Augusta (Classical Latin[au̯ˈɡʊsta]; plural Augustae; Greek: αὐγούστα)[1] was a Roman imperial honorific title given to empresses and honoured women of the imperial families. It was the feminine form of Augustus. In the third century, Augustae could also receive the titles of Mater Senatus ("Mother of the Senate) and Mater Castrorum ("Mother of the Camp") and Mater Patriae ("Mother of the Fatherland").

The title implied the greatest prestige. Augustae could issue their own coinage, wear imperial regalia, and rule their own courts.[1]

Wife of Claudius, Agrippina was the first wife of the emperor in Roman history to receive the throne of Augusta, a position she held for the rest of her life, ruling with her husband and son.

In the third century, Julia Domna was the first empress to receive the title combination "Pia Felix Augusta" after the death of her husband Septimius Severus, which may have implied greater powers being vested in her than what was usual for a Roman empress mother and in this innumerable official position and honor, she accompanied his son on an extensive military campaign and provincial tour.[2]

This list is incomplete; you can help by adding missing items. (August 2011)

Principate period

Main article: Principate

Julio-Claudian dynasty

Main article: Julio-Claudian dynasty

Portrait Name Birth Date of naming Description Death
Livia Drusilla, wife of Emperor Augustus, from Fayum (Egypt), copy from AD 4 or later after original from 27-23 BC, Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen (12949093165).jpg
Livia Drvsilla
Ivlia Avgvsta
30 January 58 BC AD 14 Wife of Emperor Augustus and mother of Emperor Tiberius. 28 September AD 29
Antonia minor pushkin.jpg
Antonia Minor
Antonia Minor
31 January 36 BC
AD 41
Mother of Emperor Claudius. AD 37
Agrippina Minor Landesmuseum Württemberg.jpg
Agrippina the Younger
Ivlia Avgvsta Agrippina
7 November AD 15
Oppidum Ubiorum
AD 50 Wife of Emperor Claudius and mother of Emperor Nero 23 March AD 59
Female portrait Louvre Ma1269.jpg
Poppaea Sabina
Poppaea Avgvsta Sabina
AD 30
AD 63 Wife of Emperor Nero. AD 65
Claudia Augusta, cropped.jpg
Claudia Augusta
Clavdia Avgvsta
21 January AD 63
AD 63 Daughter of Emperor Nero. April AD 63

Flavian dynasty

Main article: Flavian dynasty

Portrait Name Birth Date of naming Description Death
Portrait der Flavia Domitilla minor.png
Domitilla the Younger
Flavia Domitilla Avgvsta
45 Before 80 Daughter of Emperor Vespasian. 66
Domitia Longina
Domitia Longina Avgvsta
50 80 Wife of Emperor Domitian. After 120

Nerva–Antonine dynasty

Main article: Nerva–Antonine dynasty

Portrait Name Birth Date of naming Description Death
Pompeia Plotina
Pompeia Plotina Clavdia Phoebe Piso
54–68 105 Wife of Emperor Trajan. 123
Ulpia Marciana Met 20.200 n02.jpg
Ulpia Marciana
Vlpia Marciana Avgvsta
48 105 Sister of Emperor Trajan. 112–114
Matidie 01.JPG
Salonia Matidia
Salonia Matidia Avgvsta
4 July 68 112 Niece of Emperor Trajan. 23 December 119
Busto de Vibia Sabina (M. Prado) 01.jpg
Vibia Sabina
Vibia Sabina Avgvsta
13 August 83 128 Wife of Emperor Hadrian. 136–137
Faustina02 pushkin.jpg
Faustina the Elder
Annia Galeria Favstina Avgvsta Maior
21 September 100 138 Wife of Emperor Antoninus Pius. 140
Faustina Minor Louvre Ma1144.jpg
Faustina the Younger
Annia Galeria Favstina Avgvsta Minor
125–130 1 December 147[3] Daughter of Emperor Antoninus Pius; wife of Emperor Marcus Aurelius; mother of Emperor Commodus. 175
Portrait of Lucilla, daughter of Marcus Aurelius and Faustia, portrayed after her marriage with Lucius Verus and the birth of her first son, 165-166 AD, Centrale Montemartini, Rome (22127998092).jpg
Annia Avrelia Galeria Lvcilla Avgvsta
148–150 164 Daughter of Emperor Marcus Aurelius and wife of Emperor Lucius Verus. 182
Tête de Crispine.jpg
Bruttia Crispina
Brvttia Crispina Avgvsta
177 Wife of Emperor Commodus. 191

