely at room temperature for up to forty hours, much longer than most milk-based beverages. It has been produced since ancient times, typically using a Russian oven. Nowadays it is produced on an industrial scale. Soured or fermented baked milk, traditionally known as ryazhenka, is especially popular in Russia.[1]
Russian Venus by Boris Kustodiev, shows a girl with birch twigs in a rural banya.
Russian Venus by Boris Kustodiev, shows a girl with birch twigs in a rural banya.
Banya
A banya is a traditional Russian wet steam bath, where bathing takes place inside special rooms or stand-alone wooden houses, with steam being produced by splashing water upon a heated furnace. Historically, the banya developed simultaneously with its closest relative, the Finnish sauna. However, modern saunas converted to dry steam, while banyas continue to use wet steam.[clarification needed] Banya temperatures may exceed 110 °C, and people often hit themselves or others with bunches of dried branches and leaves from white birch, oak or eucalyptus in order to improve their circulation. It is customary to cool off outdoors or splash around in cold water, or even in a lake or river. In the winter, people may roll in the snow or jump into the water through holes in the ice. After two or three sessions of sweating and cooling off, the ritual ends with drinking beverages or tea, playing games or relaxing in good company in an antechamber off the steam room.[2][3]
The cooking of Russian blini
The cooking of Russian blini
Blini
Blini are thin pancakes made with yeast. Blin comes from Old Slavic mlin, that means "to mill". Russian blini are made with yeasted batter, which is left to rise. It is then diluted with cold or boiling water or milk. Blini may have originated in the time of the Slavic unity, and they had a somewhat ritual significance for the early Slavs in pre-Christian times, since they were a symbol of the sun due to their round form. Blini were traditionally prepared at the end of the winter to honor the rebirth of the new sun (Butter Week, or Maslenitsa). This tradition was adopted by the Eastern Orthodox church and is carried on to the present day.[4] Many people follow a simpler method of mixing flour, milk, sugar, egg, oil, and vanilla; with no yeast. They are eaten folded or rolled with a meat mixture or with jam, honey or any sweet condiment.
Gusli
The gusli is the oldest type of Slavic and Russian multi-string plucked instrument. Preserved instruments discovered by archaeologists have between 5 and 9 strings, in one case even 12. Gusli may have derived from a Byzantine form of the Greek kythare and have a number of relative instruments, like the Finnish kantele. The first mention of gusli dates back to 591 AD, to a treatise by the Greek historian Theophylact Simocatta, which describes the instrument being used by Slavs from the area of the later Kievan Rus'. The gusli are thought to have been the instrument used by the legendary Boyan (a bard, a singer of tales) and other heroes of Russian mythology. In later times gusli were widely used by wandering musicians and entertainers – Skomorokh.[5]
A typical Russian izba
A typical Russian izba
Izba
An izba is a traditional Russian countryside dwelling, a type of log house, suited to the colder climate of North-Eastern Europe and Siberia. Traditional, old-style izba construction involved the use of simple tools, such as ropes, axes, knives, and spades. Nails were not generally used, as metal was relatively expensive, and neither were saws. Both the interior and exterior were made of split tree trunks, the gap between was usually filled with clay from a riverbed. From the 15th century on, the central element of the interior of an izba was the Russian oven. Outside izbas were often embellished by various special architectural features, for example rich wood carving decorations on windows. Such decorative elements and the use of the Russian oven are still commonly found in many modern Russian countryside houses.[6]
Men's kosovorotka
Men's kosovorotka
Kosovorotka
A kosovorotka is a Russian skewed-collared shirt, long sleeved and reaching down to mid-thigh, a traditional top garment going back to ancient times. The name derived from koso (askew), and vorot (collar), since the collar of this shirt appears skewed when it is left unbuttoned. The collar and sleeves of kosovorotka were often decorated with a traditional Slavic ornamentation. It was worn by peasants and townsmen of various social categories until the early 20th century, until it was replaced by less elaborate clothing. The garment is also known as a tolstovka, or the Tolstoy-shirt, because the writer Count Leo Tolstoy customarily wore one in the later years of his life. Now kosovorotkas appear mostly as souvenirs and as decorative garments in Russian folk art ensembles.[7]
Lapti
The lapti is an East Slavic version of bast shoes. A kind of basket fit to the shape of a foot, lapti were woven primarily from bast of the linden tree or from birch bark. They were easy to manufacture, but not very durable. In Russia, lapti were worn until the 1920s, or 1930s, as a cheap replacement for leather shoes, just like clogs in Western Europe.[8]
Shchi
Shchi is a Russian soup with cabbage as the primary ingredient, which makes it possible for the prepared dish to be stored safely for a rather long time without it losing its taste qualities. Generally it is made with either fresh cabbage or sauerkraut and other winter vegetables, although meat may be added. Shchi made with sauerkraut has a sour taste and is called sour shchi. A summer sorrel soup, also popular in pre-Revolutionary and modern Russia, is known as green shchi. Usually smetana cream is added into shchi before serving.[9]
A course of shchi, prepared with meat and saffron milk caps. Scallion, parsley and smetana have been added before serving.
A course of shchi, prepared with meat and saffron milk caps. Scallion, parsley and smetana have been added before serving.
Smetana
Smetana is a thick, yellowish-white and slightly sour-tasting cream which contains about 40% milk fat. It is made by curdling pasteurized cream. In Russian cooking, it is used in virtually everything from appetizers and main courses to desserts. It is somewhat close to a crème fraîche (28%), but is much heavier and thicker, with usually 36% to 42% milkfat or even higher, and is more sour in taste. Smetana is ideal to be used in dishes requiring a long cooking time in the oven, since it will not curdle when cooked or added to hot dishes.[10]

Kievan Rus'

10th century

Architecture
The earliest Kievan churches were built and decorated with frescoes and mosaics by Byzantine masters. The great churches of Kievan Rus', built after the adoption of Christianity in 988, were the first examples of monumental architecture in the East Slavic lands. Early Eastern Orthodox churches were mainly made of wood, while major cathedrals often featured scores of small domes. The 10th-century Church of the Tithes in Kiev was the first to be made of stone.
A Russian girl wearing kokoshnik and sarafan.
A Russian girl wearing kokoshnik and sarafan.
Kokoshnik
The kokoshnik is a traditional Russian head-dress for women. It is patterned to match the style of the sarafan and can be pointed or round. It is tied at the back of the head with long thick ribbons in a large bow. The forehead is sometimes decorated with pearls or other jewelry. The word kokoshnik appeared in the 16th century, however the earliest head-dress pieces of a similar type were found in the 10th to 12th century burials in Veliky Novgorod. It was worn by girls and women on special occasions until the Russian Revolution, and was subsequently introduced into Western fashion by Russian émigrés.[11]
Kvass / Okroshka
Kvass or kvas, sometimes called in English a "bread drink", is a fermented beverage made from black rye or rye bread, which contributes to its light or dark colour. By the content of alcohol resulted from fermentation, it is classified as non-alcoholic: up to 1.2% of alcohol, which is so low that it is considered acceptable for consumption by children. While the early low-alcoholic prototypes of kvass were known in some ancient civilizations, its modern, almost non-alcoholic form originated in Eastern Europe. Kvass was first mentioned in the Russian Primary Chronicle, which tells how Prince Vladimir the Great gave kvass among other beverages to the people, while celebrating the Christianization of Kievan Rus'. Kvass is also known as a main ingredient in okroshka, a Russian cold soup.[12][13]
Six-domed Saint Sophia Cathedral in Novgorod built on place of the original 13-domed wooden church, 11th century.
Six-domed Saint Sophia Cathedral in Novgorod built on place of the original 13-domed wooden church, 11th century.
Multidomed church
The multidomed church is a typical form of Russian church architecture, which distinguishes Russia from other Eastern Orthodox nations and Christian denominations. Indeed, the earliest Russian churches built just after the Christianization of Kievan Rus', were multi-domed, which led some historians to speculate what Russian pre-Christian pagan temples might have looked like. Namely, these early churches were 13-domed wooden Saint Sophia Cathedral in Novgorod (989) and 25-domed stone Desyatinnaya Church in Kiev (989–996). The number of domes typically has a symbolical meaning in Russian architecture, for example 13 domes symbolize Christ with 12 Apostles, while 25 domes mean the same with additional 12 Prophets from the Old Testament. Multiple domes of Russian churches were often made of wood and were comparatively smaller than the Byzantine domes.[14][15]
Kissel
Kissel or kisel is a dessert that consists of sweetened juice, typically that of berries, thickened with oats, cornstarch or potato starch, with red wine or dried fruits added sometimes. The dessert can be served either hot or cold, and if made using less thickening starch it can be consumed as a beverage, which is common in Russia. Kissel was mentioned for the first time in the Primary Chronicle, where it forms part of the story of how a besieged Russian city was saved from nomadic Pechenegs.[13][16]

11th century

A birch-bark letter with spelling lessons and drawings made by a 6–7 year old Novgorodian boy named Onfim.
A birch-bark letter with spelling lessons and drawings made by a 6–7 year old Novgorodian boy named Onfim.
Birch bark document
A birch bark document is a document written on pieces of birch bark. This form of writing material was developed independently by several ancient cultures. In Rus' the usage of the specially prepared birch bark as a cheap replacement for pergament or paper became widespread soon after the Christianization of the country. The earliest Russian birch bark documents (likely written in the first quarter of the 11th century) have been found in Veliky Novgorod. In total, more than 1000 such documents have been discovered, most of them in Novgorod and the rest in other ancient cities in Russia, Ukraine and Belarus. Many birch bark documents were written by common people rather than by clergy or nobility. This fact led some historians to suggest that before the Mongol invasion of Rus' the level of literacy in the country might have been considerably higher than in contemporary Western Europe.[17]
A 17th-century koch in a museum in Krasnoyarsk
A 17th-century koch in a museum in Krasnoyarsk
Koch / Icebreaker
The koch was an ancient form of icebreaker, being a special type of one or two small wooden sailing ships with a mast, used for voyages in the icy conditions of the Arctic seas and Siberian rivers. The koch was developed by the Russian Pomors in the 11th century, when they started settling on the White Sea shores. The koch's hull was protected by a belt of ice-floe resistant flush skin-planking (made of oak or larch) along the variable water-line, and had a false keel for on-ice portage. If a koch was in danger of being trapped in the ice-fields, its rounded bodylines below the surface would allow for the ship to be pushed up out of the water and onto the ice with no damage. In the 19th century similar protective features were adopted to modern icebreakers.[18]
Ancient Russian Gudok.
Ancient Russian Gudok.
Gudok
The gudok is an ancient East Slavic string musical instrument, played with a bow. It usually had three strings, two of them tuned in unison and played as a drone, the third tuned a fifth higher. All three strings were in the same plane at the bridge, so that a bow could make them all sound at the same time. Sometimes the gudok also had several sympathetic strings (up to eight) under the sounding board. These made the gudok's sound warm and rich. It was also possible to play while standing or dancing, which made it popular among skomorokhs. The name gudok comes from the 17th century, however the same type of instrument existed from 11th to 16th century, but was called smyk.[19]
Medovukha
Medovukha is an old Slavic honey-based alcoholic beverage very similar to mead, but much cheaper and faster to make. Since the old times the Slavs exported the fermented mead as a luxury product to Europe in huge quantities. Fermentation occurs naturally over 15 to 50 years, originally rendering the product very expensive and only accessible to the nobility. However, in the 11th century East Slavs found that fermentation occurred much faster when the honey mixture was heated, enabling medovukha to become a commonly available drink in the territory of Rus'. In the 14th century, the invention of distillation made it possible to create a prototype of the modern medovukha, however vodka was invented at the same time and gradually surpassed medovukha in popularity.[20]
A lubok depiction of the "Wall against Wall" (Stenka na Stenku) fist fighting.
A lubok depiction of the "Wall against Wall" (Stenka na Stenku) fist fighting.
1048 Russian fist fighting
Russian fist fighting is an ancient Russian combat sport, similar to modern boxing. However, it features some indigenous techniques and often fought in collective events called Stenka na Stenku ("Wall against Wall"). It has existed since the times of Kievan Rus', first mentioned in the Primary Chronicle in the year 1048. The government and the Russian Orthodox Church often tried to prohibit the fights; however, fist fighting remained popular until the 19th century, while in the 20th century some of the old techniques were adopted for the modern Russian martial arts.[13][21]

12th century

Pernach (left) and two shestopyors.
Pernach (left) and two shestopyors.
Pernach
The pernach is a type of flanged mace developed since the 12th century in the region of Kievan Rus' and later widely used throughout Europe. The name comes from the Russian word перо (pero) meaning feather, reflecting the form of pernach that resembled an arrow with fletching. The most popular variety of pernach had six flanges and was called shestopyor (from Russian shest' and pero, that is six-feathered). Pernach was the first form of the flanged mace to find wide usage. It was perfectly suited to defeat plate armour and plate mail. In later times it was often used as a symbol of power by military leaders in Eastern Europe.[22]
Shashka
The shashka is a special kind of sabre, a very sharp, single-edged, single-handed, and guardless sword. In appearance, the shashka is midway between a full sabre and a straight sword. It has a slightly curved blade, and could be effective for both slashing and thrusting. Originally the shashka was developed in the 12th century by Circassians in the Northern Caucasus. These lands were integrated into the Russian Empire in the 18th century. By that time shashka was adopted as their main cold weapon by Russian Cossacks.[23]
Treshchotka
The treshchotka, sometimes referred in plural as treshchotki, is a Russian folk music idiophone instrument which is used to imitate hand clapping. Basically it is a set of small boards on a string that get clapped together as a group. There are no known documents confirming the usage of the treshchotka in ancient Russia, however, the remnants of what might have been the earliest 12th-century treshchotka were recently found in Novgorod.[24]
1149 bear spear
The bear spear or rogatina was a medieval type of spear used in bear hunting and also to hunt other large animals, like wisents and war horses. The sharpened head of a bear spear was enlarged and usually had the form of a bay leaf. Right under the head there was a short crosspiece that helped to fix the spear in the body of an animal. Often it was placed against the ground on its rear point, which made it easier to absorb the impact of the attacking beast. The Russian chronicles first mention rogatina as a military weapon in the year 1149, and as a hunting weapon in the year 1255.[25]

13th century

Sokha
The sokha is a light wooden plough which could be pulled by one horse. Its origin was in northern Russia, most likely in the Novgorod Republic, where it was used as early as in the 13th century. A characteristic feature of sokha construction is the bifurcated plowing tip (рассоха), so that a sokha has two plowshares, later made of metal, which cut the soil. The sokha is an evolution of a scratch-plough by an addition of a spade-like detail which turns the cut soil over (in regular ploughs the curved mouldboard both cuts and turns the soil).[26]
Preparation of pelmeni, with khokhloma handicraft seen on the background.
Preparation of pelmeni, with khokhloma handicraft seen on the background.
Pelmeni
Pelmeni is a dish originating from Siberia, now considered part of Russian national cuisine. It is a type of dumpling consisting of a filling that is wrapped in thin unleavened dough. The word pelmeni comes from the Finno-Ugric Komi, Udmurt, and Mansi languages. It is unclear when pelmeni entered the cuisines of indigenous Siberian people and when it first appeared in Russian cuisine, but most likely it was during the Mongol conquests and Mongol-Tatar invasion of Rus' in the 13th century, when Mongol-Tatars took the basic idea from the Chinese dumplings and brought it to Siberia and Eastern Europe.[27]
Onion dome
The onion dome is a dome whose shape resembles an onion. Such domes are often larger in diameter than the drum upon which they are set, and their height usually exceeds their width. The whole bulbous structure tapers smoothly to a point. The so-called onion dome is the dominant form for church domes in Russia, and though the earliest preserved Russian domes of the type date from the 16th century, illustrations of the old chronicles indicate that they were used since the late 13th century.[28]

Grand Duchy of Moscow

Zvonnitsa of Transfiguration Cathedral in Vyazemy near Moscow.
Zvonnitsa of Transfiguration Cathedral in Vyazemy near Moscow.

14th century

Lapta

Zvonnitsa

Anbur script The alphabet was introduced by a Russian missionary, Stepan Khrap, also known as Saint Stephen of Perm (Степан Храп, св. Стефан Пермский) in 1372. The name Abur is derived from the names of the first two characters: An and Bur. The alphabet derived from Cyrillic and Greek, and Komi tribal signs, the latter being similar in the appearance to runes or siglas poveiras, because they were created by incisions, rather than by usual writing. The alphabet was in use until the 17th century, when it was superseded by the Cyrillic script. Abur was also used as cryptographic writing for the Russian language.

1376 Sarafan

15th century

Streltsy with muskets and bardiches.
Streltsy with muskets and bardiches.

Bardiche

Boyars with gorlatnaya hats on a painting by Andrey Ryabushkin.
Boyars with gorlatnaya hats on a painting by Andrey Ryabushkin.

Boyar hat

Gulyay-gorod

Ukha

Russian oven

Typical Russian oven in a peasant izba.
Typical Russian oven in a peasant izba.

Rassolnik

Russian Vodka in various bottles and cups.
Russian Vodka in various bottles and cups.

c. 1430 Russian vodka

Early 16th century

The kokoshniks of the Holy Trinity Church in Nikitinki, Moscow.
The kokoshniks of the Holy Trinity Church in Nikitinki, Moscow.

Kokoshnik (architecture)

The Church of Ascension in Kolomenskoye, Moscow, an early tented roof church. Kokoshniks are seen at the base of the tent.
The Church of Ascension in Kolomenskoye, Moscow, an early tented roof church. Kokoshniks are seen at the base of the tent.

1510s Tented roof masonry

1530 Middle Muscovite

Tsardom of Russia

Late 16th century

Russian abacus.

Russian abacus

1550 Streltsy

1552 Battery-tower

Saint Basil's Cathedral.

1561 Saint Basil's Cathedral

1566 Great Abatis Line

A view of the Tsar Cannon, showing its massive bore and cannonballs, and the Lion's head cast into the carriage.
A view of the Tsar Cannon, showing its massive bore and cannonballs, and the Lion's head cast into the carriage.

1586 Tsar Cannon

17th century

The bochka roofs of the Transfiguration Church in Kizhi, holding onion domes above.
The bochka roofs of the Transfiguration Church in Kizhi, holding onion domes above.

Bochka roof

Gorodki arranged in the pushka (cannon) pattern behind the gorod line.
Gorodki arranged in the pushka (cannon) pattern behind the gorod line.

Gorodki

Roller coaster

A typical wooden Bird of Happiness.
A typical wooden Bird of Happiness.

Bird of Happiness

Dymkovo toy

Dymkovo toys.
Troika pulling a sleigh.
Troika pulling a sleigh.

Troika

1630 Late Muscovite Russian architecture characterized by many large cathedral-type churches with five onion-like cupolas, surrounding them with tents of bell towers and aisles.

1659 Khokhloma

Khokhloma tableware on a Soviet postage stamp.
Khokhloma tableware on a Soviet postage stamp.
Nikolay Diletsky's circle of fifths in Idea grammatiki musikiyskoy (Moscow, 1679)
Nikolay Diletsky's circle of fifths in Idea grammatiki musikiyskoy (Moscow, 1679)

1679 Circle of fifths

Tula pryanik.

1685 Tula pryanik

1688 Balalaika

Balalaika.
A Podstakannik with a glass inside
A Podstakannik with a glass inside

Glass-holder

1693

Early 18th century

A classic 14-facet Soviet table-glass.
A classic 14-facet Soviet table-glass.

Table-glass

Modern Russian rubles and kopecks.
Modern Russian rubles and kopecks.

1704 Decimal currency

1717 Metal lathe compound slide

1718 Yacht club

A view of St. Petersburg by Alexey Zubov, 1716. Shows yachts and war ships on the Neva River.
A view of St. Petersburg by Alexey Zubov, 1716. Shows yachts and war ships on the Neva River.

Russian Empire

1720s

A corner of the acoustic room inside the Leaning Tower of Nevyansk, with some rebar seen.
A corner of the acoustic room inside the Leaning Tower of Nevyansk, with some rebar seen.

1725 Rebar

1730s

The Leaning Tower of Nevyansk has a metallic rod on top, grounded through the rebar (some are seen below).
The Leaning Tower of Nevyansk has a metallic rod on top, grounded through the rebar (some are seen below).

1732 Cast iron cupola / Lightning rod

1733 Peter and Paul Cathedral

The Tsar Bell.
The Tsar Bell.

