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The beginning of Frankokratia: the division of the Byzantine Empire after the Fourth Crusade
Greek and Latin states in southern Greece, c. 1210
The Eastern Mediterranean c. 1450 AD, showing the Ottoman Empire, the surviving Byzantine empire (purple) and the various Latin possessions in Greece

The Frankokratia (Greek: Φραγκοκρατία, Latin: Francocratia, sometimes anglicized as Francocracy, lit.'rule of the Franks'), also known as Latinokratia (Greek: Λατινοκρατία, Latin: Latinocratia, "rule of the Latins", Latin occupation) and, for the Venetian domains, Venetokratia or Enetokratia (Greek: Βενετοκρατία or Ενετοκρατία, Latin: Venetocratia, "rule of the Venetians"), was the period in Greek history after the Fourth Crusade (1204), when a number of primarily French and Italian states were established by the Partitio terrarum imperii Romaniae on the territory of the dissolved Byzantine Empire.

The terms Frankokratia and Latinokratia derive from the name given by the Orthodox Greeks to the Western French and Italians who originated from territories that once belonged to the Frankish Empire, as this was the political entity that ruled much of the former Western Roman Empire after the collapse of Roman authority and power. The span of the Frankokratia period differs by region: the political situation proved highly volatile, as the Frankish states fragmented and changed hands, and the Greek successor states re-conquered many areas.

With the exception of the Ionian Islands and some islands or forts which remained in Venetian hands until the turn of the 19th century, the end of the Frankokratia in most Greek lands came with the Ottoman conquest, chiefly in the 14th to 17th centuries, which ushered in the period known as "Tourkokratia" ("rule of the Turks"; see Ottoman Greece).

Latin states

Latin Empire

The Latin Empire (1204–1261), centered in Constantinople and encompassing Thrace and Bithynia, was created as the successor of the Byzantine Empire after the Fourth Crusade, while also exercising nominal suzerainty over the other Crusader principalities. Its territories were gradually reduced to little more than the capital, which was eventually captured by the Empire of Nicaea under the rule of Michael VIII Palaiologos in 1261.

Minor Crusader principalities

Genoese colonies

Genoese attempts to occupy Corfu and Crete in the aftermath of the Fourth Crusade were thwarted by the Venetians. It was only during the 14th century, exploiting the terminal decline of the Byzantine Empire under the Palaiologos dynasty, and often in agreement with the weakened Byzantine rulers, that various Genoese nobles established domains in the northeastern Aegean:

Venetian colonies

The Republic of Venice accumulated several possessions in Greece, which formed part of its Stato da Màr. Some of them survived until the fall of the Republic itself in 1797:


Venetian possessions (till 1797):

See also


  1. ^ Maltezou, Crete during the Period of Venetian Rule, p. 105
  2. ^ Maltezou, Crete during the Period of Venetian Rule, p. 157
  3. ^ Setton 1978, pp. 98, 290, 522–523.
  4. ^ a b Miller 1908, p. 365.
  5. ^ Bon 1969, p. 66.
  6. ^ Setton 1978, pp. 515–522.
  7. ^ a b Topping 1975, pp. 153–155.
  8. ^ a b Fine 1994, p. 568.
  9. ^ Fine 1994, p. 567.
  10. ^ Miller 1908, pp. 354–362.
  11. ^ Fine 1994, pp. 356, 544.
  12. ^ Miller 1908, p. 363.
  13. ^ Topping 1975, pp. 161–163.
  14. ^ Miller 1908, pp. 353–364.
  15. ^ Fine 1994, pp. 567–568.