Patriarchate of Lisbon
Patriarcado de Lisboa
|Area||3,735 km2 (1,442 sq mi)|
- Catholics (including non-members)
|(as of 2015)|
|Auxiliary Bishops||D. Joaquim Augusto da Silva Mendes |
D. Daniel Batalha Henriques
D. Américo Manuel Alves Aguiar
The Archdiocese of Lisbon shown in a darker red.
The Patriarchate of Lisbon (Latin: Patriarchatus Olisiponensis) is a Latin Church ecclesiastical territory or patriarchal archdiocese of the Catholic Church in Lisbon, the capital of Portugal.
Its archiepiscopal see is the Patriarchal Cathedral of St. Mary Major, in Lisbon. The patriarchate also has three minor basilicas: the Basilica of Our Lady of the Martyrs and Basilica of the Most Sacred Heart of Jesus in Estrela, both in Lisbon; the Basilica of Our Lady and St. Anthony in Mafra; and two World Heritage Site monasteries: the Monastery of the Hieronymites, in Lisbon, and the Monastery of Saint Mary of Alcobaça, in Alcobaça
The patriarchate pastorally served, as per 2014, 1,648,885 Catholics (86% of 1,924,650 total) on 3,735 km² in 285 parishes and 604 missions, with 543 priests (291 diocesan, 252 religious), 84 deacons, 1,505 lay religious (401 brothers, 1,104 sisters) and 54 seminarians.
The diocese of Lisbon was created in the 4th century, but it lay vacant after 716 when the city was captured by the Moors, notwithstanding that there are references to Mozarabic bishops of the Mozarabic Rite in that period. The diocese was restored during the Second Crusade in 1147 when the city was captured by King Afonso I of Portugal after the siege of Lisbon. A crusader's account of that event refers to the local "elderly Bishop of the city" being slain "against all right and justice", by marauding Flemish and German crusaders, in direct defiance of the terms of the city's rendition.
As Portugal grew in political importance and colonial possessions the jurisdiction of the Metropolitan of Lisbon expanded; Stadel says in his Compendium geographiae ecclesiasticae universalis (1712) that Coimbra, Leiria, Portalegre, Elvas, Funchal, Angra, Congo, St. James of Cape Verde, São Tomé, and Baia of All Saints were suffragans of Lisbon. As a reward for its assistance against the Turks, Pope Clement XI in 1708 raised the Chapel of the Royal Palace to Collegiate rank and associated with it three parishes in the dioceses of Bragança and Lamego. Later, yielding to the request of King John V, he issued the Bull In Supremo Apostolatus Solio (22 October 1716) – known as the Golden Bull because the seal or bulla was affixed with gold instead of lead – giving the collegiate chapel cathedral rank, with metropolitical rights, and conferring on its titular the rank of patriarch.
The city of Lisbon was ecclesiastically divided into Eastern and Western Lisbon. The former archbishop of Lisbon retained jurisdiction over Eastern Lisbon, and had as suffragan dioceses those of Guarda, Portalegre, St. James of Cape Verde, São Tomé, and São Salvador in Congo. Western Lisbon and metropolitan rights over Leiria, Lamego, Funchal and Angra, together with elaborate privileges and honours, were granted to the new patriarch and his successors. It was further agreed between pope and king that the patriarch of Lisbon should be made a cardinal at the first consistory following his appointment (Inter praecipuas apostolici ministerii, 1737).
The first patriarch of Lisbon was Tomás de Almeida (1670–1754), formerly bishop of Porto; he was raised to the cardinalate on 20 December 1737 by Pope Clement XII. There thus existed side by side in the city of Lisbon two metropolitical churches. To obviate the inconvenience of this arrangement Pope Benedict XIV (13 December 1740) united East and West Lisbon into one single archdiocese under Patriarch Almeida, who ruled the see until his death in 1754. The double chapter however remained until 1843, when the old cathedral chapter was dissolved by Pope Gregory XVI. It was during the patriarchate of Cardinal Almeida (1746) that the famous Chapel of Saint John the Baptist was built in Rome (1742–1747) at the expense of King John V and consecrated by Pope Benedict XIV, and then transported to and reconstructed in the Church of St. Roch in Lisbon. Patriarch Almeida is buried in the chancel of that church.
At what date the patriarchs of Lisbon began to quarter the tiara with three crowns, though without the keys, on their coat of arms is uncertain and there are no documents referring to the grant of such a privilege. By apostolic letters dated 30 September 1881 the metropolitan of Lisbon claims as suffragans the dioceses of Angola, St. James of Cape Verde, São Tomé, Egitan, Portalegre, Angra, and Funchal.
Throughout history, many privileges have been granted to the patriarchate of Lisbon and its patriarch by the Holy See.
These privileges were granted by Popes Clement XI, Innocent XIII, Benedict XIII and Clement XII. However, some have fallen into disuse over the centuries.
Lisbon, being one of the oldest cities in Iberia, has had a rich ecclesiastical history, in which the ordinaries of Lisbon have held different titles, partially depending on the country/city's rulers and their political/colonial power.
After the Muslim invasion of Lisbon in 716, the see was vacant. The diocese was revitalized with the Siege of Lisbon in 1147, when the city was once again in Christian hands.
The suffragan sees of the archdiocese are: