United Church of Christ
ClassificationMainline Protestant
TheologyCongregationalist (Reformed)
PolityMix of Congregational and Presbyterian
General Minister
and President
Karen Georgia Thompson
Full communion
AssociationsChurches Uniting In Christ
National Council of Churches
World Communion of Reformed Churches
World Council of Churches
RegionUnited States
HeadquartersCleveland, Ohio, U.S.
OriginJune 25, 1957; 66 years ago (1957-06-25)[1]
Merger ofEvangelical and Reformed Church
Congregational Christian Churches
Afro-Christian Convention
Congregations4,603 (2022)
Members712,296 (2022)
Official websitewww.ucc.org Edit this at Wikidata

The United Church of Christ (UCC) is a socially liberal mainline Protestant Christian denomination based in the United States, with historical and confessional roots in the Congregational, Restorationist, Continental Reformed, and Lutheran traditions, and with approximately 4,600 churches and 712,000 members.[2][3]The UCC is a historical continuation of the General Council of Congregational Christian churches founded under the influence of New England Puritanism.[4][5] Moreover, it also subsumed the third largest Calvinist group in the country, the German Reformed.[5] Notably, its modern members' theological and socio-political stances are often very different from those of its predecessors.

The Evangelical and Reformed Church, General Council of the Congregational Christian Churches, and the Afro-Christian Convention,[6] united on June 25, 1957, to form the UCC.[1] The Evangelical and Reformed Church along with the General Council of Congregational Christian Churches, were themselves the result of earlier unions, had their roots in Congregational, Lutheran, Evangelical, and Reformed denominations. At the end of 2014, the UCC's 5,116 congregations claimed 979,239 members, primarily in the U.S.[7] In 2015, Pew Research estimated that 0.4 percent, or 1 million adult adherents, of the U.S. population self-identified with the United Church of Christ.[8]

The UCC maintains full communion with other Protestant denominations. Many of its congregations choose to practice open communion.[9] The denomination emphasizes participation in worldwide interfaith and ecumenical efforts.[10][11] The national leadership and General Synod of the UCC have historically favored culturally liberal views on social issues, such as civil rights, LGBT rights, women's rights, and abortion. UCC congregations are independent in matters of doctrine and ministry and may not necessarily support the national body's theological or moral stances. It self-describes as "an extremely pluralistic and diverse denomination".[12]


First Church of Christ, Congregational in Farmington, Connecticut

Main articles: Congregational Christian Churches and Evangelical and Reformed Church

The United Church of Christ was formed when three Protestant churches, the Evangelical and Reformed Church, the General Council of the Congregational Christian Churches and the Afro Christian Convention united on June 25, 1957.[13][14][15] The vote on the resolution had no dissenting votes from the delegates gathered.[1] This union adopted an earlier general statement of unity between the two denominations, the 1943 "Basis of Union".[16] At the time, the UCC claimed about two million members.[14]

On January 23, 1959, 30 theologians, pastors, and laymen finished writing the UCC's Statement of Faith.[17][18] The Statement of Faith was written with the intention of including the essential principles while being "broad enough for persons of varying points of view".[18] It affirms belief in the divinity of Christ and in the Trinitarian concept of God, but it does not explicitly mention the virgin birth of Jesus.[18]

The UCC adopted its constitution and by-laws on July 4, 1961.[14][19] The Constitution gives autonomy to local churches, and it provides for a representative-type of governance of regional and national church organizations.[19] Prior to the vote, 3,669 out of 4,036 Congregational churches voted to accept it.[19] There were 367 Congregational Christian churches that decided to stay out.[19] Some of those churches challenged it in court, saying that it was contrary to traditional Congregational principles.[19] Their court challenges were unsuccessful.[19] The vote to adopt the Constitution and by-laws was unanimous among the delegates that met in Philadelphia on July 4, 1961.[19]

The Afro-Christian Convention was a long-ignored "Fifth Stream" that had been neglected voice or visibility, resulting in an official apology from the denomination at the 2023 General Synod in Indianapolis, Indiana.[20]


There is no UCC hierarchy or body that can impose any doctrine or worship format onto the individual congregations within the UCC.[21] While individual congregations are supposed to hold guidance from the general synod "in the highest regard", the UCC's constitution requires that the "autonomy of the Local Church is inherent and modifiable only by its own action".[22]

South Parish Congregational Church and Parish House in Augusta, Maine in 2013.

