Livia (r.27 BC – AD 14), as wife of Augustus, was the first and longest-reigning empress.

The Roman empresses were the consorts of the Roman emperors, the rulers of the Roman Empire. The duties, power and influence of empresses varied over time depending on the time period, contemporary politics and the personalities of their husband and themselves. Empresses were typically highly regarded and respected, and many wielded great influence over imperial affairs. Several empresses at times served as regents on behalf of their husbands or sons and a handful ruled as empresses regnant, governing the empire in their own right without a husband.

There was no single official term for the position of empress in Ancient Rome. Typical Latin titles included augusta (Greek: αὐγούστα, augoústa), the female form of the male imperial title augustus, and caesaraea (Greek: καισᾰ́ρειᾰ, kaisáreia), the female form of the male imperial title caesar. In Greek, empresses could be referred to as βᾰσῐ́λῐσσᾰ (basílissa), the female form of the male title basileus (denoting a monarch) and αὐτοκράτειρα (autokráteira), the Greek version of the Latin autocratix, the female form of the male title autokrator (denoting a sole ruler). In the third century, empresses could also receive various honorific titles, such as māter castrōrum "mother of the castra" and māter patriae "mother of the fatherland". Titles such as augusta were not used by all empresses, and since such titles could also be granted to other imperial women, such as mothers, sisters and mistresses of emperors, not all women who bore the title were empresses either.

Given that there were sometimes more than one concurrent Roman emperor, there were also sometimes two or more concurrent Roman empresses. For most of the period from 286 to 480, the Roman Empire, though remaining a single polity, was administratively divided into the Western Roman Empire and the Eastern Roman Empire. Through most of this period, the separated imperial courts had their own lines of succession, and as a result their own sequences of concurrent Roman empresses. The western empire fell in the late 5th century, its final empress being the wife of Emperor Julius Nepos. The eastern empire, often referred to as the 'Byzantine Empire' by modern historians, endured for almost another millennium until its fall through the fall of Constantinople in 1453. The final empress of the east, and final Roman empress overall, was Maria of Trebizond, wife of Emperor John VIII Palaiologos. In addition to basílissa and autokráteira, many later eastern empresses bore the title δέσποινα (déspoina), the female form of the male title despotes, a common title in the later empire.

Though the constitutional power of empresses was never defined, it was generally accepted that their coronation, performed after that of their husbands, granted them some imperial power. Often, their primary duties were to oversee the organization of ceremonies at the imperial court as well as to partake in imperial and religious affairs. Although governmental power was most often vested only in the emperor, empresses could gain significant authority as regents for young children or when their husbands were absent. Though they were bound by the wishes and temperaments of their husbands, empress consorts could at times also effectively become influential co-regents. In some cases, emperors reinforced their legitimacy through marrying the daughter of a previous emperor. In such cases, empresses sometimes stressed their dynastic legitimacy, greater than that of their husbands, to achieve great influence. Several influential consorts, such as Theodora, wife of Justinian I, and Euphrosyne, wife of Alexios III, held their own courts. Empresses who ruled in their own right, such as Irene and Zoë Porphyrogenita, sometimes adopted male titles such as basileus and autokrator to illustrate their power.[1]

Principate (27 BC – AD 284)

Julio-Claudian dynasty (27 BC – AD 68)

Portrait Name Tenure Life details & notes Emperor (spouse) Ref
Livia Drusilla 16 January 27 BC – 19 August AD 14
(40 years, 7 months and 3 days)
30 January 59 BC – AD 29
(aged 87)
Daughter of Marcus Livius Drusus Claudianus; married Tiberius Claudius Nero in 43 BC and then Octavian on 17 January 38 BC. Known as "Julia Augusta" after his death; deified by Claudius on 17 January AD 42. The longest-reigning empress
Octavian Augustus
(r.27 BC – AD 14)
[2]
  Orestilla[a] c. AD 37
  (very briefly)[b]
Second wife of Caligula; forced to marry him immediately after her marriage to Gaius Calpurnius Piso. After the divorce they were both exiled for alleged adultery. Probably the shortest-reigning empress. Caligula
(r.37–41)
[4]
[5]
[6]
Lollia Paulina c. AD 38
  (a few months)[c]
Daughter of Marcus Lollius, originally married to Publius Memmius Regulus. Forced to commit suicide
Milonia Caesonia Summer 39 – 24 January 41
(about 1 year and a half)
Born on 3 June of an unknown date, married to another man before becoming Caligula's mistress. Murdered alongside Caligula and their daughter Julia Drusilla
Valeria Messalina 24 January 41 – AD 48
(7 years)
Daughter of Marcus Valerius Messalla. Executed after having an affair with Gaius Silius; suffered damnatio memoriae. Claudius
(r.41–54)
[7]
Agrippina the Younger
Julia Agrippina
1 January 49 – 13 October 54
(5 years, 9 months and 12 days)
6 November 15 – 23 March 59
(aged 43)
Daughter of Germanicus Julius Caesar and mother of Nero, named augusta in AD 50. Killed in unclear circumstances
[8]
Claudia Octavia 13 October 54 – AD 62
(7 years and a few months)
39/40 AD – 9 June 62
(aged 22–23)
Daughter of Claudius and Valeria Messalina. Exiled and later executed.
Nero
(r.54–68)
[9]
Poppaea Sabina AD 62 – AD 65
(3 years)
30/32 AD – early Summer 65
(aged 33–35)
Daughter of Titus Ollius; married Rufrius Crispinus c. 50, then the future emperor Otho in 58. Named augusta shortly after Claudia's birth in January 63, posthumously deified.
Statilia Messalina early 66 – 9 June 68
(2 years)
c. 35 – c. 70
(aged approx. 35)
Daughter of Titus Statilius Taurus (consul 44), married consul Marcus Julius Vestinus Atticus in AD 63/64. Married Nero after the forced suicide of her husband; suffered damnatio memoriae.

Year of the Four Emperors (69)

Portrait Name Tenure Life details & notes Emperor (spouse) Ref
Galeria Fundana 19 April – 20 December 69
(8 months and 1 day)
Born on 3 January of an unknown date. Daughter of a pretor; possibly related to Publius Galerius Trachalus. Vitellius
(r.69)
[10]

Flavian dynasty (81–96)

Portrait Name Tenure Life details & notes Emperor (spouse) Ref
Domitia Longina 14 September 81 – 18 September 96
(15 years and 4 days)
11 February 50/55 – c. 126
(aged approx. 70–76)
Daughter of general Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo, first married to senator Lucius Aelius Aelianus. Named augusta after her marriage to Domitian.
Domitian
(r.81–96)
[11]

Nerva–Antonine dynasty (98–192)

All empresses of this period received the title augusta.

