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Syriac Catholic Church
ܥܕܬܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܬܐ ܩܬܘܠܝܩܝܬܐ
Syriac Catholic Cathedral, Damascus (2).jpg
Syriac Catholic Cathedral of Saint Paul, a cathedral of the Syriac Catholic Church, in Damascus, Syria
TypeAntiochian
ClassificationEastern Catholic
OrientationSyriac
ScripturePeshitta[1]
PolityEpiscopal
PopeFrancis
PatriarchIgnatius Joseph III Yonan
RegionNear-East;
Lebanon, Syria, Iraq, Turkey
with communities in United States, Canada, France, Sweden, Venezuela, Brazil, Argentina and Australia
LanguageSyriac, Aramaic
LiturgyWest Syriac Rite
HeadquartersBeirut, Lebanon[2]
FounderTraces ultimate origins to Apostles St. Paul and St. Peter Through Patriarchs Ignatius Andrew Akijan (1662) and Ignatius Michael III Jarweh (1782)
Branched fromChurch of Antioch[3]
Members153,415 (2018)[4]
Official websitesyr-cath.org (in Arabic)

The Syriac Catholic Church (Classical Syriac: ܥܕܬܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܬܐ ܩܬܘܠܝܩܝܬܐ, romanized: ʿĪṯo Suryayṯo Qaṯolīqayṯo, Arabic: الكنيسة السريانية الكاثوليكية) is an Eastern Catholic Christian originating in the Levant that uses the West Syriac Rite liturgy and has many practices and rites in common with the Syriac Orthodox Church. Being one of the twenty-three Eastern Catholic Churches, the Syriac Catholic Church is a self-governed sui iuris particular church church while it is in full communion with the Holy See and entirety of the Catholic Church.

The Syriac Catholic Church traces its history to the first centuries of Christianity. After the Chalcedonian Schism the Church of Antioch became part of Oriental Orthodoxy, and was known as the Syriac Orthodox Church, while a new Antiochian patriarchate was established to fill its place by the churches which accepted the Council of Chalcedon. The Syriac Orthodox Church came into full communion with the Holy See and the modern Syriac Orthodox Church is a result of those that did not want to join the Catholic Church. Therefore, the Syriac Catholic Church is a continuation of the original Church of Antioch.

The church is headed by Mor Ignatius Joseph III Younan, who has been the patriarch since 2009. Its patriarch of Antioch has the title of Patriarch of Antioch and all the East of the Syriacs and resides in Beirut, Lebanon.[5]

Jesuit and Capuchin missionaries began to work among the Syriac Orthodox in Aleppo in 1626. So many of them were received into communion with Rome in 1662, when the patriarchate had fallen vacant, and the Catholic party was able to elect one of its own, Andrew Akijan, as patriarch of the Syriac Church. This provoked a split in the community, and after Akijan's death in 1677 two opposing patriarchs were elected, one being the uncle of the other, representing the two parties (one pro-Catholic, the other anti-Catholic). But when the Catholic patriarch died in 1702, this very brief line of Catholic patriarchs upon the Syriac Church's See of Antioch died out with him.

Later, in 1782, the Syriac Orthodox Holy Synod elected Metropolitan Michael Jarweh of Aleppo as patriarch. Shortly after he was enthroned, he declared himself Catholic and in unity with the Pope of Rome. Since Jarweh, there has been an unbroken succession of Syriac Catholic Patriarchs.

Name

The Syriac Catholic Church (Classical Syriac: ܥܕܬܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܬܐ ܩܬܘܠܝܩܝܬܐ, romanized: ʿĪṯo Suryayṯo Qaṯolīqayṯo) is sometimes also called the Syrian Catholic Church. Furthermore, it is sometimes referred by its patriarchate, the Syriac Catholic Patriarchate of Antioch. See also: Syriac Catholic Patriarchs of Antioch.

History

Pre-Crusades period

The Syriac Catholic Church claims its origin through Saint Peter prior to his departure to Rome, and extends its roots back to the origins of Christianity in the Orient; in the Acts of the Apostles we are told that it is in Antioch where the followers of Jesus for the first time were called "Christians" (Acts 11:26).

In the time of the first Ecumenical Councils, the Patriarch of Antioch held the ecclesiastical authority over the Diocese of the Orient, which was to be extended from the Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. Its scholarly mission in both languages, Greek and Syriac, was to provide the world and the Universal Church with eminent saints, scholars, hermits, martyrs and pastors. Among these great people are Saint Ephrem (373), Doctor of the Church, and Saint Jacob of Sarug (521).

During the Crusades

During the Crusades there were many examples of warm relations between Catholic and Syriac Orthodox bishops. Some of these bishops favored union with Rome, but there was no push to unify until a decree of union between the Syriac Orthodox and Rome was signed at the Council of Florence September 30, 1444 - but the effects of this decree were rapidly annulled by opponents of it in the Syriac Church's hierarchy.