Within this locally focused structure, however, there are central beliefs common to the UCC. The UCC often uses four words to describe itself: "Christian, Reformed, Congregational and Evangelical".[23] While the UCC refers to its Evangelical characteristics, it springs from (and is considered part of) mainline Protestantism as opposed to some doctrines in Evangelicalism. The word evangelical in this case more closely corresponds with the original Lutheran origins meaning "of the gospel" as opposed to the Evangelical use of the word. UCC is generally theologically liberal, and the denomination notes that the "Bible, though written in specific historical times and places, still speaks to us in our present condition".[23]

The motto of the United Church of Christ comes from John 17:21: "That they may all be one". The denomination's official literature uses broad doctrinal parameters, emphasizing freedom of individual conscience and local church autonomy.[citation needed]

Historic confessions

In the United Church of Christ, creeds, confessions, and affirmations of faith function as "testimonies of faith" around which the church gathers rather than as "tests of faith" rigidly prescribing required doctrinal consent. As expressed in the United Church of Christ constitution:

The United Church of Christ acknowledges as its sole Head, Jesus Christ, Son of God and Savior. It acknowledges as kindred in Christ all who share in this confession. It looks to the Word of God in the Scriptures, and to the presence and power of the Holy Spirit, to prosper its creative and redemptive work in the world. It claims as its own the faith of the historic Church expressed in the ancient creeds and reclaimed in the basic insights of the Protestant Reformers. It affirms the responsibility of the Church in each generation to make this faith its own in reality of worship, in honesty of thought and expression, and in purity of heart before God. In accordance with the teaching of our Lord and the practice prevailing among evangelical Christians, it recognizes two sacraments: Baptism and the Lord's Supper or Holy Communion.[22]

The denomination, therefore, looks to a number of historic confessions as expressing the common faith around which the church gathers, including:

Studies and surveys of beliefs

In 2001, the Hartford Institute for Religion Research conducted a "Faith Communities Today" (FACT) study[24] that included a survey of United Church of Christ beliefs. Among the results of this were findings that in the UCC, 5.6% of the churches responding to the survey described their members as "very liberal or progressive", 3.4% as "very conservative", 22.4% as "somewhat liberal or progressive", and 23.6% as "somewhat conservative". Those results suggested a nearly equal balance between liberal and conservative congregations. The self-described "moderate" group, however, was the largest at 45%. Other statistics found by the Hartford Institute show that 53.2% of members say "the Bible" is the highest source of authority, 16.1% say the "Holy Spirit", 9.2% say "Reason", 6.3% say "Experience", and 6.1% say "Creeds".

David Roozen, director of the Hartford Institute for Religion Research who has studied the United Church of Christ, said surveys show the national church's pronouncements are often more liberal than the views in the pews but that its governing structure is set up to allow such disagreements.[25] Starting in 2003, a task force commissioned by General Synod 24 studied the diverse worship habits of UCC churches. The study can be found online[26] and reflects statistics on attitudes toward worship, baptism, and communion, such as "Laity (70%) and clergy (90%) alike overwhelmingly describe worship 'as an encounter with God that leads to doing God's work in the world.'" "95 percent of our congregations use the Revised Common Lectionary in some way in planning or actual worship and preaching" and "96 percent always or almost always have a sermon, 86 percent have a time with children, 95 percent have a time of sharing joys and concerns, and 98 percent include the Prayer of Our Savior/Lord's Prayer." Clergy and laity were invited to select two meanings of baptism that they emphasize. They were also to suggest the meaning that they thought their entire church emphasized. Baptism as an "entry into the Church Universal" was the most frequent response. Clergy and laity were invited to identify two meanings of Holy Communion that they emphasize. While clergy emphasized Holy Communion as "a meal in which we encounter God's living presence", laity emphasized "a remembrance of Jesus' last supper, death, and resurrection".[citation needed]

Relationships with other denominations

One of the UCC's central beliefs is that it is "called to be a united and uniting church".[27] Because of this, the UCC is involved in Churches Uniting in Christ, an organization seeking to establish full communion among nine Protestant denominations in America.[28] Currently, the UCC has entered into an ecumenical partnership with the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) and through A Formula of Agreement, signed in 1997, is in full communion with the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, Presbyterian Church (USA), and the Reformed Church in America.[28] Internationally, the UCC has been in full communion with the Union Evangelischer Kirchen (Union of Evangelical Churches) in Germany since 1981.[29] The UEK is an organization of 13 Reformed and United Landeskirchen (regional churches) within the federation of Protestant churches known as the Evangelical Church of Germany.

In 1982 the World Council of Churches published "Baptism, Eucharist and Ministry",[30] a document that has served as a foundation for many ecumenical recognition agreements. As a WCC member church, the United Church of Christ issued a response as part of the process to work toward a statement of common theological perspectives.[31]

On October 17, 2015, representatives of the United Church of Christ and the United Church of Canada came together in Niagara Falls, Ontario, to sign a historic full communion agreement. This agreement had been approved at the 30th General Synod of the UCC and the 42nd General Council of the United Church of Canada in the summer of 2015 and signifies the mutual desire of both denominations to work in cooperation and openness in the areas of worship, mission, witness, ministry and the proclamation of a common faith. This agreement will allow the two denominations to recognize the validity of each other's sacraments and ordination of ministers and opens up the possibility of ministers being called to serve in congregations of either denomination.[32][33]

Relationships with other religions

The United Church of Christ facilitates bilateral dialogues with many faith groups, including members of the Jewish and Muslim communities. This includes membership in the National Muslim-Christian Initiative.[34]


This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: "United Church of Christ" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (May 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this message)
First Congregational Church in Springfield, Massachusetts.

Quoting the United Church of Christ Constitution, "The basic unit of the life and organization of the United Church of Christ is the local church." An interplay of wider interdependence with local autonomy characterizes the organization of the UCC. Each "setting" of the United Church of Christ relates covenantally with other settings, their actions speaking "to but not for" each other.

The ethos of United Church of Christ organization is considered "covenantal". The structure of UCC organization is a mixture of the congregational and presbyterian polities of its predecessor denominations. With ultimate authority given to the local church, many see United Church of Christ polity as closer to congregationalism; however, with ordination and pastoral oversight of licensed, commissioned and ordained ministers conducted by Associations, and General Synod representation given to Conferences instead of congregational delegates, certain similarities to presbyterian polity are also visible.[citation needed]

The UCC's "Covenantal Polity" is best expressed in Article III of the 1999 revision of the Bylaws and Constitution of the United Church of Christ.

Within the United Church of Christ, the various expressions of the church relate to each other in a covenantal manner. Each expression of the church has responsibilities and rights in relation to the others, to the end that the whole church will seek God's will and be faithful to God's mission. Decisions are made in consultation and collaboration among the various parts of the structure. As members of the Body of Christ, each expression of the church is called to honor and respect the work and ministry of each other part. Each expression of the church listens, hears, and carefully considers the advice, counsel and requests of others. In this covenant, the various expressions of the United Church of Christ seek to walk together in all God's ways.[35]

Local churches

First Congregational Church of Long Beach, California.
Old South Church, Boston.

The basic unit of the United Church of Christ is the local church (also often called the congregation). Local churches have the freedom to govern themselves, establishing their own internal organizational structures and theological positions. Thus, local church governance varies widely throughout the denomination. Some congregations, mainly of Congregational or Christian Connection origin, have numerous relatively independent "boards" that oversee different aspects of church life, with annual or more frequent meetings (often conducted after a worship service on a Sunday afternoon) of the entire congregation to elect officers, approve budgets and set congregational policy. Other churches, mainly of Evangelical and Reformed descent, have one central "church council" or "consistory" that handles most or all affairs in a manner somewhat akin to a Presbyterian session, while still holding an annual congregational meeting for the purpose of electing officers and/or ratifying annual budgets. Still others, usually those congregations started after the 1957 merger, have structures incorporating aspects of both, or other alternative organizational structures entirely.[citation needed]

In almost all cases, though, the selection of a minister for the congregation is, in keeping with the Reformed tradition of the "priesthood of all believers", vested in a congregational meeting, held usually after a special ad hoc committee searches on the congregation's behalf for a candidate. Members of the congregation vote for or against the committee's recommended candidate for the pastorate, usually immediately after the candidate has preached a "trial sermon;" candidates are usually presented one at a time and not as a field of several to be selected from. Typically the candidate must secure anywhere from 60 to 90 percent affirmative votes from the membership before the congregation issues a formal call to the candidate; this depends on the provisions in the congregation's particular constitution and/or by-laws.[citation needed]