1735 Tsar Bell

Inside the ice palace of Empress Anna of Russia.
Inside the ice palace of Empress Anna of Russia.

1739 Ice palace

1740s

1741 Quick-firing gun

A quick-firing gun battery of Andrey Nartov

1750s

1754 Coaxial rotor / Model helicopter

Bronze Licorne: caliber 152mm, effective range 1278m, height 174cm, weight 707kg, cast in 1849 in the Bryansk Arsenal master Nazarov, currently displayed at the Military-Historical Museum of Artillery, Engineers and Signal Corps, St. Petersburg.
Bronze Licorne: caliber 152mm, effective range 1278m, height 174cm, weight 707kg, cast in 1849 in the Bryansk Arsenal master Nazarov, currently displayed at the Military-Historical Museum of Artillery, Engineers and Signal Corps, St. Petersburg.

1756 Law of Mass Conservation

1757 Licorne (Russian field gun)

1760s

1761 Atmosphere of Venus

1762 Off-axis reflecting telescope

1770s

1770 Amber Room

1770 Thunder Stone

1776 Orenburg shawl

1778 Russian samovar

1780s

1784 Orlov Trotter

1790s

Russian guitar

Valenki

1793 Screw drive elevator

1795 Fedoskino miniature / Russian lacquer art

1796 Peaked cap

19th century

1802 Modern powdered milk

1802 Continuous electric arc

1805 Droshky any of various 2 or 4 wheeled, horse-drawn, public carriages (early taxicabs).

1810s

1811 Sailor cap

1812 Electric telegraph

1812 Naval mine

1814 Beehive frame

1820s

1820 Antarctica

1820s Russian Revival architecture is the generic term for a number of different movements within Russian architecture that arose in second quarter of the 19th century and was an eclectic melding of pre-Peterine Russian architecture and elements of Byzantine architecture.

1820 Monorail

1825 Zhostovo painting

1828 Electromagnetic telegraph

1829 Industrial production process of sunflower oil

1829 Three bolt diving equipment

1830s

1832 Data recording equipment

1833 Lenz's law

1835 Centrifugal fan

1838 Electrotyping

1839 Electric boat

1839 Galvanoplastic sculpture

1840s

1847 Field anesthesia

1848 Modern oil well

1850s

1850s Neo-Byzantine architecture in the Russian Empire emerged in the 1850s and became an officially endorsed preferred architectural style for church construction during the reign of Alexander II of Russia (1855–1881), replacing the Russo-Byzantine style of Konstantin Thon.

