The purpose of this timeline is to give a detailed account of Christianity from the beginning of the current era (AD) to the present. Question marks ('?') on dates indicate approximate dates.
The year one is the first year in the Christian calendar (there is no year zero), which is the calendar presently used (in unison with the Gregorian calendar) almost everywhere in the world. Traditionally, this was held to be the year Jesus was born; however, most modern scholars argue for an earlier or later date, the most agreed upon being between 6 BC and 4 BC.
59? Paul shipwrecked on Malta, called a god (Acts 28:6)
60? Paul in Rome: greeted by many "brothers", three days later calls together the Jewish leaders, who had not received any word from Judea about him but were curious about "this sect" which everywhere is spoken against; he tries to convince them from the "law and prophets", with partial success – said the Gentiles would listen, and spends two years proclaiming the Kingdom of God and teaching "the Lord Jesus Christ" (Acts 28:15–31); Epistle to Philemon written?
60–64? early date for writing of 1 Peter (written by Peter)
96 Nerva modifies the Fiscus Judaicus, from then on, practising Jews pay the tax, Christians do not
98–117? Ignatius, third Bishop of Antioch, fed to the lions in the Roman Colosseum, advocated the Bishop (Eph 6:1, Mag 2:1,6:1,7:1,13:2, Tr 3:1, Smy 8:1,9:1), rejected Sabbath on Saturday in favor of "The Lord's Day" (Sunday). (Mag 9.1), rejected Judaizing (Mag 10.3), first recorded use of the term catholic (Smy 8:2).
200? Antipope Natalius, rival bishop of Rome, according to Eusebius's EH5.28.8-12, quoting the Little Labyrinth of Hippolytus, after being "scourged all night by the holy angels", covered in ash, dressed in sackcloth, and "after some difficulty", tearfully submitted to Pope Zephyrinus
202 Roman Emperor Severus issues an edict forbidding conversion to Christianity 
251–258 Antipope Novatian decreed no forgiveness for sins after baptism (An antipope was an individual whose claim to the papacy was either rejected by the Church at the time or later recognized as invalid.)
270 Death of Gregory Thaumaturgus, Christian leader in Pontus. It was said that when Gregory became "bishop" there were only 17 Christians in Pontus while at his death thirty years later there were only 17 non-Christians.
370 (d. ca.) Optatus of Milevis, who in his conflict with the sectarian Donatists stressed unity and catholicity as marks of the Church over and above holiness, and also that the sacraments derived their validity from God, not from the priest
537–555 Pope Vigilius, involved in death of Pope Silverius, conspired with Justinian and Theodora, on April 11, 548 issued Judicatum supporting Justinian's anti-Hypostatic Union, excommunicated by bishops of Carthage in 550
538 Byzantine general Belisarius defeats last Arian kingdom; Western Europe completely Catholic
1113 Knights Hospitaller confirmed by Papal bull of Pope Paschal II, listing Blessed Gerard (Gerard Thom) as founder, (a.k.a. Sovereign Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta, Knights of Malta, Knights of Rhodes, and Chevaliers of Malta)
1215 Catholic Fourth Lateran Council decrees special dress for Jews and Muslims, and declares Waldensians, founded by Peter Waldo, as heretics. One of the goals is the elimination of the heresy of the Cathars
1219 Francis of Assisi crosses enemy lines during the Fifth Crusade to speak to Sultan al-Kamil; the meeting ends with a meal. James of Vitry writes that Muslim soldiers returned Francis and another friar, Illuminato, "with signs of honor."
1260 Date at which a 1988 Vatican sponsored scientific study places the origin of the Shroud of Turin
1263, July 20–24 The Disputation of Barcelona is held at the royal palace of King James I of Aragon in the presence of the King, his court, and many prominent ecclesiastical dignitaries and knights, between a convert from Judaism to Christianity Dominican Friar Pablo Christiani and Rabbi Nachmanides
1274 Summa Theologiae, written by Thomas Aquinas, theologian and philosopher, landmark systematic theology which later becomes official Catholic doctrine
1531 Our Lady of Guadalupe in Mexico: According to tradition, when the roses fell from it the icon of the Virgin of Guadalupe appeared imprinted on the cactus cloth. The sudden, extraordinary success of the evangelizing of ten million Indians in the decade of 1531–1541.