Portrait Name Tenure Life details & notes Emperor (spouse) Ref
Pompeia Plotina 28 January 98 – 7/11 August 117
(19 years, 6 months and 10/14 days)
c. 70 (?) – c. 123
(aged approx. 53)
Daughter of Lucius Pompeius, named augusta around 102, posthumously deified. She was interested in the Epicurean philosophical school of Athens.
Trajan
(r.98–117)
[12]
Vibia Sabina 11 August 117 – c. 137
(c. 20 years)
c. 85 – 136/137
(aged approx. 52)
Daughter of senator Lucius Vibius Sabinus, married Hadrian around 100, named augusta around 119, posthumously deified.
Hadrian
(r.117–138)
[13]
Faustina the Elder
Annia Galeria Faustina
10 July 138 – late October 140
(2 years and 3 months)
c. 97[d] – late October 140
(aged approx. 43)
Daughter of Marcus Annius Verus the Elder, married Antoninus around 120, named augusta in 138, posthumously deified
Antoninus Pius
(r.138–161)
[15]
Faustina the Younger
Annia Galeria Faustina
7 March 161 – 175
(14 years)
c. 130[d] – 176
(aged approx. 46)
Daughter of Antoninus Pius, betrothed to Lucius Verus on 25 February 138, married Marcus Aurelius on 13 May (?) 145. Named augusta on 1 December 147 and mater castrorum (mother of the castra) in 174, posthumously deified.
Marcus Aurelius
(r.161–180)
[16]
Lucilla
Annia Aurelia Galeria Lucilla
163 (?) – 169
(6 years)
7 March 149 – 181/182
(aged 32–33)
Daughter of Marcus Aurelius, betrothed to Lucius Verus in 161, named augusta shortly after the marriage. Exiled to Capri and executed by Commodus.
Lucius Verus
(r.161–169)
[17]
Bruttia Crispina 178 – 191/2
(3–4 years)
Daughter of Gaius Bruttius Praesens (consul 153), named augusta after her marriage with Commodus, sometime before 3 August 178. Exiled to Capri for alleged adultery and executed soon after; suffered damnatio memoriae. Commodus
(r.180–192)[e]
[18]

Year of the Five Emperors (193)

Both empresses of this period received the title augusta.

Portrait Name Tenure Life details & notes Emperor (spouse) Ref
Flavia Titiana 1 January – 28 March 193
(2 months and 27 days)
Daughter of Titus Flavius Claudius Sulpicianus. Her fate is unknown, but she probably was spared alongside her children Pertinax
(r.193)
[19]
[20]
Manlia Scantilla 28 March – 1 June 193
(2 months and 4 days)
Named augusta alongside her daughter Didia Clara. Didius Julianus
(r.193)
[21]

Severan dynasty (193–227)

All empresses of this period were named augusta on or shortly after their marriage.

Portrait Name Tenure Life details & notes Emperor (spouse) Ref
Julia Domna 9 April 193 – 4 February 211
(17 years, 9 months and 26 days)
October/December c. 170 – April 217
(aged approx. 47)
Daughter of Julius Bassianus, high priest of the Elagabal cult. Married Severus in 185, named augusta on 1 June 193, posthumously deified. After 211 she held the title of mater castrorum et senatus et patriae.
Septimius Severus
(r.193–211)
[22]
Publia Fulvia Plautilla 9/15 April 202 – c. 22 January 205
(1 year and 9 months)
Daughter of Gaius Fulvius Plautianus. Divorced after the execution of her father; killed by Caracalla in 221; suffered damnatio memoriae. Caracalla
   (r.211–217)[f]
[23]
Nonia Celsa (?) 217 – 218 (?)
(2 years?)
Probably fictional. Macrinus
(r.217–218)
[24]
Julia Cornelia Paula c. 220
(about 1 year or less)
Of noble descent; divorced. Elagabalus
(r.218–222)
[25]
Julia Aquilia Severa c. 220 / 221
(about 1 year or less)
late 221 – March 222
(less than a year)
A Vestal Virgin of noble descent. Divorced but later remarried to Elagablus, styled augusta, mater castrorum, senatus ac patriae
Annia Faustina
Annia Aurelia Faustina
221
(a few months)
Daughter of Tiberius Claudius Severus Proculus and descendant of emperor Marcus Aurelius. Divorced shortly after the marriage.
Sallustia Orbiana
Gnaea Seia Herennia Sallustia Barbia Orbiana
225 – 227
(2 years)
Daughter of Lucius Seius Herennius Sallustius; exiled to Africa Severus Alexander
(r.222–235)
[26]

Crisis of the Third Century (235–285)

All empresses during this period received the title augusta.

Portrait Name Tenure Life details & notes Emperor (spouse) Ref
Caecilia Paulina 235 (?)
(very briefly?)
Nothing known; most likely dead by the time Maximinus became emperor. She was deified by her husband. Maximinus I
(r.235–238)
[27]
Fabia Orestilla (?) 238 (?)
(22 days?)
Probably fictional. Gordian I
(r.238)
[28]
Tranquillina
Furia Sabinia Tranquillina
12 May (?) 241 – c. February 244
(2 years and a half)
Daughter of Gaius Furius Sabinius Aquila Timesitheus; unknown fate. Gordian III
(r.238–244)
[29]
Marcia Otacilia Severa 244 – 248 (?)
(c. 4 years)
Daughter or sister of a man called Severianus; nothing else known. Philip
(r.244–249)
[30]
Herennia Etruscilla
Herennia Cupressenia Etruscilla
249 – 251
(5 years)
Of a noble Etrurian descent. Decius
(r.249–251)
[31]
Gaia Cornelia Supera 253
(3 months)
Nothing known. Aemilianus
(r.253)
[32]
Cornelia Salonina 253 – 268
(15 years)
Nothing known. Gallienus
(r.253–268)
[33]
Ulpia Severina 270 – 275
(5 years)
Possibly a daughter of Ulpius Crinitus. Sometimes said to have been empress regnant between the death of Aurelian and the accession of Tacitus, but this has been refuted by modern historians. Aurelian
(r.270–275)
[34]
[35]
[36]
Magnia Urbica 283 – 285
(5 years)
Nothing known. Carinus
(r.283–285)
[37]
[38]
Unknown name 283 – 284
(2 years)
Possibly daughter of Lucius Flavius Aper. Numerian
(r.283–284)
[38]

Dominate (284–476)

Tetrarchy (284–324)

Portrait  Name[g] Tenure Life details & notes Emperor (spouse) Ref
Prisca 20 November 284 – 1 May 305
(20 years, 5 months and 11 days)
A Christian, retired after the abdication of Diocletian. Exiled to Syria by Maximinus Daza and later executed by Licinius during the Civil wars of the Tetrarchy, probably in 315. Diocletian
(r.284–305)
[39]
[40]
Eutropia 1 April 286 – 1 May 305
(19 years and 1 month, West)
A Syrian, possibly the widow of Afranius Hannibalianus. Still alive in 325. Maximian
(r.286–305)
[41]
Galeria Valeria 1 May 305 – May 311
(6 years, East)
Daughter of Diocletian and (probably) Prisca; married Galerius after his elevation as caesar in 293, styled as augusta and mater castrorum. Exiled alongside her mother by Maximinus Daza, and later executed by Licinius Galerius
(r.305–311)
[42]
[43]
Flavia Maximiana Theodora 1 May 305 – 25 July 306
(1 year, 2 months and 24 days, West)
Daughter of Eutropia and (probably) Afranius Hannibalianus, step-daughter of Maximian. Constantius I
(r.305–306)
[42]
Valeria Maximilla 28 October 306 – 28 October 312
(6 years, Italy)
Daughter of Galerius, married Maxentius c. 305. Maxentius
(r.306–312)
[44]
Unknown name 310 – 313 (?)
(11 years, East)
Perhaps related to Galerius. Maximinus II Daza
(r.310–313)
[45]
Flavia Julia Constantia 313 – 324
(11 years, East)
Half-sister of Constantine I. Licinius
(r.308–324)
[46]

Constantinian dynasty (306–363)