Year of the Five Emperors

Main article: Year of the Five Emperors

Portrait Name Birth Date of naming Description Death
Portraitbüste einer Frau (sog. Manlia Scantilla).png
Manlia Scantilla
Manlia Scantilla
193 Wife of Emperor Didius Julianus. 193
Didia Clara, cropped.png
Didia Clara
Didia Clara
193 Daughter of Emperor Didius Julianus. Unknown

Severan dynasty

Main article: Severan dynasty

Portrait Name Birth Date of naming Description Death
Julia Domna Glyptothek Munich 354.jpg
Julia Domna
  • Ivlia Domna Avgvsta[4]
  • Ivlia Avgvsta[4]
  • Ivlia Pia Felix Avgvsta[4]
c. 160 Wife of Emperor Septimius Severus. 217
Arte romana, Busto con testa di giovinetta già creduta Plautilla, 200-300 ca. 02.JPG
Fulvia Plautilla
Pvblia Fvlvia Plavtilla Avgvsta
185—189 210s Wife of Emperor Caracalla. 212
Julia Paula, marble (3rd century A.D.) - Ephesus Museum.JPG
Julia Cornelia Paula
Jvlia Cornelia Pavla
219 First wife of Emperor Elagabalus.
Portraitbüste der Iulia Aquilia Severa.png
Aquilia Severa
Ivlia Aqvilia Severa Avgvsta
220 Second and fourth wife of Emperor Elagabalus. As a Vestal Virgin her marriage to the Emperor was very controversial.
Julia mammea01 pushkin.jpg
Julia Avita Mamaea
Ivlia Avita Mamaea Avgvsta
180 222 Mother of Emperor Alexander Severus and co-regent, in his name, during his adolescence. 235
Sallustia Orbiana Louvre Ma1054.jpg
Sallustia Orbiana
Seia Herennia Sallvstia Barbia Orbiana Avgvsta
225 Wife of Emperor Alexander Severus.

Crisis of the Third Century

Main article: Crisis of the Third Century

Portrait Name Birth Date of naming Description Death
Tranquillina - chiaramonti.jpg
Fvria Sabinia Tranqvillina Avgvsta
c. 225 241 Wife of Emperor Gordian III. After 244
Otacilia Severa Musei Capitolini MC2765.jpg
Marcia Otacilia Severa
Marcia Otacilia Severa Avgvsta
240s Wife of the Emperor Philip the Arab.
Portraitkopf der Etruscilla.png
Herennia Etruscilla
Annia Cvpressenia Herennia Etrvscilla Avgvsta
September 249 240s Wife of Emperor Trajan Decius; mother of Emperor Herennius Etruscus and Emperor Hostilian. June 251
RteMariniana Antoninianus.jpg
Egnatia Mariniana Avgvsta
250s Wife of Emperor Valerian.
Antoninianus-Cornelia Supra-RIC 0030.jpg
Cornelia Supra
Caia Cornelia Svpera Avgvsta
253 Wife of Aemilianus.
Портрет Корнелии Салонины.jpg
Cornelia Salonina
Ivlia Cornelia Salonina Avgvsta
Unknown 253 Wife of Emperor Gallienus. 268
Sulpicia Dryantilla.jpg
Sulpicia Dryantilla
Svlpicia Dryantilla
c. 260 Wife of usurper Emperor Regalianus, who named her avgvsta as part of legitimizing his claim. 260
Ivlia Avrelia Zenobia
240 267 Queen of the Palmyrene Empire, a short lived splinter empire that revolted during the Crisis. She proclaimed herself avgvsta and annexed the Eastern Mediterranean from Rome. c. 275
Severina Ant.jpg
Ulpia Severina
Vlpia Severina Avgvsta
274 Wife of Emperor Aurelian; possibly reigned in her own right after the death of her husband in 275.
Coin of Magnia Urbica.jpg
Magnia Urbica
Magnia Vrbica Avgvsta
283 Wife of Emperor Carinus.