Local churches have, in addition to the freedom to hire ministers and lay staff, the sole power to dismiss them also. However, unlike purely congregational polities, the association has the main authority to ordain clergy and grant membership, or "standing", to clergy coming to a church from another association or another denomination (this authority is exercised "in cooperation with" the person being ordained/called and the local church that is calling them). Such standing, among other things, permits a minister to participate in the UCC clergy pension and insurance plans. Local churches are usually aided in searching for and calling ordained clergy through a denominationally coordinated "search-and-call" system, usually facilitated by staff at the conference level. However, the local church may, for various reasons, opt not to avail itself of the conference placement system, and is free to do so without fear of retaliation, which would likely occur in synodical or presbyterian polities. However, many UCC congregations have constitutions that mandate that their called pastor be an ordained minister approved by the association, while others require that the call of a pastor be approved by the association committee on ministry. Participation in the search and call process is usually considered a sign of the congregation's loyalty to the larger denomination and its work.[citation needed]

At the end of 2008, 5,320 churches were reported to be within the UCC, averaging 210 members. Sixteen churches were reported to have over 2,000 members, but 64% had fewer than 200 members.[36] The latter statistic probably indicates where most of the denomination's declining membership has occurred, in formerly mid-sized congregations between 200 and 500 members or so. The reduction in a typical church's size has also meant that, increasingly, many congregations are no longer able, as they once were, to afford a full-time, seminary-educated pastor, and that some of them have to rely on alternatives such as one of their members serving the church under a license, the use of recently retired clergy on a short-term basis, or ordained ministers serving the church on a half-time (or less) basis while earning their primary income from chaplaincies or other occupations. While this has been occurring to a lesser degree in other mainline denominations as well, the UCC's congregational polity allows for churches to adopt such approaches without ecclesiological restraint, as might happen in a more hierarchical denominational structure.[citation needed]

Larger organizations


See also: Associations of the United Church of Christ

Local churches are typically gathered together in regional bodies called Associations. Local churches often give financial support to the association to support its activities. The official delegates of an association are all ordained clergy within the bounds of the association together with lay delegates sent from each local church. The association's main ecclesiastical function is to provide primary oversight and authorization of ordained and other authorized ministers; it also is the ecclesiastical link between the local congregation and the larger UCC. The association ordains new ministers, holds ministers' standing in covenant with local churches, and is responsible for disciplinary action; typically a specific ministerial committee handles these duties. Also, an association, again with the assistance of the ministerial committee, admits and removes local congregations from membership in the UCC.[citation needed]

Associations meet at least once annually to elect officers and board members and set budgets for the association's work; fellowship and informational workshops are often conducted during those meetings, which may take place more frequently according to local custom. In a few instances where there is only one association within a conference, or where the associations within a conference have agreed to dissolve, the Conference (below) assumes the association's functions.[citation needed]


See also: Conferences of the United Church of Christ

Local churches also are members of larger Conferences, of which there are 36 in the United Church of Christ. Some cover an individual state, for example the Michigan Conference. Some states have more than one conference - for example Pennsylvania has four. Some cover more than one state - for example the South West Conference covers Arizona and New Mexico. A conference typically contains multiple associations; if no associations exist within its boundaries, the conference exercises the functions of the association as well. Conferences are supported financially through local churches' contribution to "Our Church's Wider Mission" (formerly "Our Christian World Mission"), the United Church of Christ's denominational support system; unlike most associations, they usually have permanent headquarters and professional staff. The primary ecclesiastical function of a conference is to provide the primary support for the search-and-call process by which churches select ordained leadership; the conference minister and/or his or her associates perform this task in coordination with the congregation's pulpit search committee (see above) and the association to which the congregation belongs (particularly its ministerial committee). Conferences also provide significant programming resources for their constituent churches, such as Christian education resources and support, interpretation of the larger UCC's mission work, and church extension within their bounds (the latter usually conducted in conjunction with the national Local Church Ministries division).[citation needed]

Conferences, like associations, are congregationally representative bodies, with each local church sending ordained and lay delegates. Most current UCC conferences were formed in the several years following the consummation of the national merger in 1961, and in some instances were the unions of former Congregational Christian conferences (led by superintendents) and Evangelical and Reformed synods (led by presidents, some of whom served on only a part-time basis). A few have had territorial adjustments since then; only one conference, the Calvin Synod, composed of Hungarian-heritage Reformed congregations, received exemption from the geographical alignments, with its churches scattered from Connecticut westward to California and southward to Florida. Only one conference has ever withdrawn completely from the denomination: Puerto Rico, expressing disapproval of national UCC tolerance of homosexuality (as well as that of a large number of mainland congregations), departed the denomination in 2006, taking all of its churches.[citation needed]

General Synod

See also: Resolutions of the United Church of Christ and General Synods of the United Church of Christ

The denomination's churchwide deliberative body is the General Synod, which meets every two years. The General Synod consists of delegates elected from the Conferences (distributed proportionally by conference size) together with the members of the United Church of Christ Board (see below), the officers of the denomination, and representatives of so-called "Historically Underrepresented Groups", such as the disabled, young adults, racial minorities, and gay and lesbian persons.[citation needed]

While General Synod provides the most visible voice of the "stance of the denomination" on any particular issue, the covenantal polity of the denomination means that General Synod speaks to local churches, associations, and conferences, but not for them. Thus, the other settings of the church are allowed to hold differing views and practices on all non-constitutional matters.[citation needed]

General Synod considers three kinds of resolutions:

National offices: covenanted, affiliated, and associated ministries

As agents of the General Synod, the denomination maintains national offices comprising four "covenanted ministries", one "associated ministry", and one "affiliated ministry". The current system of national governance was adopted in 1999 as a restructure of the national setting, consolidating numerous agencies, boards, and "instrumentalities" that the UCC, in the main, had inherited from the Congregational Christian Churches at the time of merger, along with several created during the denomination's earlier years.[citation needed]

Covenanted ministries
This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: "United Church of Christ" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (November 2022) (Learn how and when to remove this message)

These structures carry out the work of the General Synod and support the local churches, associations, and conferences. The head executives of these ministries comprise the five member Collegium of Officers, which are the non-hierarchical official officers of the denomination. (The Office of General Ministries is represented by both the General Minister, who serves as President of the denomination, and the Associate General minister). According to the UCC office of communication press release at the time of restructure, "In the new executive arrangement, the five will work together in a Collegium of Officers, meeting as peers. This setting is designed to provide an opportunity for mutual responsibility and reporting, as well as ongoing assessment of UCC programs." The main offices of the Covenanted ministries are at the "Church House", the United Church of Christ national headquarters at 700 Prospect Avenue in Cleveland, Ohio.

Affiliated ministry

The Pension Boards of the United Church of Christ (PB-UCC) operates the employee benefits systems for all settings of the United Church of Christ, including health, dental, and optical insurance, retirement annuity/pension systems, disability and life insurance, and ministerial assistance programs. The Pension Boards offices are located in New York City, where the headquarters of all UCC national bodies had been located prior to their move to Ohio in the early 1990s.[citation needed]

The Insurance Board is a nonprofit corporation collectively "owned" by the Conferences of the United Church of Christ. It is run by a president/CEO and a 19-member Board, with the full corporate board consisting of Conference, Region and Presbytery ministers as well as laypeople. The IB administers a property insurance, liability insurance, and risk management program serving the United Church of Christ, the Presbyterian Church(USA), and the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) churches and related entities.[40]

Associated ministry

United Church Funds (UCF), formerly known as The United Church Foundation, provides low cost, socially responsible, professionally managed Common Investment Funds (CIFs) and other trustee services to any setting of the United Church of Christ. United Church Funds' offices are also located in New York City.[citation needed]


Civil Rights Movement

Everett Parker of the UCC Office of Communication, at the request of Martin Luther King Jr., organized UCC churches during 1959 against television stations in the Southern United States that were imposing news blackouts of information pertaining to the then growing Civil Rights Movement. The UCC later won a lawsuit that resulted in a federal court decision that the broadcast air waves are public, not private, property. That led toward the proliferation of people of color in television studios and newsrooms.[41]

Social activism

The UCC national body has been active in numerous traditionally liberal social causes, including support for abortion rights,[42] the United Farm Workers, and the Wilmington Ten.[14]