Portrait Name Tenure Life details & notes Emperor (spouse) Ref
Minervina 306 – 307 (?)
(1 year?)
Referred as the wife of Constantine by the Panegyrici Latini VI, but called a concubine by Aurelius Victor and Zosimus. She died or was divorced by 307. Constantine I
(r.306–337)
[47]
Fausta
Flavia Maxima Fausta
March 307 – Summer 326
(19 years)
c. 290 (?) – Summer 326
(aged approx. 36)
Daughter of Maximian and Eutropia, named augusta alongside Helena after Constantine's victory over Licinius in 324. Executed for adultery with her stepson, Crispus.
[48]
[49]
Unknown name 9 September 337 – April 340
(2 years and 7 months)
Obscure figure, married to Constantine II by 335 and alive at the time of his death. Perhaps a daughter of one of Constantine I's half-brothers. Constantine II
(r.337–340)
[50]
Unknown name 337 – 353
(16 years)
Nothing known. Constantius II
(r.337–361)
[51]
[52]
Eusebia c. 353 – c. 360
(about 7 years)
Probably a daughter of Eusebius (consul 347); died sometime before 361. [53]
[52]
Faustina 361
(a few months)
Joined Procopius (r. 365–366) during his brief rule in Constantinople. [54]
Justina late 350 – 11 August 353
(3 years)
Daughter of governor Justus; married Magnentius as a young girl. Magnentius
(r.350–353)
[55]
[56]
Helena c. February – c. November 360
(9 months or less)
Daughter of Constantine I and Fausta; wrongly called "Constantina" in some sources. Died around Julian's accession as sole emperor. Julianus II
(r.360–363)
[57]
Charito 27 June 363 – 17 February 364
(7 months and 21 days)
Daughter of the magister equitum Lucillianus, possibly alive as late as 380. Jovian
(r.363–364)
[58]

Valentinianic dynasty (364–383)

Portrait Name Tenure Life details & notes Emperor (spouse) Ref
Marina Severa 364 – 370
(6 years)
Divorced and exiled after being involved in an illegal transaction. Valentinian I
(r.364–375)
[59]
[60]
Justina
(second time)
c. 370 – 375
(c. 5 years)
Her father was executed in the aftermath of Magnentius' war. Died around 388. [55]
[56]
  Domnica[h] 28 March 364 – 9 August 378
(14 years, 4 months and 12 days)
Daughter of praetorian prefect Petronius, styled augusta. Briefly ruled Constantinople after the death of Valens in the Battle of Adrianople. Valens
(r.364–378)
[61]
[62]
Constantia c. 374 – early 383
(c. 2 years and 7 months)
early 362 – early 383
(aged 21)

Posthumous child of Constantius II and Faustina

Gratian
(r.375–383)[i]
[46]
Laeta before 25 August 383
(a few months)
Daughter of Tisamene; supplied the city of Rome with food during the siege of Alaric I [63]

Theodosian dynasty (379–457)

All empress, with the exceptions of Galla, Elen, and Thermantia, received the title augusta.

Portrait  Name[j] Tenure Life details & notes Emperor (spouse) Ref
Aelia Flaccilla
 Aelia Flavia Flaccilla[k]
19 January 379 – early 386
(7 years)
Of Hispanian origin; married Theodosius c. 376, died in 386. Theodosius I
(r.379–395)
[66]
[67]
Galla 386 – 394
(8 years)
Daughter of Valentinian I and Justina; died during childbirth. [68]
[67]
Unknown name 25 August 383 – 28 August 388
(5 years and 3 days)
Known as "Saint Elen" in Welsh legend. Magnus Maximus
(r.383–388)
[69]
Eudoxia 27 April 395 – 6 October 404
(9 years, 5 months and 9 days)
Daughter of the Frank Bauto. An influential woman in court, she became de facto co-regent on 9 January 400, when she was proclaimed augusta following the fall of Eutropius (which was orchestrated by Eudoxia herself) Arcadius
(r.395–408)
[70]
[71]
Maria c. 398 – 407
(c. 9 years)
Daughter of the powerful general Stilicho, died in 407. Honorius
(r.395–423)
[72]
Thermantia
Aemilia Materna Thermantia
408
(a few months)
Daughter of Stilicho; divorced Honorius following Stilicho's death in August 408. Died sometime before 30 July 415. [73]
Eudocia 7 June 421 – 28 July 450
(29 years, 1 month and 21 days)
c. 400 – 20 October 460
(aged approx. 60)
Born as "Athenais", daughter of Leontius, a philosopher. Proclaimed augusta on 2 January 423. Remembered for her numerous writings.
Theodosius II
(r.408–450)
[74]
[75]
Galla Placidia 8 February – 2 September 421
(7 months lacking 6 days)
388 – 27 November 450
(aged approx. 72)

Daughter of Theodosius I and Galla. Originally married the Visigothic king Athaulf, married Constantius on 1 January 417. She later served as regent for her son Valentinian III alongside Aetius.

Constantius III
(r.421)
[76]
[77]
Licinia Eudoxia 29 October 437 – 31 May 455
(17 years, 7 months and 2 days)
422 – c. 493
(aged approx. 71)
Daughter of Theodosius II and Eudocia. Forced to marry Maximus after the murder of Valentinian III. Taken to Africa after the sack of Rome, returned to Constantinople in about 462.
Valentinian III
(r.425–455)
[78]
Petronius Maximus
(r.455)
Pulcheria 25 August 450 – July 453
(2 years and 10 months)
19 January 399 – July 453
(aged 55)
Daughter of Arcadius and Eudoxia, proclaimed augusta and regent of Theodosius II on 4 July 414. She was influential in the Councils of Ephesus and Chalcedon. Married Marcian after his election as emperor by Aspar.
Marcian
(r.450–457)
[79]
[80]
[81]

Puppet emperors (west, 467–475)

Portrait Name Tenure Life details & notes Emperor (spouse) Ref
Marcia Euphemia 12 April 467 – 11 July 472
(5 years and 3 months)
Only daughter of Marcian, who married her to Anthemius c. 453. Styled as augusta Anthemius
(r.467–472)
[82]
Placidia April – 2 November 472
(7 months)
Daughter of Valentinian III and Licinia Eudoxia, married Olybrius in 454/454. Still alive c. 480 Olybrius
(r.472)
[83]
Unknown name 24 June 474 – 28 August 475
(1 year, 2 months and 4 days)
A relative of Empress Verina Julius Nepos
(r.474–475/80)[l]
[84]

Later eastern empresses (457–1439)

During the later 'Byzantine' period, virtually all empresses (unless noted) received the title augusta; whether it was still considered a formal title or just a courtesy title synonim to "empress" is not known.

Leonid dynasty (457–515)

Portrait Name Tenure Life details & notes Emperor (spouse) Ref
Verina 7 February 457 – 18 January 474
(16 years, 11 months and 11 days)
Sister of Basiliscus. Plotted against Emperor Zeno with Patricius, but was betrayed by Basiliscus. Her son-in-law Marcian rebelled in 479 and she herself rebelled alongside Leontius in 484; she died during the ensuing war, probably in 484. Leo I
(r.457–474)
[85]
[86]
Ariadne 29 January 474 – late 515
(39 years and a few months)
Daughter of Leo I and Verina, married Zeno in 466/467. A very influential woman in court, she elected Anastasius as successor and married him immediately after Zeno's death. The third longest-reigning empress, after Helena Lekapene and Livia. Zeno
(r.474–491)
[87]
[88]
Anastasius I
(r.491–518)
Zenonis 9 January 475 – August 476
(1 year and 7 months)
Died alongside her husband after Zeno's restoration. Basiliscus
(r.475–476)
[89]

Justinian dynasty (east, 518–602)

Portrait Name Tenure Life details & notes Emperor (spouse) Ref
Euphemia 10 July 518 – before August 527
(6 years or less)
According to Procopius's Secret History of barbarian origin, born as "Lupicina". Originally a slave and later concubine of Justin I. Justin I
(r.518–527)
[90]
Theodora 1 April 527 – 28 June 548
(21 years, 2 months and 27 days)
c. 497 – 28 June 528
(aged approx. 40)
Daughter of Acacius and a dancer; aunt of Euphemia, married Justinian c. 524. Although their union caused much scandal, she became one of Justinians' main advisers and took an active role in government.
Justinian I
(r.527–565)
[91]
[92]
Sophia 14 November 565 – 5 October 578
(12 years, 10 months and 21 days)
Niece of Theodora. Became de facto ruler after Justin's mental collapse in 573. Exiled after plotting against Tiberius II, but later recalled to help him choose his successor. Still alive by 601. Justin II
(r.565–578)
[93]
[94]
(Ino) Anastasia 26 September 578 – 14 August 582
(3 years, 10 months and 19 days)
Had already been a widow before marrying Tiberius sometime before his appointment as caesar in 574. Initially opposed by Sophia, she later became the mother-in-law of Marucie and died sometime after, perhaps in 593. Tiberius II Constantine
(r.578–582)
[95]
Constantina 13 August 582 – 27 November 602
(20 years, 3 months and 14 days)
Daughter of Tiberius II and Anastasia. Married caesar Maurice on Tiberius' deathbed. Exiled after Maurice's execution, tried to plot against Phocas but was eventually killed in 605. Maurice
(r.582–602)
[96]
Leontia 23 November 602 – 5 October 610 (?)
(7 years, 10 months and 12 days)
Daughter of Sergius; nothing else known. Phocas
(r.602–610)
[97]

Heraclian dynasty (610–695)

Portrait Name Tenure Life details & notes Emperor (spouse) Ref
Fabia Eudokia
Ευδοκία
5 October 610 – 13 August 612
(1 year, 10 months and 8 days)
Daughter of Rogas of Libya; died of epilepsy. Heraclius
(r.610–641)
[98]
Martina
Μαρτίνα
c. 613 – 11 February 641
(about 7 years)
Daughter of Martinus and niece of Heraclius himself, which led to much controversy. Became de facto ruler after Constantine's death as the regent of the young Heraclonas. Deposed, mutilated, and exiled by Valentinus in favor of Constans II, who was also a minor at the time. [99]
Gregoria
Γρηγορία
early 630 – 25 May 641
(11 years)
Daughter of Nicetas (cousin of Heraclius), married Constantine in early 630 (or late 629). Regent during the early reign of her son Constans II. Not recorded as augusta Constantine III Heraclius
(r.641)[m]
[100]
Fausta
Φαύστα
642 – 15 July 668
(26 years)
Possibly a daughter of Valentinus, usurper in 644. Constans II
(r.641–668)
[101]
Anastasia
Αναστασία
September 668 (?) – July 685
(16 years and 6 months?)
Still alive during the reign of Philippicus; not recorded as augusta Constantine IV
(r.668–685)
[102]
Eudokia
Ευδοκία
c. 685 – c. 695
(10 years?)
Possibly dead by 695, not recorded as augusta Justinian II
(r.685–695; 705–711)
[103]

Twenty Years' Anarchy (695–717)

Portrait Name Tenure Life details & notes Emperor (spouse) Ref
Unknown name c. 695 – 698 (?)
(c. 3 years)
Nothing known Leontius
(r.695–698)
[104]
Unknown name c. 698 – 705 (?)
(c. 7 years)
Nothing known Tiberius III
(r.698–705)
[104]
Theodora of Khazaria
Θεοδώρα
c. 21 August 705 – 4 November 711
(c. 6 years, 2 months and 14 days)
The first foreign-born empress. Sister of Busir, Khagan of Khazaria. Became Justinian's second wife during his exile in 703; crowned[n] alongside her son Tiberius in 705. Justinian II
(r.685–695; 705–711)
[105]
Unknown name c. 711 – 713 (?)
(c. 2 years)
Nothing known Philippicus
(r.711–713)
[104]
Irene
Ειρήνη
c. 713 – 715
(c. 2 years)
Little information recorded other than her name Anastasius II
(r.713–715)
[104]
Unknown name c. 715 – 717 (?)
(c. 2 years)
Nothing known Theodosius III
(r.715–717)
[104]

Isaurian dynasty (717–802)

Portrait Name Tenure Life details & notes Emperor (spouse) Ref
Maria
Μαρία
25 March 717 – 18 June 741 (?)
(24 years, 2 months and 24 days?)
Of Syrian origin, crowned on 25 December 718; nothing else known. Leo III
(r.717–741)
[106]
Tzitzak Irene
Εἰρήνη
733 – 750
(17 years)
Daughter of khagan Bihar of Khazaria. Not much known except that she opposed the iconoclasm of her husband; died shortly after Leo IV's birth Constantine V
 (r.741–775)[o]
[107]
Maria
Μαρία
c. 751 – 752
(c. 1 year)
A very short marriage. [108]
Eudokia
Ευδοκία
c. 753 – 14 September 775 (?)
(c. 22 years?)
Already married by November 764, crowned on 1 April 769; fate unknown. [109]
Anna
Άννα
June 741 – 2 November 743
(2 years and 5 months)
Daughter of Leo III, married Artabasdos in 717. Banished after her husband's failed coup; not recorded as augusta Artabasdos
(r.741–743)
[110]
Irene of Athens
Εἰρήνη
3 November 769 – 31 October 802
(33 years lacking 3 days)
c. 752 – 9 August 803
(aged approx. 51)
A member of the Sarantapechos family; crowned on 17 December 769. Became de facto ruler after Leo's death as her son's regent. Ended the First iconoclasm with the Second Council of Nicaea in 787. She took full power after deposing and blinding her son on 19 August 797. She was herself deposed and banished in 802, later dying of natural causes.
Leo IV
 (r.775–780)[p]
[111]
[112]
Empress co-regent
780–797
[q]
Empress regnant 797–802
Maria of Amnia
Μαρία
November 788 – January 795
(6 years and 2 months)
Grand-daughter of Saint Philaretos; born c. 773. She was forced to become a nun. Died sometime after 824. Constantine VI
(r.780–797)
[114]
Theodote
Θεοδότη
September 795 – 19 August 797
(1 year and 11 months)
Cousin of Saint Theodore the Studite; originally a koubikoularia, she was crowned in August 795. Deposed by Irene. [115]

Nikephorian dynasty (802–813)

Portrait Name Tenure Life details & notes Emperor (spouse) Ref
Unknown name[r] Unmentioned in literary sources, most certainly dead before Nikephoros became emperor Nikephoros I
(r.802–811)
[116]
Theophano of Athens
Θεοφανώ
20 December 807 – 2 October 811
(3 years, 9 months and 12 days)
A relative of Irene of Athens, considered as a candidate for the throne after Staurakios' defeat at the Battle of Pliska, retired as a nun alongside him; not recorded as augusta Staurakios
(r.811)
[118]
Prokopia
Προκοπία
2 October 811 – 11 July 813
(1 year, 9 months and 9 days)
Daughter of Nikephoros I and sister of emperor Staurakios; retired as a nun Michael I Rangabe
(r.811–813)
[119]
Theodosia
Θεοδοσία
11 July 813 – 25 December 820
(7 years, 5 months and 14 days)
Daughter of Arsaber, patrikios and rival emperor in 808. Become a nun after the murder of her husband; retained several of her privileges Leo V
(r.813–820)
[120]

Amorian dynasty (820–867)