Dominate period

Main article: Dominate


Main article: Tetrarchy

Portrait Name Birth Date of naming Description Death
Follis of Galeria Valeria - Cropped.jpg
Galeria Valeria
Galeria Valeria Avgvsta
308 Daughter of Emperor Diocletian and wife of Emperor Galerius. 315

Constantinian dynasty

Main article: Constantinian dynasty

Portrait Name Birth Date of naming Description Death
Follis-Fausta-constantinople RIC 012.jpg
Flavia Maxima Fausta Avgvsta
289 324 Wife of Constantine I and daughter of Emperor Maximianus. Mother of: Constantina, Constantius II, Constans I, Helena, and Fausta. 326
Follis-Helena-trier RIC 465.jpg
Flavia Ivlia Helena Avgvsta
246—250 c.324–325 Mother of Constantine I and ex-wife or mistress of Emperor Constantius Chlorus (separated before his accession as Caesar). 18 August 330
Excideuil église vitrail choeur (7).JPG
307—317 After 312, before 337. Daughter of Emperor Constantine I. Wife of Hannibalianus, Rex Regum et Ponticarum Gentium, "King of Kings and of the Pontic People". Wife of Caesar Constantius Gallus. 354

Valentinianic dynasty

Main article: Valentinianic dynasty

Portrait Name Birth Date of naming Description Death
Albia Dominica
Albia Dominica Avgvsta
c. 337 364—378 Wife of Emperor Valens. After 378
As Galla Placidia RIC 2113.jpg
Galla Placidia
Aelia Galla Placidia Avgvsta
392 c. 416 Daughter of Theodosius I, wife of Constantius III, regent for her son Valentinian III. 27 November 450
Solidus-Honoria-RIC 2022.jpg
Justa Grata Honoria
Ivsta Grata Honoria Avgvsta
After 426 Sister of Valentinian III.

Theodosian dynasty

Main article: Theodosian dynasty

Portrait Name Birth Date of naming Description Death
As-Aelia Flaccilla-antioch RIC 62.jpg
Aelia Flaccilla
Aelia Flavia Flaccilla Avgvsta
Before 385 Wife of Emperor Theodosius I. 386
Aelia Eudoxia coin.jpg
Aelia Eudoxia
Aelia Evdoxia Avgvsta
9 January 400 Wife of Emperor Arcadius. 6 October 404
Pulcheria Coin.JPG
Aelia Pvlcheria Avgvsta
19 January 398–399 414 Daughter of Arcadius, sister of Theodosius II, sole ruler for a month following the death of Theodosius, then co-ruler with her husband Marcian. July 453
Alexander Nevsky Cathedral E1.jpg
Aelia Eudocia
Aelia Evdocia Avgvsta
401 2 January 423 Wife of Theodosius II 20 October 460
Licinia Eudoxia.JPG
Licinia Eudoxia
Licinia Evdoxia Avgvsta
422 439 Daughter of Theodosius II, Wife of Valentinian III. 462

Leonid dynasty

Main article: Leonid dynasty

Portrait Name Birth Date of naming Description Death
Marcia Euphemia
Aelia Marcia Euphemia Avgvsta
c. 453 Daughter of Marcian by an unknown woman. Wife of Anthemius. 472
Aelia Verina Avgvsta
457 Wife of Leo I, sister of Basiliscus, mother of Ariadne and Leontia. 484
KHM Wien Kaiserin Ariadne X 39 detail.jpg
Aelia Ariadne Avgvsta
before 457 474 Daughter of Leo I. Wife of Zeno. Mother of Leo II. Wife of Anastasius I. 515
Aelia Zenonis Avgvsta
475 Wife of Basiliscus. 476–477

Byzantine period

Main article: History of the Byzantine Empire

Justinian dynasty

Main article: Justinian dynasty

Portrait Name Birth Date of naming Description Death
Euphemia Augusta
518 Wife of Justin I. Originally named Lupicina, renamed Euphemia on her husband's accession. c.523/4, before 527.
Meister von San Vitale in Ravenna 008.jpg
Theodora Augusta
c. 500 9 August 527 Wife of Justinian I. 28 June 548
Byzantine 40 Nummi Coin Justin II & Sophia 572AD.jpg
Aelia Sophia Augusta
568 Wife of Justin II, intermittent regent. c. 601
Ino Anastasia
Aelia Anastasia Augusta
578 Wife of Emperor Tiberius II. 593
Maurice follis with Constantina and Theodosius, Cherson mint.jpg
c. 560 582 Wife of Emperor Maurice. c. 605
602 Wife of Emperor Phocas.

Heraclian dynasty

Main article: Heraclian dynasty

Portrait Name Birth Date of naming Description Death
639 Daughter of Heraclius.
639 Second wife of Heraclius.
c. 630 642 Wife of Constans II. After 668

Isaurian dynasty

Main article: Isaurian dynasty

Portrait Name Birth Date of naming Description Death
25 August 718 Wife of Emperor Leo III the Isaurian.
741–742 Wife of Artabasdos.
1 April 769 Third wife of Emperor Constantine V.
Irene of Athens
Eἰρήνη η Ἀθηναία
c. 752 17 December 769 Wife of Emperor Leo IV the Khazar, empress dowager and regent from 780 to 797. 9 August 803

Nikephorian dynasty

Main article: Nikephorian dynasty

Portrait Name Birth Date of naming Description Death
c. 770 12 October 811 Daughter of Emperor Nikephoros I and wife of Michael I Rhangabe. After 813

Amorian dynasty

Main article: Amorian dynasty

Portrait Name Birth Date of naming Description Death
Solidus-Michael III-sb1686.jpg
c. 815 830 Wife of Emperor Theophilos and regent. After 867
830s Daughter of Theophilos.
830s Daughter of Emperor Theophilos.
830s Daughter of Emperor Theophilos.

Macedonian dynasty

Main article: Macedonian dynasty

Portrait Name Birth Date of naming Description Death
Zoe Zaoutzaina
Ζωή Ζαούτζαινα
898 Third wife of Leo VI the Wise May 899
921 Wife of Romanos I. 20 February 922
Helena Lekapene
Ἑλένη Λεκαπηνή
c. 910 February 922 Wife of Constantine VII. 19 September 961
February 922 Wife of Christopher Lekapenos.
933 Daughter of Gabalas and wife of Stephen Lekapenos.

Komnenid dynasty

Main article: Komnenid dynasty

Portrait Name Birth Date of naming Description Death
Catherine of Bulgaria
before 1018 1057 Empress-consort of Emperor Isaac I Komnenos. after 1059

Doukid dynasty

Main article: Doukid dynasty

Portrait Name Birth Date of naming Description Death
Romanus IV histamenon with co-rulers.jpg
Eudokia Makrembolitissa
Ευδοκία Μακρεμβολίτισσα
c. 1021 1059–1067 Second wife of Emperor Constantine X Doukas and later became the wife of Emperor Romanos IV Diogenes. 1096

Komnenid dynasty

Main article: Komnenid dynasty

Portrait Name Birth Date of naming Description Death
Anna Dalassena
Ἄννα Δαλασσηνή
1025 1081 Mother of Emperor Alexios I Komnenos. 1102

See also



  1. ^ a b Kazhdan 1991, pp. 694–695.
  2. ^ Langford 2013, Introduction, note 88; Bédoyère 2018, p. 282.
  3. ^ Barbara Levick (2014). Faustina I and II: Imperial Women of the Golden Age. Oxford University Press. p. 170. ISBN 978-0-19-537941-9.
  4. ^ a b c Société française de numismatique et d'archéologie 1873, p. 151.