Same-sex marriage

Churches in the UCC may solemnize same-sex unions.[43] A resolution, "In support of equal marriage rights for all", was supported by an estimated 80 percent of delegates to the church's 2005 General Synod, which made the United Church of Christ the first major Christian deliberative body in the U.S. to endorse "equal marriage rights for all people, regardless of gender". It now is the second-largest Christian denominational entity in the US to support same-sex marriage, after the Presbyterian Church (USA). The resolution was one of 32 actions[44] by General Synod and other national bodies, beginning in 1969, which support civil rights for LGBT citizens and urge their full inclusion in the life of the church. The UCC's Open and Affirming movement, funded by the Open and Affirming Coalition,[45] is the largest LGBT-welcoming-church program in the world with more than 1,100 congregations and 275,000 members.[46]

On April 28, 2014, the UCC filed a lawsuit against North Carolina for not permitting same-sex marriage, the first faith-based challenge to same-sex marriage bans in the US.[47][48][49] In the lawsuit, the church argues that prohibiting same-sex marriages violates the freedom of religion, as the ban forced ministers for same-sex marriages to not act on their beliefs.

Same-sex marriage is not supported by some UCC congregations, but it is rapidly gaining ground.[46] Opponents included the Iglesia Evangelica Unida de Puerto Rico (United Evangelical Church in Puerto Rico), three fourths of which voted to withdraw from the UCC after the 2005 General Synod vote.[50] The Biblical Witness Fellowship, a small conservative evangelical organization within the denomination, opposes the denomination's growing support for same-sex relationships.[51]

Apology Resolution

The United Church of Christ was recognized in the Apology Resolution to Native Hawaiians. Congress recognized the reconciliation made by the UCC in the Eighteenth General Synod for their actions in overthrowing the Kingdom of Hawaii.[citation needed]

Statement on the relationship between Israel and Palestinians

Main article: Resolutions of United Church of Christ General Synod XXV

See also: Resolutions of the United Church of Christ

United Church of Christ General Synod XXV also passed two resolutions concerning the conflict between Israel and Palestinians in the Middle East. One calls for the use of economic leverage to promote peace in the Middle East, which can include measures such as government lobbying, selective investment, shareholder lobbying, and selective divestment from companies that profit from the continuing Israel-Palestine conflict. The other resolution, named "Tear Down the Wall", calls upon Israel to remove the separation barrier between Israel and the West Bank. Opponents of the "Tear Down the Wall" resolution have noted that the wall's purpose is to prevent terrorist attacks, and that the resolution does not call for a stop to these attacks. The Simon Wiesenthal Center stated that the July 2005 UCC resolutions on divestment from Israel were "functionally anti-Semitic".[52] The Anti-Defamation League stated that those same resolutions are "disappointing and disturbing" and "deeply troubling".[53] In addition to the concerns raised about the merits of the "economic leverage" resolution, additional concerns were raised about the process in which the General Synod approved the resolution. Michael Downs of the United Church of Christ Pension Boards (who would be charged with implementing any divestment of the UCC's Pension Board investments) wrote a letter[54] to UCC President John H. Thomas expressing concern "with the precedent-setting implications of voted actions, integrity of process and trust".

Sexuality education

The United Church of Christ, along with the Unitarian Universalist Association (UUA) of Congregations, created the Our Whole Lives curriculum (commonly known as OWL), which is a lifespan, comprehensive, inclusive, and developmentally appropriate sexuality education program. The Whole Lives includes modules for grades K–1, 4–6, 7–9, and 10–12, and for Young Adults and Adults. The Our Whole Lives curricula are secular. Congregations who use this program often also use "Sexuality and Our Faith" for the age level they are offering. Sexuality and Our Faith are separate manuals that bring in the UUA principles and scripture used in the UCC to support its teachings. The curriculum is based on guidelines provided by the Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States.[citation needed]


In 2021, the UCC and the UUA presented "a study on polyamory by the Canadian Unitarian Council" as a part of its sexual education programs.[55] Prior to the sexuality education series, in 2016, the UCC published differing opinions on polyamory in the UCC Stillspeaking Daily Devotional, one in opposition and one in favor of affirming polyamory.[56][57][58]