1535–1537 Myles Coverdale's Bible, used Tyndale's NT along with Latin and German versions, included Apocrypha at the end of the OT (like Luther's Bible of 1534) as was done in later English versions, 1537 edition received royal licence, but banned in 1546 by Henry VIII
1535 Thomas More refuses to accept King Henry VIII's claim to be the supreme head of the Church in England, and is executed
1537–1551 Matthew Bible, by John Rogers, based on Tyndale and Coverdale received royal licence but not authorized for use in public worship, numerous editions, 1551 edition contained offensive notes (based on Tyndale)
1539–1569 Great Bible, by Thomas Cromwell, 1st English Bible to be authorized for public use in English churches, defective in many places, based on last Tyndale's NT of 1534–1535, corrected by a Latin version of the Hebrew OT, Latin Bible of Erasmus, and Complutensian Polyglot, last edition 1569, never denounced by England
1540 Jesuit order founded by Ignatius of Loyola, helped reconvert large areas of Poland, Hungary, and south Germany and sent missionaries to the New World, India, and China
1560 Geneva Bible, NT a revision of Matthew's version of Tyndale with use of Theodore Beza's NT (1556), OT a thorough revision of Great Bible, appointed to be read in Scotland (but not England), at least 140 editions, first Bible with chapter and verse numbers
1644 Long Parliament directs that only Hebrew canon be read in the Church of England (effectively removing the Apocrypha)
1646 Westminster Standards produced by the Assembly, one of the first and undoubtedly the most important and lasting religious document drafted after the reconvention of the Parliament, also decrees Biblical canon
1660–1685 King Charles II of England, restoration of monarchy, continuing through James II, reversed decision of Long Parliament of 1644, reinstating the Apocrypha, reversal not heeded by non-conformists
1926–1929 Cristero War in Mexico: The Constitution of 1917 brings persecution of Christian practices and anti-clerical laws – approximately 4,000 Catholic priests are expelled, assassinated or executed
1939 Southern and Northern US branches of the Methodist Episcopal Church, along with the Methodist Protestant Church, reunite to form The Methodist Church (slavery had divided the church in the 19th century)
1945 On the Feast of the Annunciation, "Our Lady" appears to a simple woman, Ida Peerdeman, in Amsterdam. This is the first of 56 appearances as "Our Lady of All Nations", which took place between 1945 and 1959.
1962–1965 Catholic Second Vatican Council, announced by Pope John XXIII in 1959, produces 16 documents which become official Roman Catholic teaching after approval by the Pope, purpose to renew "ourselves and the flocks committed to us"
1999 Gospel of Jesus Christ – An Evangelical Celebration; a consensus Gospel endorsed by various evangelical leaders including J.I. Packer, John Ankerberg, Jerry Falwell, Thomas C. Oden, R.C. Sproul, Wayne Grudem, Charles Swindoll, et al.
1999 Radical orthodoxy Christian theological movement begins, critiquing modern secularism and emphasizing the return to traditional doctrine; similar to the Paleo-orthodoxy Christian theological movement of the late 20th and early 21st centuries, which sees the consensual understanding of the faith among the Church Fathers as the basis of Biblical interpretation and the foundation of the Church
2000 Visions of the Virgin Mary are reported in Assiut, Upper Egypt; phenomena associated to Mary is reported again in 2006, in a church at the same location during the Divine Liturgy. Local Coptic priests and then the Coptic Orthodox Church of Assiut issue statements in 2000 and 2006 respectively
2013, March: Pope Francis, an Argentinean, becomes the first non-European pope in modern times, first pope from the Jesuit order, the first pope from the Americas, and the first pope from the Southern Hemisphere.
2014 No Mass is said in Mosul for the first time in 1,600 years due to the city's fall to ISIL
2018, October 15: Russian Orthodox Church announces break in relations with the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople over objections of communion with the formerly noncanonical Ukrainian Orthodox Churches
Missions time line – Important events, locations, people and movements in World Evangelism
^H. H. Ben-Sasson, A History of the Jewish People, Harvard University Press, 1976, ISBN0-674-39731-2, page 246: "When Archelaus was deposed from the ethnarchy in 6 CE, Judea proper, Samaria and Idumea were converted into a Roman province under the name Iudaea."
^John P. Meier's A Marginal Jew, v. 1, ch. 11; also H.H. Ben-Sasson, A History of the Jewish People, Harvard University Press, 1976, ISBN0-674-39731-2, page 251: "But after the first agitation (which occurred in the wake of the first Roman census) had faded out, we no longer hear of bloodshed in Judea until the days of Pilate."