Split with the Syriac Orthodox Church

Jesuit and Capuchin missionaries evangelizing in Aleppo caused some local Syriac Orthodox faithful to form a pro-catholic movement within the Syriac Orthodox Church. In 1667, Andrew Akijan, a supporter of union with the Catholic Church, was elected as Patriarch of the Syriac Orthodox Church.[6] This provoked a split in the community, and after Akijan's death in 1677, two opposing patriarchs were elected, with the Pro-Catholic one being the uncle of Andrew Akijan. However, when the Catholic Patriarch died in 1702, the Ottoman government supported the Syriac Orthodoxy's agitation against the Syriac Catholics, and throughout the 18th century the Syriac Catholics underwent suffering and much persecution. Due to this, there were long periods when no Syriac Catholic bishops were functioning, so a Patriarch could not be elected, and the community was forced to go entirely underground. However, in 1782, the Syriac Orthodox Holy Synod elected Metropolitan Michael Jarweh of Aleppo as Patriarch. Shortly after he was enthroned, he declared himself Catholic and in unity with the Pope of Rome. After this declaration, Jarweh took refuge in Lebanon and built the still-extant monastery of Our Lady at Sharfeh, and by that act became the Patriarch of the Syriac Catholic Church. Since Jarweh, there has been an unbroken succession of Syriac Catholic Patriarchs, which is known as the Ignatius Line.

After the split up until modern times

In 1829 the Ottoman government granted legal recognition to the Armenian Catholic Church, and in 1845 the Syriac Catholic Church was also granted its own civil emancipation. Meanwhile, the residence of the Patriarch was shifted to Aleppo in 1831. However, after the Massacre of Aleppo in 1850, the Patriarchal See was shifted to Mardin in 1854.

After becoming officially recognized by the Ottoman Government in 1845 the Syriac Catholic Church expanded rapidly. However, The expansion was ended by the persecutions and massacres that took place during the Assyrian genocide of World War I. After that, the Syriac Catholic Patriarchal See was moved to Beirut away from Mardin, to which many Ottoman Christians had fled the Genocide. In addition to its see in Beirut, the patriarchal seminary and printing house are located at Sharfeh Monastery in Sharfeh, Lebanon.

Organization

Leadership

Syriac Catholic Church in Beyoğlu, Istanbul.
Syriac Catholic Church in Beyoğlu, Istanbul.

As of 2013, the Patriarch of Antioch (an Ancient major see, where several Catholic and Orthodox Patriarchates nominally reside) was Moran Mor Ignatius Joseph III Younan, resident in Beirut, Lebanon. The Syriac Catholic Patriarch always takes the name "Ignatius" in addition to another name.

In modern history the leaders of the Syriac Catholic Church have been: Patriarch Michael III Jarweh, Archbishop Clemens Daoud, Patriarch Ephrem Rahmani, Vicomte de Tarrazi, Monsignor Ishac Armaleh, Ignatius Gabriel I Tappouni, Chorbishop Gabriel Khoury-Sarkis, Ignatius Antony II Hayyek, Ignatius Moses I Daoud, Ignatius Peter VIII Abdalahad, and Ignatius Joseph III Yonan. Eminent Syriac saints, scholars, hermits, martyrs and pastors since 1100 also include Dionysius Bar Salibi (1171), Gregorius X Bar Hebraeus (1286) and more recently Bishop Mor Flavianus Michael Malke.

The Syriac Church leadership has produced a variety of scholarly writings in a variety of topics. For example, Patriarch Ephrem Rahmani was widely praised for his work in Syriac and is responsible for Pope Benedict XV recognising Saint Ephrem as a Doctor of the Catholic Church.[7] Likewise Patriarch Ignatius Behnam II Beni is known for imploring eastern theology to defend the Primacy of Rome.[8]

The Patriarch of Antioch and all the East of the Syriacs presides upon the Patriarchal Eparchy of Beirut and leads spiritually all the Syriac Catholic Community around the world.

The community includes two archdioceses in Iraq, four in Syria, one in Egypt and Sudan, a Patriarchal Vicariate in Israel, a Patriarchal Vicariate in Turkey and the Eparchy of Our Lady of Deliverance in the United States and Canada.

Current jurisdictions

The Syriac Catholic Church was formally united with the Holy See of Rome in 1781.

A map of the Syriac Catholic jurisdictions
A map of the Syriac Catholic jurisdictions
Middle East diocesan jurisdictions
Old World missionary jurisdictions
Overseas diaspora

Former jurisdictions

Titular sees

Other suppressed jurisdictions

Current hierarchy

Further information: Dioceses of the Syriac Catholic Church

As of 2010 the Church was estimated to have 159,000 faithful, 10 bishoprics, 85 parishes, 106 secular priests, 12 religious-order priests, 102 men and women in religious orders, 11 permanent deacons and 31 seminarians.[9]

Liturgy

The West Syriac Rite is rooted in the old tradition of both the churches of Jerusalem and Antioch and has ties with the ancient Jewish Berakah.[citation needed]

The Syriac Catholic Church follows a similar tradition to other Eastern Catholic Churches who use the West Syriac Rite, such as the Maronites and Syro-Malankara Christians. This rite is clearly distinct from the Greek Byzantine rite of Antioch of the Melkite Catholics and their Orthodox counterparts. Syriac Catholic priests were traditionally bound to celibacy by the Syriac Catholic local Synod of Sharfeh in 1888, but there are now a number of married priests.

