The characteristic multi-domed profile of the Byzantine Hagia Sophia, the first pendentive dome in history, has shaped Orthodox and Islamic architecture alike.[1]
The characteristic multi-domed profile of the Byzantine Hagia Sophia, the first pendentive dome in history, has shaped Orthodox and Islamic architecture alike.[1]

This is a list of Byzantine inventions. The Byzantine or Eastern Roman Empire represented the continuation of the Roman Empire after a part of it collapsed. Its main characteristics were Roman state traditions, Greek culture and Christian faith.[2]

Architecture

Warfare

Greek fire, referred to by Byzantine chroniclers as "sea fire" or "liquid fire",[17] was primarily a naval weapon, used in ship-to-ship battle against enemy galleys. The exact composition was a well-guarded state secret, to the point that modern scholars continue to debate its ingredients, but the main method of projection is fairly clear, indicating effectively a flame-thrower: The liquid mixture, heated in a brazier and pressurized by means of a pump, was ejected by an operator through a siphon in any direction against the enemy.[18] Alternatively, it could be poured down from swivel cranes or hurled in pottery grenades.[19]
Greek fire held a fearsome reputation among Byzantium's numerous enemies who began to field – probably differently composed – combustibles of their own.[20] It was, however, no wonder weapon, but dependent on favourable conditions such as a calm sea and wind coming from behind.[21] When and how the use of Greek fire was discontinued is not exactly known. According to one theory, the Byzantines lost the secret due to over-compartmentalization long before the 1204 sack of Constantinople.[22]

Daily life

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Heinle & Schlaich 1996, p. 32
  2. ^ Kinder & Hilgemann 1989, p. 139
  3. ^ Ousterhout 1996, p. 25
  4. ^ Lange 1986, p. 93, fn. 4
  5. ^ Rasch 1985, pp. 129f.
  6. ^ Heinle & Schlaich 1996, pp. 30–32
  7. ^ Date: Galliazzo 1995, p. 92; O’Connor 1993, p. 129; Hild 1977, p. 145; Hellenkemper 1977–1999, pp. 730f.; Guillou 1993, p. 36; Mango 1976, p. 129; Tunç 1978, p. 108
  8. ^ Galliazzo 1995, p. 92; O’Connor 1993, p. 129
  9. ^ Hild 1977, p. 145
  10. ^ Galliazzo 1995, p. 92
  11. ^ Chevedden 2000, pp. 73–76
  12. ^ Chevedden 2000, p. 86
  13. ^ Chevedden 2000, pp. 76–86, 110f.
  14. ^ Chevedden 2000, p. 110
  15. ^ Pryor & Jeffreys 2006, p. 607
  16. ^ Haldon & Byrne 1977, p. 91
  17. ^ Pryor & Jeffreys 2006, pp. 608f.; Ellis Davidson 1973, pp. 61f.
  18. ^ Haldon & Byrne 1977, p. 93
  19. ^ Pryor & Jeffreys 2006, pp. 378f., 609
  20. ^ Pryor & Jeffreys 2006, pp. 609–617
  21. ^ Pryor & Jeffreys 2006, p. 384
  22. ^ Roland 1992, pp. 655–679
  23. ^ Forbes 1964, p. 107
  24. ^ Pászthory 1986, p. 32
  25. ^ Pentz 1988, pp. 89f.
  26. ^ Pentz 1988, p. 93
  27. ^ "Forks: From Odd Byzantine Instruments to Modern Utensils". National Geographic. 2014-12-18. Retrieved 2020-08-23.
  28. ^ Bramen, Lisa. "A History of Western Eating Utensils, From the Scandalous Fork to the Incredible Spork". Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved 2020-08-23.
  29. ^ Ward, Chad (2009-05-06). "Origins of the Common Fork". Leite's Culinaria. Retrieved 2020-08-23.
  30. ^ Kazhdan 1991, pp. 977–981; Pentcheva 2010, pp. 265–283
  31. ^ Wikander 2000, pp. 383f.
  32. ^ Wildberg, Christian (2018), "John Philoponus", in Zalta, Edward N. (ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2018 ed.), Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University, retrieved 2020-08-03
  33. ^ Lindberg, David. (1992) The Beginnings of Western Science. University of Chicago Press. Page 349.
  34. ^ "The Case of Conjoined Twins in 10th Century Byzantium - Medievalists.net". 4 January 2014.
  35. ^ Montandon, Denys (December 2015). "THE UNSPEAKABLE HISTORY OF THORACOPAGUS TWINS' SEPARATION" (PDF). denysmontandon.com.

Sources

Further reading