Portrait Name Tenure Life details & notes Emperor (spouse) Ref
Thekla
Θέκλα
25 December 820 – c. 824
(c. 4 years)
Daughter of the rebel Bardanes Tourkos. Died some years after Michael's accession. Michael II
(r.820–829)
[121]
Euphrosyne
Εὐφροσύνη
c. 824 – 2 October 829
(c. 6 years)
Daughter of Constantine VI and Maria, became a nun after the fall of Irene, but was later recalled and married Michael, perhaps at the age of 50. Still alive by 836. [122]
Theodora the Armenian
Θεοδώρα
5 June 830 – 15 March 856
(25 years, 9 months and 10 days)
c. 815 – c. 867
(aged approx. 52)
Became de facto ruler on 20 January 842, as regent of her infant son Michael III, alongside Theoktistos. Ended the Second iconoclasm in 843. Deposed and exiled by her son after forcing him to marry Eudokia Dekapolitissa. They both reconciled shortly before Michael's death.
Theophilos
(r.829–842)
[123]
[124]
 Empress co-regent 842–856[s]
Thekla the Younger
Θέκλα
842 – 15 March 856
(14 years)
Daughter of Theophilos and Theodora, named augusta alongside her sisters. Appeared to have been associated to the imperial office with an even higher status than Michael. She later became a mistress to Basil I, but was sidelined after he married. Co-empress 842–856 [125]
Eudokia Dekapolitissa
Ευδοκία Δεκαπολίτισσα
855 – 24 September 867
(12 years)
Forced to marry Michael III, who was in love with Eudokia Ingerina, by Theodora and Theoktistos; fate unknown. Michael III
(r.842–867)
[126]

Macedonian dynasty (867–1056)

Portrait Name Tenure Life details & notes Emperor (spouse) Ref
Eudokia Ingerina
Ευδοκία Ιγγερίνα
26 May 866 – 882
(16 years)
c. 840 – 882
(aged approx. 42)
Daughter of Inger (senator); former lover of Michael III, who married her to Basil shortly before his coronation as co-emperor; not recorded as augusta
Basil I
(r.867–886)[t]
[127]
Theophano Martinakia
Θεοφανώ Μαρτινιακή
883 – 893
(14 years)
c. 867 – 10 November 897
(aged approx. 30)
Daughter of Constantine Martinakios; died young. She is venerated as a Saint
Leo VI
(r.886–912)[u]
[128]
[129]
Zoe Zaoutzaina
Ζωὴ Ζαούτζαινα
late 898 – early 899
(1 year and 8 months)
Possibly a lover of Leo, said to have poisoned her former husband, Theodoros Guniatzitzes. [130]
Eudokia Baïana
Εὐδοκία Βαϊανή
Summer 900 – 12 April 901
(1 year)
Married Leo after the death of Zoe. Died during childbirth [131]
Zoe Karbonopsina
Ζωὴ
9 January 906 – 11 May 912
(5 years, 4 months and 2 days)
A relative of writer Theophanes and general Himerios, originally a concubine of Leo. She was expelled after Leo's death, but returned and deposed the regency of Patriarch Nicholas in February/March 914, ruling on behalf of her son Constantine VII. She was sidelined after the rise of Romanos I in 919 and was forced to become a nun. [132]
Unknown name c. 912 – 913 (?) Nothing known Alexander
(r.912–913)
[104]
Helena Lekapene
Ἑλένη Λεκαπηνή
4 May 919 – 9 November 959
(40 years, 6 months and 5 days)
April 907 – 19 September 961
(aged 54)
Daughter of Romanos I and Theodora, married shortly after Romanos' coup; crowned after Theodora's death. Became very influential in court until Constantine became sole ruler (945), later dying of an illness. The second longest-reigning empress.
Constantine VII
(r.913–959)
[133]
Theodora
Θεοδώρα
17 December 920 – 20 February 922
(1 year, 2 months and 3 days)
The second wife of Romanos, married c. 907; crowned on 6 January 921. Romanos I Lekapenos
(r.919–944)
[134]
Bertha Eudokia
Εὐδοκία
945 – 949
(2 years)
Daughter of Hugh of Italy, born as "Bertha". Betrothed to Romanos II in September 944, she died in 949, aged no more than 10 years old. She is not recorded as augusta Romanos II
(r.959–963)[v]
[135]
Anastaso Theophano
Θεοφανώ
955/6 – 11 December 969
(13–14 years)[w]
c. 940 – c. 980 (?)
(aged approx. 40)
Daughter of Krateros and Maria. Married Nikephoros II on 20 September 963, shortly after his coup. Skylitzes accuses her of poisoning Romanos, but this seems to be a later invention, as Leo the Deacon states that he died of an illness. She did, however, conspire with John Tzimiskes to murder Nikephoros. She is last mentioned in 978.
Romanos II
(r.959–963)[x]
[136]
[137]
Nikephoros II Phokas
(r.963–969)
Theodora
Θεοδώρα
November 970 – 10 January 976 (?)
(5 years and 2 months)
Daughter of Constantine VII and Helena Lekapene; born in the late 930s. Almost nothing known. John I Tzimiskes
(r.969–976)
[138]
Helena
Ελένη
c. 976 – c. 989 (?) Daughter of Alypius; not recorded as augusta. Constantine VIII
(r.1025–1028)[y]
[139]
Zoe Porphyrogenita
Ζωὴ
12 November 1028 – 1050
(22 years)
c. 978 – 1050
(aged approx. 72)
Daughter of Constantine VIII, probably ordered the murder of Romanos III. Ruled in her own right alongside Theodora from Michael V's deposition until her marriage to Constantine IX (21 April–11 June 1042). After this she had little involvement in politics, later dying of natural causes.
Romanos III Argyros (r.1028–34) [140]
[141]
Michael IV (r.1034–1041)
Empress regnant 1042
Constantine IX Monomachos
(r.1042–1055)
Theodora Porphyrogenita
Θεοδώρα
21 April 1042 – 31 August 1056
(14 years, 4 months and 10 days)
c. 980 – 31 August 1056
(aged approx. 76)
Sister of Zoe, proclaimed co-empress during the revolt that deposed Michael V in 1042. Sidelined after Zoë's marriage to Constantine IX, returned as empress regnant after the latter's death on 11 January 1055. Died of natural causes shortly after appointing Michael VI as her successor.
Empress regnant 1042 [142]
[143]
Co-empress 1042–1055
Empress regnant 1055–1056
Catherine of Bulgaria
Αἰκατερίνη
1 September 1057 – 22 November 1059
(2 years, 2 months and 21 days)
Daughter of Ivan Vladislav of Bulgaria. Retired to a monastery with the monastic name "Xene" Isaac I Komnenos
(r.1057–1059)
[144]

Doukas dynasty (1059–1081)

Portrait Name Tenure Life details & notes Emperor (spouse) Ref
Eudokia Makrembolitissa
Ευδοκία Μακρεμβολίτισσα
23 November 1059 – November 1071
(13 years)
Daughter of John Makrembolites and niece of Patriarch Michael I, born c. 1030, married Constantine c. 1049; de facto ruler in 1067 on behalf of her son Michael VII between Constantine's death (23 November) and her marriage to Romanos (1 January). She resumed her regency in October 1071, after Romanos' fall, but was expelled and forced to become a nun. She was later recalled by Nikephoros III and returned to the palace in 1078. Constantine X Doukas
(r.1059–1067)
[145]
[146]
 Empress co-regent 1067[s]
Romanos IV Diogenes
(r.1068–1071)
Maria of Alania
Μαρία
1066 / 1071 – 1 April 1078
(7–11 years)
c. 1052 / 1056 – 1118
(aged 62–66)
Daughter of Bagrat IV of Georgia. Married Nikephoros shortly after the deposition of Michael VII in April 1078. Spent her last days in a Georgian monastery.
Michael VII Doukas
(r.1071–1078)[z]
[147]
[148]
Nikephoros III Botaneiates
(r.1078–1081)

Komnenos dynasty (1081–1185)