Jewish Encyclopedia: Rome: Expelled Under Tiberius: "The Jewish deputation which petitioned for the deposition of the royal house of the Idumeans was joined by 8,000 Jewish residents of Rome. Several Romans adopted Jewish customs, and some, as the rhetor Cilicius of Kalakte, a friend of Dionysius of Halicarnassus, even embraced Judaism (Müller, "Fragmenta Historicorum Græcorum", iii. 331). The reign of Tiberius (until the removal of his minister Sejanus) was fraught with misfortune for the Jews. When the cult of Isis was driven out of Rome (19 CE.) the Jews also were expelled, because a Roman lady who inclined toward Judaism had been deceived by Jewish swindlers. The synagogues were closed, the vessels burned, and 4,000 Jewish youths were sent upon military service to Sardinia. After the death of Sejanus (31) the emperor allowed the Jews to return.";
Haim Hillel Ben-Sasson (and Abraham Malamat contributor) A History of the Jewish People, Harvard University Press, 1976, ISBN978-0674397316, page 288 quote: "Explicit evidence of a systematic attempt to propagate the Jewish faith in the city of Rome is found as early as 139 BCE. With the increase of the Jewish population of Rome, the Jews intensified their efforts to make converts among the Romans. Although the activity of Jewish missionaries in Roman society caused Tiberius to expel them from that city in 19 CE, they soon returned, and Jewish religious propaganda was resumed and maintained even after the destruction of the Temple. Tacitus mentions it regretfully (Histories 5.5), and Juvenal, in his Fourteenth Satire (11. 96ff.), describes how Roman families 'degenerated' into Judaism: the fathers permitted themselves to adopt some of its customs and the sons became Jews in every respect." ... [last sentence of next paragraph:] "In addition, the Bible provided the apostles of Judaism with a literature unparalleled in any other religion."
^H.H. Ben-Sasson, A History of the Jewish People, Harvard University Press, 1976, ISBN0-674-39731-2, The Crisis Under Gaius Caligula, pages 254-256: "The reign of Gaius Caligula (37-41) witnessed the first open break between the Jews and the Julio-Claudian empire. Until then — if one accepts Sejanus' heyday and the trouble caused by the census after Archelaus' banishment — there was usually an atmosphere of understanding between the Jews and the empire ... These relations deteriorated seriously during Caligula's reign, and, though after his death the peace was outwardly re-established, considerable bitterness remained on both sides. ... Caligula ordered that a golden statue of himself be set up in the Temple in Jerusalem. ... Only Caligula's death, at the hands of Roman conspirators (41), prevented the outbreak of a Jewish-Roman war that might well have spread to the entire East."
^A. J. MAAS (2003). Origin of the Name of Jesus Christ. Retrieved January 23, 2006. Walter Bauer's et al. Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament, 1979, under Christos notes: "as a personal name; the Gentiles must have understood Christos in this way to them it seemed very much like Chrestos [even in pronunciation ...], a name that is found in lit."
^In the earliest extant manuscript containing Annales 15:44, the second Medicean, the e in "Chrestianos", Chrestians, has been changed into an i; cf. Gerd Theißen, Annette Merz, Der historische Jesus: ein Lehrbuch, 2001, p. 89. The reading Christianos, Christians, is therefore doubtful.
^Jewish Encyclopedia: Fiscus Iudaicus, Suetonius's Domitian XII: "Besides other taxes, that on the Jews [A tax of two drachmas a head, imposed by Titus in return for free permission to practice their religion; see Josephus, Bell. Jud. 7.6.6] was levied with the utmost rigor, and those were prosecuted who, without publicly acknowledging that faith, yet lived as Jews, as well as those who concealed their origin and did not pay the tribute levied upon their people [These may have been Christians, whom the Romans commonly assumed were Jews]. I recall being present in my youth when the person of a man ninety years old was examined before the procurator and a very crowded court, to see whether he was circumcised."
^Wylen, Stephen M., The Jews in the Time of Jesus: An Introduction, Paulist Press (1995), ISBN0-8091-3610-4, pp. 190–192.; Dunn, James D.G., Jews and Christians: The Parting of the Ways, A.D. 70 to 135, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing (1999), ISBN0-8028-4498-7, Pp 33-34.; Boatwright, Mary Taliaferro & Gargola, Daniel J & Talbert, Richard John Alexander, The Romans: From Village to Empire, Oxford University Press (2004), ISBN0-19-511875-8, p. 426.;
^"What think you, loving people, and how seem you affected, seeing that you now understand and know, that we acknowledge ourselves truly and sincerely to profess Christ, condemn the Pope, addict ourselves to the true Philosophy, lead a Christian life (...)".