The Liturgy of the Syriac Catholic Church is very similar to that of the Syriac Orthodox Church.

Liturgical paraphernalia

Fans

Further information: Liturgical fan in Eastern Christianity

The Syriac Catholic Church uses fans with bells on them and engraved with seraphim during the Qurbono. Usually someone in the minor orders would shake these fans behind a Bishop to symbolise the Seraphim. They are also used during the consecration where two men would shake them over the altar during moments in the epliclesis and words of institution when the priest says "he took and broke" and "this is my body/blood".

The Syriac Catholic Fans look similar to this but with bells on the edges
The Syriac Catholic Fans look similar to this but with bells on the edges

Thurible

The thurible of the Syriac Catholic Church consists of 9 bells, representing the 9 choirs of angels.

Liturgy of the Hours

The Liturgy of the Hours is exactly the same as in the Syriac Orthodox. There are two versions of this the Phenqitho and the Shhimo. The former is the more complicated 7 volume version. While the latter is the simple version.

Further information: Syriac_Orthodox_Church § Worship

Liturgical ranking

Likewise the ranking of clerics in the Syriac Church is extremely similar to that of the Syriac Orthodox Church. The most notable differences are:

Major Orders

Minor Orders

Further information: Syriac Orthodox Church § Ranks_of_priesthood

Languages

The liturgical language of the Syriac Catholic Church, Syriac, is a dialect of Aramaic. The Qurbono Qadisho (literally: Holy Mass or Holy Offering/Sacrifice) of the Syriac Church uses a variety of Anaphoras, with the Anaphora of the 12 Apostles being the one mostly in use with the Liturgy of St James the Just.

Their ancient semitic language is known as Aramaic (or "Syriac" after the time of Christ since the majority of people who spoke this language belonged to the province of "Syria"). It is the language spoken by Jesus, Mary and the Apostles. Many of the ancient hymns of the church are still maintained in this native tongue although several have been translated into Arabic, English, French and other languages.

Syriac is still spoken in some few communities in eastern Syria and northern Iraq, but for most Arabic is the vernacular language.

Martyrs

Throughout the History of the Syriac Church there have been many martyrs. A recent example is Flavianus Michael Malke during the 1915 Assyrian genocide.

Syriac Catholics in Iraq

Further information: 2010 Baghdad church attack

On 31 October 2010, 58 Iraqi Syriac Catholics were killed by Muslim extremists while attending Sunday Divine Liturgy, 78 others were wounded. The attack by Iraqi ISIS on the congregation of Our Lady of Deliverance Syriac Catholic Church was the bloodiest single attack on an Iraqi Christian church in recent history.[10]

Two priests, Fathers Saad Abdallah Tha'ir and Waseem Tabeeh, were killed.[11] Another, Father Qatin, was seriously wounded but recovered.[12][13]

See also

References

  1. ^ Studia Humana Volume 2:3 (2013), pp. 53—55
  2. ^ "Syriac Patriarchal See of Antioch". GCatholic.org. Retrieved 17 February 2022.
  3. ^ "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Church of Antioch". www.newadvent.org.
  4. ^ Eastern Catholic Churches Worldwide 2018
  5. ^ The title of Patriarch of Antioch is also used/claimed by four other churches, two Orthodox and two other Eastern Catholic; in 1964 the Latin titular patriarchate was abolished.
  6. ^ lexicorient.com/e.o/syr_cath.htm
  7. ^ "Principi Apostolorum Petro (October 5, 1920) - BENEDICT XV". Retrieved 5 September 2016.
  8. ^ Benni, Cyril Benham; Gagliardi, Joseph (1 January 1871). "The tradition of the Syriac Church of Antioch : concerning the primacy and the prerogatives of St. Peter and of his successors the Roman pontiffs". London : Burns, Oates. Retrieved 5 September 2016 – via Internet Archive.
  9. ^ Ronald Roberson (source: Annuario Pontificio) (22 August 2010). "The Eastern Catholic Churches 2010" (PDF). Catholic Near East Welfare Association. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 March 2012.
  10. ^ Leland, John (31 October 2010). "Iraqi Forces Storm a Church With Hostages in a Day of Bloodshed". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  11. ^ article at undergroundfr.org, 2010-11-03 (in French), Retrieved on 2010-11-04. "Trois prêtres (Saad Abdallah Tha'ir, Waseem Tabeeh et Raphael Qatin) et des dizaines de chrétiens ont été tués."
  12. ^ "erratum: le père Raphael Qatin n’est pas décédé" Archived 2010-11-07 at the Wayback Machine aed-france.org 2010-11-05 (in French). Retrieved 8 November 2010.
  13. ^ "Iraqi Christians Hold Mass In Assaulted Church" NPR.org, 2010-11-07. Retrieved 8 November 2010.

Bibliography

Sources and external links

Syriac religious relations and the Catholic Church

Eparchies, churches and monasteries