Portrait Name Tenure Life details & notes Emperor (spouse) Ref
Irene Doukaina
Ειρήνη Δούκαινα
1 April 1081 – 15 August 1118
(37 years, 4 months and 14 days)
c. 1066 – 19 February 1138
(aged approx. 72)
Daughter of Andronikos Doukas (cousin of Michael VII). Married Alexios c. 1078, crowned on 11 April 1081. Forced to retire to a monastery after the failed plot of her daughter Anna Komnene and her son-in-law Nikephoros Bryennios.
Alexios I Komnenos
(r.1081–1118)
[149]
[150]
Irene of Hungary
Ειρήνη
1104 – 13 August 1134
(30 years)
Daughter of Ladislaus I of Hungary, born as "Piroska". She is venerated as a Saint. John II Komnenos
(r.1118–1143)[aa]
[151]
[152]
Bertha of Sulzbach
Ειρήνη (Irene)
1146 – 1159 / 1160
(13–14 years)
Daughter of Berengar II of Sulzbach and sister-in-law of emperor Conrad III of Germany. Manuel I Komnenos
(r.1143–1180)
[153]
[154]
Maria of Antioch
Μαρία
25 December 1161 – 24 September 1180
(18 years and 9 months)
1140s – late 1182
(aged approx. 35–40)
Daughter of Raymond of Poitiers. Became a nun after Manuel's death under the name "Xene", but acted as de facto ruler as the regent of Alexios II. She was executed after the coup of Andronikos I.
[155]
[156]
Agnes of France
Άννα (Anna)
2 March 1180 – 12 September 1185
(5 years, 6 months and 10 days)[ab]
Daughter of Louis VII of France, born in 1171. Forced to marry Andronikos I, who was over 60, shortly after the murder of Alexios II in September 1183. She became a subject of the Latin Empire after the sack of Constantinople in 1204 and married Theodore Branas. Not recorded as augusta. Alexios II Komnenos
(r.1180–1183)
[157]
Andronikos I Komnenos
(r.1183–1185)

Angelos dynasty (1185–1204)

Picture Name Tenure Life details & notes Emperor (spouse) Ref
Margaret of Hungary
Μαρία
early 1186 – 8 April 1195
(9 years)
19 July 1203 – 27 Jan. 1204
(6 months and 8 days)
Daughter of Béla III of Hungary; born in 1175. Married Crusader Boniface following the Sack of Constantinople, becoming queen of the Kingdom of Thessalonica. Not recorded as augusta Isaac II Angelos
(r.1185–1195; 1203–1204)
[158]
Euphrosyne Doukaina Kamatera
Ευφροσύνη Δούκαινα Καματηρά
8 April 1195 – 18 July 1203
(8 years, 3 months and 10 days)
Daughter of Andronikos Kamateros and relative of caesar John Doukas and the Komnenoi. Effectively ruled the Empire on behalf of her husband. She was captured by the Crusaders in 1204, but was later released in 1209/10. Alexios III Angelos
(r.1195–1203)
[159]
[160]

Laskaris dynasty (1205–1258; Nicaea)

Note: Roman rule in Constantinople was interrupted with the capture of the city by the Fourth Crusade in 1204. Though the crusaders created a new line of Latin emperors in the city, modern historians recognize the line of emperors of the Laskaris dynasty, reigning in Empire of Nicaea, as the legitimate Roman emperors during this period as the Nicene Empire eventually retook Constantinople. For the other lines of empresses, see List of empresses of the Byzantine successor states.

Irene Laskarina is called augusta on her seal, but it is not known if the honorific was used by other empresses too.

Picture Name Tenure Life details & notes Emperor (spouse) Ref
Anna Komnene Angelina
Άννα Κομνηνή Αγγελίνα
1205 – c. 1212
(7 years or less)
Daughter of Alexios III and Euphrosyne; died a few years after the marriage. Theodore I Laskaris
(r.1205–1221)
[161]
Philippa of Armenia
Φιλίππα
1214 – 1216
(2 years)
Cousin of Leo I of Armenia. A troubled marriage that ended in divorce and with Theodore even disinheriting his son. [162]
Maria of Courtenay
Μαρία
1219 – November 1221
(2 years)
Daughter of Latin emperor Peter. Became regent of her younger brother Baldwin II as Latin empress in 1228, but died shortly after. [163]
Irene Laskarina
Ειρήνη Κομνηνή (Λασκαρίνα)
December 1221 – Summer 1240
(19 years)
Daughter of Theodore I and Anna Komnene Angelina. She married Andronikos Palaiologos in February 1216, but he died shortly after. Irene should have married John very soon after, for Theodore II was born in 1221. She had an accident after his birth and retired under the monastic name "Eugenia". John III Vatatzes
(r.1221–1254)
[164]
[165]
Anna of Hohenstaufen
Άννα
c. 1240 – 3 November 1254
(approx. 14 years)
Daughter of Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, born as "Constance". Married John sometime before May 1241; died in the Kingdom of Aragon (Spain) in 1307. [166]
Elena Asenina of Bulgaria
Ἑλένη
Spring 1235 – 1252
(17 years)
Daughter of Ivan Asen II of Bulgaria, born c. 1224. Theodore was most probably proclaimed emperor during the marriage. Theodore II Laskaris
(r.1254–1258)[ac]
[167]
[168]

Palaiologos dynasty (1259–1439)

The honorific augusta appears on the seals of Theodora, Yolande-Irene, Rita-Maria and Anna of Savoy,[169] as well as on a miniature depicting Helena Dragaš. Given that no seals or documents of other empresses have survived, it is not known if all of them used the title, although it's most likely they did.

Picture   Name[ad] Tenure Life details & notes Emperor (spouse) Ref
Theodora Palaiologina
Θεοδώρα Δούκαινα Κομνηνή Παλαιολογίνα
1 January 1259 – 11 December 1282
(10 years and 10 days)
Granddaughter of Isaac Doukas Vatatzes, brother of Nicaean emperor John III. Married Michael in 1253/4, crowned again in Constantinople after its reconquest in 1261. Died on 4 March 1303 Michael VIII Palaiologos
(r.1259–1282)
[170]
[171]
Anna of Hungary
Άννα Παλαιολογίνα
8 November 1272 –1281
(9 years)
c. 1260 – 1281
(aged approx. 21)
Daughter of Stephen V of Hungary, also a great-granddaughter of Theodore I Laskaris through her mother.
Andronikos II Palaiologos
(r.1282–1328)[ae]
[172]
Yolande / Irene of Montferrat
Ειρήνη Κομνηνή Δούκαινα Παλαιολογίνα
1284 / 1289 – 1317
(28–33 years)
1272/1273 – 1317
(aged 44 or 45)
Daughter of William VII of Montferrat and granddaughter of Alfonso X of Castile. Proposed the idea of splitting the realm between her sons, but this was rejected by Andronikos and she retired to Thessalonica.
[173]
[174]
Rita / Maria of Armenia
Μαρία Δούκαινα Παλαιολογίνα
1296 – 12 October 1320
(24 years)
Daughter of Leo II of Armenia. Became a nun and died on June/July 1333 under the monastic name "Xene". Michael IX Palaiologos
(r.1294–1320)
[175]
Irene of Brunswick
Ειρήνη Παλαιολογίνα
23 October 1317 – 16 August 1324
(6 years, 10 months less 7 days)
c. 1293 – 16 August 1324
(aged approx. 31)
Daughter of Henry I of Brunswick-Grubenhagen. Died of an illness on her way back to Constantinople.
Andronikos III Palaiologos
(r.1328–1341)[af]
[176]
Anna of Savoy
Άννα Παλαιολογίνα
October 1326 – 15 June 1341
(14 years and 8 months)
c. 1306 – 1365/6
(aged approx. 58–59)
Daughter of Amadeus VI of Savoy. Became de facto ruler after Andronikos' death, as regent of the infant John V. The regency was overthrown by John VI in 1347, but she was allowed to have her own court at Thessalonica. Died years later under the monastic name "Anastasia".
[172]
[177]
Irene Asanina
Εἰρήνη Καντακουζηνή (Ἀσανίνα)
8 February 1347 – 10 December 1354
(7 years, 10 months and 2 days)
Daughter of Andronikos Asen and granddaughter of Irene Palaiologina, married John in 1318, proclaimed empress alongside him in October 1341. She had an active role in military affairs, even commanding the defenses of Constantinople twice. She retired to a monastery alongside her husband under the name "Eugenia", dying sometime before 1379. John VI Kantakouzenos
(r.1347–1354)
[178]
[179]
Helena Kantakouzene
Ἑλένη Παλαιολογίνα (Καντακουζηνή)
28 May 1347 – 12 August 1376
(29 years, 3 months and 14 days)
May 1381 – 16 February 1391
(9 years and 9 month)[ag]
1333/4 – August 1397
(aged 63–54)
Daughter of John VI and Irene, lost her title after the coup of Andronikos IV in 1376. John V escaped his imprisonment and regained the throne on July 1379, but Helena was taken hostage and was not released until May 1381. Became a nun and changed her name to "Hypomone".
John V Palaiologos
(r.1341–1391)
[180]
[181]
Irene Palaiologina
Εἰρήνη Παλαιολογίνα
February 1354 – December 1357
(3 years and 10 months)
Daughter of Demetrios Palaiologos (son of Andronikos II). Capture alongside Matthew and delivered to John V; fate unknown, probably lived in retirement with her husband. Matthew Kantakouzenos
(r.1353–1357)
[176]
Keratsa / Maria of Bulgaria
Μαρία (Παλαιολογίνα)
spring 1356 – 30 May 1373
(17 years)
12 August 1376 – 28 June 1385
(8 years, 10 months and 16 days)[ah]
1346 – c. 1400
(aged approx. 54)
Daughter of Ivan Alexander of Bulgaria, betrothed on 17 August 1355. She was captured alongside Andronikos following his failed rebellion in 1373. Andronikos escaped and deposed his father in 1376, but was deposed on 1 July 1379 and forced to flee. Their imperial status was re-acknowledged in May 1381. She became a nun under the monastic name of "Mathissa".
Andronikos IV Palaiologos
(r.1376–1379)[ai]
[182]
Helena Dragaš
Ἑλένη Παλαιολογίνα
February 1392 – 21 July 1425
(33 years and 5 months)
Daughter of magnate Konstantin Dragaš, arrived in Constantinople in December 1391, during Manuel's travels in the West. She ruled as regent between the death of her son John VIII (31 Oct. 1448) and the arrival of Constantine XI (12 March 1449). Died on 23 March 1450. Manuel II Palaiologos
(r.1391–1425)
[183]
[184]
Irene Gattilusio
Εἰρήνη Παλαιολογίνα
late 1403 – 22 September 1408
(5 years, in Thessalonica)
Daughter of Francesco II of Lesbos, married in July 1397. Died as a nun under the monastic name "Eugenia" on 1 January 1440. John VII Palaiologos
(r.1390; 1403–1408)[aj]
[176]
[185]
Anna of Moscow
Εἰρήνη Παλαιολογίνα
1414 – August 1417
(3 year)
1403 – August 1417
(aged 14)
Daughter of Vasily I of Moscow, betrothed by 1411; died young.
John VIII Palaiologos
(r.1425–1448)[ak]
[172]
Sophia of Montferrat
Σοφία (Παλαιολογίνα)
19 January 1421 – August 1426
(5 years and 7 months)
Daughter of Theodore II of Montferrat, she was disliked because of her appearance and thus lived in isolation. She divorced John and returned to Italy, where she died on 21 August 1434. [186]
Maria of Trebizond
Μαρία Κομνηνή Καντακουζηνή Παλαιολογίνα
September 1427 – 17 December 1439
(12 years and 3 months)
Daughter of Alexios IV of Trebizond and Theodora Kantakouzene, arrived in Constantinople on 30 August 1427. She became a nun shortly before her death in 1439, adopting the monastic name "Makaria". [187]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Her full name is disputed; Suetonius calls her "Livia Orestilla", but Cassius Dio and later historians call her "Cornelia Orestina". See Kajava 1984.
  2. ^ Divorced "within a few days" according to Suetonius, but "before two months had elapsed" according to Dio. The latter figure may actually refer to the period between the divorce and her exile, which was two years according to Suetonius.[3]
  3. ^ Suetonius states that Caligula divorced Paulina "in a short time". Dio explains that Caesonia was Caligulas' mistress and that she got pregnant during this time. Suetonius writes that Caesonia married on the same day she gave birth, while Dio states that she married one month before giving birth.[4][5]
  4. ^ a b The Feriale Duranum records the birthday of "Faustina wife of Antoninus" as 20/22 September. However, it's not possible to determine if this refers to Faustina I, wife of Titus Aelius Antoninus Pius, or Faustina II, wife of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus[14]
  5. ^ Commodus was named co-emperor in 177, at the age of 16.
  6. ^ Caracalla was named co-emperor in 198, still less than 10 years old.
  7. ^ Empresses during the Tetrarchy often adopted their husband's nomen after their marriage. Diocletian's daughter Valeria thus became "Galeria Valeria" upon her marriage to Galerius.
  8. ^ Kienast, Eck & Heil, p. 317, give her name as "Albia (?) Dominica", but does not elaborate. This name is not mentioned by the PLRE or other sources.
  9. ^ Gratian was crowned co-emperor in 367.
  10. ^ Empress after Aelia Flaccilla adopted "Aelia" as a title, which was then shown in their coinage.[64]
  11. ^ Flaccilla is called "Flavia" in a few inscriptions. She probably adopted the name following the accession of her husband, who also used "Flavius" as part of his nomenclature. Emperors after the Constantinian dynasty were often addressed as "Flavius", but it was used as an honorific rather than a personal name.[65]
  12. ^ Julius Nepos continued to claim the imperial title in exile until May 480. He was apparently recognized by Emperor Zeno, but held no real power.
  13. ^ Constantine III was crowned co-emperor in 613.
  14. ^ Empresses were proclaimed augusta at their coronation.
  15. ^ Constantine V was crowned co-emperor in 720.
  16. ^ Leo IV was crowned co-emperor in 751.
  17. ^ She acted as de facto empress-regnant during almost all of Constantine VI's reign. She was banished in December 791, but was recalled and proclaimed empress (and in practice co-ruler) a month later, on 15 January 792.[113]
  18. ^ The name and background of Nikephoros I's wife is not given in any primary source.[116] Some modern historians mistakenly call her Prokopia, out of confusion with her daughter (and later also empress) Prokopia.[117]
  19. ^ a b De facto empress regnant.
  20. ^ Basil I was crowned co-emperor in 866.
  21. ^ Leo VI was crowned co-emperor in 870.
  22. ^ Romanos II was crowned co-emperor in 945.
  23. ^ She stopped being empress for 6 months in 963, between the death of Romanos II (15 March) and her marriage to Nikephoros II (20 September).
  24. ^ Romanos II was crowned co-emperor in 945.
  25. ^ Constantine VIII was crowned co-emperor in 962.
  26. ^ Michael VII was crowned co-emperor in 1060.
  27. ^ John II was crowned co-emperor in 1092.
  28. ^ She stopped being empress for a few months in 1183.
  29. ^ Theodore II was proclaimed co-emperor in 1235, but was never crowned.
  30. ^ Some Palaiologan empresses displayed over-complicated surnames, probably as an imitation of their husband's (although theirs were justified by their long ancestry, see Family tree of Byzantine emperors). The full surname of the Palaiologan emperors was "Doukas Angelos Komnenos Palaiologos".
  31. ^ Andronikos II was crowned co-emperor on 8 November 1272.
  32. ^ Andronikos III was proclaimed co-emperor around 1310, but not crowned until 1325.
  33. ^ A total reign of 39 years a few weeks; just some months behind Empress Ariadne.
  34. ^ A total reign of 25 years and about 10 months.
  35. ^ Andronikos IV was proclaiemd co-emperor in 1352.
  36. ^ John VII was proclaimed co-emperor in 1377. He deposed his father in 1390, but was quickly defeated. He was released and ruled as regent during Manuel's absence (1399–1403), although it's not clear whether he ruled as "emperor". He was expelled from Constantinople as soon as Manuel returned, but was appointed "Emperor of Thessalonica" soon after.
  37. ^ John VIII was proclaimed co-emperor in or shortly before 1407, but was not crowned until 1421.

References

Citations

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  73. ^ PLRE, Vol 2, p. 1112.
  74. ^ PLRE, Vol 2, pp. 408–409.
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  80. ^ ODB, pp. 1757–1758.
  81. ^ Burgess 1994.
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  83. ^ PLRE, Vol 2, p. 887.
  84. ^ PLRE, Vol 2, p. 777.
  85. ^ PLRE, Vol 2, p. 1156.
  86. ^ ODB, p. 2160.
  87. ^ PLRE, Vol 2, pp. 140–141.
  88. ^ ODB, pp. 166–167.
  89. ^ PLRE, Vol 2, p. 1203.
  90. ^ PLRE, vol. 2, pp. 423.
  91. ^ PLRE, vol. 3, pp. 1240–1241.
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  93. ^ PLRE, vol. 3, pp. 1179–1180.
  94. ^ Garland 1999, pp. 40–58.
  95. ^ PLRE, vol. 3, pp. 60–61.
  96. ^ PLRE, vol. 3, pp. 337–339.
  97. ^ PLRE, vol. 3, p. 772.
  98. ^ DIR, Fabia.
  99. ^ Garland 1999, pp. 61–72.
  100. ^ DIR, Gregoria.
  101. ^ PBE, Phausta 1; PmbZ, Phusta (#6119).
  102. ^ PBE, Anastasia 1; PmbZ, Anastasia (#228).
  103. ^ PBE, Eudokia 8; PmbZ, (#1624).
  104. ^ a b c d e f Garland 1999, p. 230.
  105. ^ ODB, pp. 1084–1085, 2084; DIR, Theodora; Grierson 1962, pp. 50–51.
  106. ^ PBE, Maria 3; PmbZ, Maria (#4723).
  107. ^ PBE, Eirene 3; PmbZ, Eirene (#1437).
  108. ^ PBE, Maria 1; PmbZ, Maria (#4725).
  109. ^ PBE, Eudokia 1; PmbZ, Eudokia (#1626).
  110. ^ PBE, Anna 1; PmbZ, Anna (#443).
  111. ^ ODB, p. 1008–1009; Garland 1999, pp. 73–94.
  112. ^ PBE, Eirene 1; PmbZ, Eirene (#1439).
  113. ^ Garland 1999, pp. 73–94.
  114. ^ PBE, Maria 2; PmbZ, Maria (#4727).
  115. ^ PBE, Theodote 1; PmbZ, Theodote (#7899).
  116. ^ a b Garland 1999, p. 230; Niavis 1984, p. 83.
  117. ^ DIR, Staurakios (A.D. 811).
  118. ^ PBE, Theophano 1; PmbZ, Theophano (#8164).
  119. ^ PBE, Prokopia 1; PmbZ, Prokopia (#6351).
  120. ^ PBE, Theodosia 1; PmbZ, Theodosia (#7790).
  121. ^ PBE, Thekla 2; PmbZ, Thekla (#7259).
  122. ^ PBE, Euphrosyne 1; PmbZ, Thekla (#7259).
  123. ^ ODB, pp. 2037–2038; PBE, Theodora 2; PmbZ, Theodora (#7286).
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  125. ^ PBE, Thekla 1; PmbZ, Thekla (#7261).
  126. ^ PBE, Eudokia 3; PmbZ, Eudokia Dekapolitissa (#1631).
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  128. ^ ODB, p. 2064; PmbZ, Theophano (#8165).
  129. ^ Grumel 1936.
  130. ^ PmbZ, Zoe Zautzina (#28505).
  131. ^ PmbZ, Eudokia Baïane (#21759).
  132. ^ ODB, p. 2228; PmbZ, Zoe Karbonopsina (#28506).
  133. ^ PmbZ, Helene Lakapene (#22574).
  134. ^ PmbZ, Theodora (#27602).
  135. ^ PmbZ, Berta-Eudokia (#21156).
  136. ^ Garland 1999, pp. 126–135.
  137. ^ PmbZ, Theophano (#28125).
  138. ^ PmbZ, Theodora (# 27604).
  139. ^ PmbZ, Helene (#22578).
  140. ^ ODB, p. 2228.
  141. ^ Garland 1999, pp. 136–160.
  142. ^ ODB, p. 2038.
  143. ^ Garland 1999, pp. 161–167.
  144. ^ Varzos 1984, p. 41–47.
  145. ^ ODB, pp. 739–740; PBW, Eudokia 1.
  146. ^ Garland 1999, pp. 168–179.
  147. ^ ODB, p. 1298; PBW, Maria 61.
  148. ^ Garland 2006.
  149. ^ ODB, p. 1009; PBW, Irene 61.
  150. ^ Garland 1999, pp. 180–198.
  151. ^ PBW, Irene 62.
  152. ^ Garland 1999, pp. 199.
  153. ^ PBW, Irene 66.
  154. ^ Garland 1999, pp. 199–201.
  155. ^ ODB, p. 1298; PBW, Maria 63.
  156. ^ Garland 1999, pp. 201–209.
  157. ^ ODB, p. 37, 64, 94; PBW, Agnes 101.
  158. ^ Garland 1999, p. 224.
  159. ^ Garland 1999, pp. 210–224.
  160. ^ The honorific augusta (ΑΥΓΟΥCΤΑ) appears on her picture.
  161. ^ Angelov 2019, p. xv.
  162. ^ Angelov 2019, p. 32.
  163. ^ Angelov 2019, p. 32; Bellinger 1999, p. 544.
  164. ^ Murata 2021.
  165. ^ Macrides 2007, pp. 148–150.
  166. ^ Macrides 2007, pp. 275.
  167. ^ PLP, Helene (#6000).
  168. ^ Beihammer 2013, p. 412; Angelov 2019, pp. 128–9.
  169. ^ Evans 2004, pp. 32–34.
  170. ^ PLP, Dukas Isaakios (#5691); Palaiologina, Theodora Doukaina Komnene (#21380).
  171. ^ Talbot 1992.
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  173. ^ PLP, Palaiologina Eirene Komnene Dukaina (#21361).
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  175. ^ PLP, Palaiologina Maria Dukaina (#21394).
  176. ^ a b c PLP, Palaiologina Eirene (#21356) (#21357) (#21358).
  177. ^ Nicol 1994, pp. 82–95.
  178. ^ PLP, Kantakuzene Eirene (#10935).
  179. ^ Nicol 1994, pp. 71–81.
  180. ^ PLP, Palaiologina Helene (#21365).
  181. ^ Nicol 1968, pp. 135–137.
  182. ^ PLP, Maria (#16891).
  183. ^ PLP, Palaiologina Helene (#21366).
  184. ^ Garland 1999, p. 227.
  185. ^ Oikonomides 1977.
  186. ^ PLP, Sophia (#26389).
  187. ^ PLP, Palaiologina, Maria Komnene Kantakuzene (#21397).

Main bibliography

Secondary bibliography