1851 Struve Geodetic Arc

1851 Russian Railway Troops

1854 Modern field surgery

1854 Stereo camera

1857-1861 Theory of chemical structure

1857 Radiator

1858 Saint Isaac's Cathedral

1859 Aluminothermy

1860s

1860s Russian salad

1861 Beef Stroganoff

1864 Modern icebreaker

1868 Grow light

1869 Hectograph

1869 Periodic table of the elements

1870s

Gymnasterka

1872 Electric lamp

1872 Aldol reaction

1873 Odhner Arithmometer

1873 Armored cruiser

1874 Headlamp

1875 Railway electrification system

1876 AC transformer

1876 Yablochkov candle

1877 Torpedo boat tender

1877 Tracked wagon

1878 Cylindrical oil tank

1879 Modern oil tanker

1880s

1880s Winogradsky column

1888s Three-phase electric power

1880 Vitamins

1880 Electric tram

1881 Carbon arc welding

1883 Cathedral of Christ the Saviour

1884 Electric submarine

1888 Caterpillar farm tractor

1888 Shielded metal arc welding

1888 Solar cell (based on the outer photoelectric effect)

1889 Three-phase induction motor

1889 Three-phase transformer

1889 Mosin–Nagant rifle

1890s

1890 Matryoshka doll

1890 Powered exoskeleton

1890 Chemosynthesis

1891 Thermal chemical cracking

1891 Long-distance transmission of three-phase electric power

1891 Three-phase hydroelectric power plant

1892 Viruses

1894 Nephoscope

1895 Lightning detector / Radio receiver

1896 Thin-shell structure

1896 Tensile structure

1896 Hyperboloid structure

1897 Gridshell

1898 Polar icebreaker

1899 Radiation pressure

20th century

Mstyora miniature

1901 Classical conditioning

1901 Chromatography

1902 Fire fighting foam

1903 Theoretical foundations of spaceflight

1903 Cytoskeleton

1903 Motor ship

1904 Radio jamming

1904 Foam extinguisher

1905 Auscultatory blood pressure measurement

1905 Korotkov sounds

1905 Insubmersibility

1906 Electric seismometer

1907 Aerosani / Snowmobile

1907 Pulsejet

1907 Bayan

1907 Church of the Savior on Blood

1910s

1910 Polybutadiene

1910 Montage (filmmaking) or Kuleshov Effect (by Lev Kuleshov)

1910 Non-Aristotelian logic By Nikolai Vasilyev

1911 Knapsack parachute

1911 Television

1911 Stanislavski's system

1913 Zaum

1913 Airliner

1913 Half-track

1914 Aerobatics

1914 Gyrocar

1914 Tachanka

1914 Strategic bomber

1914 Aerial ramming

1915 Activated charcoal gas mask

1915 Vezdekhod

1915 Tsar Tank

1916 Trans-Siberian Railway

1916 Optophonic piano[96]

Soviet Russia and Soviet Union

Late 1910s

1917 Socialist realism

1918 Air ioniser

1918 Budenovka

1918 Ushanka

1918 Jet pack (not built)

1919 Film school

1919 Theremin

1919 Constructivism (art)

1920s

1920s Constructivist architecture

1921 Aerial refueling

1923 Iconoscope

1923 Palekh miniature

1924 Flying wing

1924 Optophonic Piano

1924 Stem cells

1924 Primordial soup hypothesis

1925 Interlaced video

1926 Graphical sound

1927 Light-emitting diode

1927 Polikarpov Po-2 biplane

1928 Gene pool

1928 Rabbage

1929 Cadaveric blood transfusion

1929 Kinescope

1929 Pobedit

1929 Teletank / Military robot

1930s

Spring-loaded camming device

Abalakov thread climbing device

Electric rocket motor

1930s Modern ship hull design

1930 Blood bank

1930 Single lift-rotor helicopter

1930 Paratrooping

1931 Pressure suit

1931 Hypergolic rocket propellants

1931 Rhythmicon / Drum machine

1931 Flame tank

1932 Postconstructivism

1932 Postal code

1932 Children's railway

1932 Terpsitone

1932 Underwater welding

1933 Human kidney transplant

1933 Sampling theorem

1933 Tandem rotor helicopter

1933 Stalinist architecture

1934 Tupolev ANT-20

1934 Cherenkov detector

1935 Kirza

1935 Moscow Metro

1935 Kremlin stars

1936 Acoustic microscopy

1936 Airborne firefighting[107]

1937 Artificial heart

1937 Modern evolutionary synthesis

1937 Superfluidity

1937 Drag chute

1937 Drifting ice station

1937 Welded sculpture

1937 Fire-fighting sport

1938 Deep column station

1938 Sambo

1939 Kirlian photography

1939 Vought-Sikorsky VS-300

1939 Ilyushin Il-2

1939 Self-propelled multiple rocket launcher

1940s

1940s Ballast cleaner

1940s TRIZ

1940s Sikorsky R-4

1940 T-34 tank

1941 Competitive rhythmic gymnastics

1941 Maksutov telescope

1941 Degaussing

1942 Winged tank

1942 Gramicidin S

1944 Microtron

1944 EPR spectroscopy

1945 T-54/55 tank

1945 Passive resonant cavity bug

1946 Heart-lung transplant

1947 Modern multistage rocket

1947 MiG-15

1947 AK-47

1947 Lung transplant

1947 Light beam microphone

1949 Staged combustion cycle

1949 Reactive armour

1950s

1950s Head transplant

1950s Magnetotellurics

1950 MESM

1950 Berkovich tip

1951 Belousov–Zhabotinsky reaction

1951 Explosively pumped flux compression generator

1952 Masers

1952 Seven Sisters (Moscow)

1952 Carbon nanotubes

1952 Anthropometric cosmetology or Ilizarov apparatus

1954 Nuclear power plant

1955 MiG-21

1955 Ballistic missile submarine

1955 Fast-neutron reactor

1955 Leningrad Metro

1955 Tokamak

1957 ANS synthesizer

1957 Synchrophasotron

1957 Spaceport

1957 Intercontinental ballistic missile

1957 Orbital space rocket

1957 Artificial satellite

1957 Space capsule

1957 Raketa hydrofoil

1958 Modern ternary computer

1959 Nuclear icebreaker

1959 Space probe

1959 Missile boat

1959 Kleemenko cycle

1959 Staged combustion cycle

1960s

1960s Rocket boots

1960 Reentry capsule

1961 Human spaceflight

1961 RPG-7

1961 Lawrencium

1961 Anti-ballistic missile

1961 Space food

1961 Space suit

1961 Tsar Bomb

1961 Platform screen doors

1961 Ekranoplan

1961 Mil Mi-8

1962 Detonation nanodiamond

1962 AVL tree datastructure

1962 3D holography

1962 Modern stealth technology

1963 Oxygen cocktail

1964 Rutherfordium

1964 Druzhba pipeline

1964 Plasma propulsion engine

1964 Kardashyov scale

1965 Extra-vehicular activity

1965 Molniya orbit satellite

1965 Voitenko compressor

1965 Proton rocket

1965 Air-augmented rocket

1966 Nobelium

1966 Lander spacecraft

1966 Orbiter

1966 Regional jet

1966 Caspian Sea Monster

1966 Soyuz rocket

1966 Orbital module

1967 Space toilet

1967 Ostankino Tower

1967 The Motherland Calls

1967 Computer for operations with functions

1967 Automated space docking

1967 Venus lander

1968 Dubnium

1968 Mil Mi-12

1968 Supersonic transport

1969 Comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko

1969 Intercontinental Submarine-launched ballistic missile

1970s

1970s Semiconductor Heterostructures

1970s Radial keratotomy

1970 Excimer laser

1970 Robotic sample return

1970 Space rover

1971 Space station

1971 Kaissa (chess program)

1972 Hall effect thruster

1972 Mil Mi-24

1972 Nuclear desalination

1973 Reflectron

1973 Skull crucible

1974 Electron cooling

1975 Underwater assault rifle

1975 Arktika class icebreaker

1975 Androgynous Peripheral Attach System

1976 Close-in weapon system

1976 Mobile ICBM

1977 Vertical launching system

1977 Kirov class battlecruiser

1978 Cargo spacecraft

1978 Active protection system

1979 Space-based radio telescope[122]

1980s

Kalina cycle

1980s EHF therapy

1980 Typhoon class submarine

1981 Quantum dot

1981 Tupolev Tu-160

1982 Helicopter ejection seat

1984 Tetris

1986 Modular space station

1987 MIR submersible

1987 RD-170 rocket engine

1988 Buran

1988 An-225

1989 Kola Superdeep Borehole

1989 Supermaneuverability

1989 Tupolev Tu-155

Early 1990s

1989-1991 BARS apparatus

1991 Thermoplan

1991 Scramjet

Russian Federation

1990s

RD-180 Engine

1992 Znamya (space mirror)

1992 Nuclotron

1993 "Novichok"

1993 RAR

1997 Two-level single-vault transfer station

1998 Beriev Be-200

1998 Submarine-launched spacecraft

1999 7z

1999 Sea Launch

1999 Flerovium

2000s

2000s Heterotransistor

2000 Livermorium

2000 Abstract state machine

2001 Space tourism

2001 Mirny Mine

2001 Superconducting nanowire single-photon detector

2003 Park Pobedy metro escalators

2003 Nihonium

2003 Moscovium

2004 Nginx

2004 Graphene

2005 Elbrus 2000

2005 Orbitrap

2006 Oganesson

2007 NS 50 Let Pobedy

2007 Father of all bombs

2008 Denisovans

2010s

2010 Chatroulette

2010 Tennessine

2011 Nuclear power station barge

2011 Nord Stream

2011 Spektr-R

2012 Russky Island Bridge

2015 OCSiAl Graphetron

2016 T-14 Armata

2020s

2020 COVID-19 vaccine

See also

References

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  4. ^ Maslenitsa, Blin! Archived 2008-01-09 at the Wayback Machine Article about and recipe for bliny and description of a related holiday.
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