"God Is Still Speaking" identity campaign

"God Is Still Speaking" banner on a UCC church in Rochester, Minnesota

At the 2003 General Synod, the United Church of Christ began a campaign with "emphasis on expanding the UCC's name-brand identity through modern advertising and marketing".[59] Formally launched during the advent season in 2004, the campaign included a coordinated program of evangelism and hospitality training for congregations paired with national and local television "brand" advertising, known as the "God is Still Speaking" campaign or "The Stillspeaking Initiative". The initiative was themed around the quotation "Never place a period where God has placed a comma" attributed to Gracie Allen. Campaign materials, including print and broadcast advertising as well as merchandise, featured the quote and a large comma with a visual theme in red and black. United Church of Christ congregations were asked to opt into the campaign, signifying their support as well as their willingness to receive training on hospitality and evangelism. An evangelism event was held in Atlanta in August 2005 to promote the campaign.[60] Several renewal groups panned the ad campaign for its efforts to create an ONA/progressive perception of the UCC identity despite its actual majority in centrist/moderate viewpoints.[61][62] According to John Evans, associate professor of sociology at University of California, San Diego, "The UCC is clearly going after a certain niche in American society who are very progressive and have a particular religious vision that includes inclusiveness...They are becoming the religious brand that is known for this."[63]


The church's diversity and adherence to covenantal polity (rather than government by regional elders or bishops) give individual congregations a great deal of freedom in the areas of worship, congregational life, and doctrine. Nonetheless, some critics, mainly social and theological conservatives, are vocal about the UCC's theology, political identity, and cultural milieu.

Criticism over same-sex marriage

Following the decision of General Synod 25 in 2005 to endorse same-sex marriage, the UCC's Puerto Rico Conference left the church, citing differences over "the membership and ministry of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender Christians".[64] A number of conservative congregations also ended their affiliation with the denomination after the decision in favor of same-sex marriage.[65]

Barack Obama and the UCC

A controversy arose over former U.S. president Barack Obama speaking at UCC gatherings, but the IRS found that the UCC had adhered to the prohibition against churches campaigning for political candidates.

In 2007, longtime UCC member Barack Obama (then a Democratic presidential candidate) spoke at the UCC's Iowa Conference meeting and at the General Synod 26.[66] A complaint filed with the Internal Revenue Service alleged that the UCC promoted Obama's candidacy by having him speak at those meetings.[67]

Barry Lynn, an ordained UCC minister and the executive director of Americans United for Separation of Church and State, stated that although he personally would not have invited a presidential candidate to speak at the meetings, he believed "the Internal Revenue Service permits this to happen."[68] The church had consulted lawyers prior to the event to make sure they were following the law and had instructed those in attendance that no Obama campaign material would be allowed in the meeting. Nevertheless, in February 2008, the IRS sent a letter to the church stating that it was launching an inquiry into the matter.[69]

On February 27, 2008, in an open letter to UCC members, Rev. John H. Thomas announced the creation of The UCC Legal Fund, to aid in the denomination's defense against the IRS.[70] While the denomination expected legal expenses to surpass six figures, it halted donations after raising $59,564 in less than a week.[citation needed]

In May 2008, the IRS issued a letter that stated that the UCC had taken appropriate steps and that the denomination's tax status was not in jeopardy.[71]


At the time of its formation, the UCC had over 2 million members in nearly 7,000 churches.[72] The denomination has suffered a 44 percent loss in membership since the mid-1960s.[73] By 1980, membership was at about 1.7 million and by the turn of the century had dropped to 1.3 million.[72] In 2006, the UCC had roughly 1.2 million members in 5,452 churches.[72] According to its 2008 annual report, the United Church of Christ had about 1.1 million members in about 5,300 local congregations.[74] However the 2010 annual report showed a decline of 31,000 members and a loss of 33 congregations since then. The decline in number of congregations continued through 2011, as the 2011 Annual Report shows 5,100 member churches.[75] As of the 2014 Annual Yearbook of the UCC, membership is listed as 979,239 members in 5,154 local churches.[citation needed] According to the 2023 report for 2022 statistics, the membership had declined to 712,296 members in 4,603 congregations.[3] In the prior decade, from 2012 to 2022, the denomination had dropped from about 998,906 to 712,296 members, an almost 29% decline in a decade.[3]

Membership is concentrated primarily in the Northeast and Midwest. Pennsylvania, a bastion of the German Reformed tradition, has the largest number of members and churches. As of 2000, the state had over 700 congregations and over 200,000 members.[76] The highest membership rates are in the states of Connecticut, Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine, situated in the heartland of the American Congregationalist movement.[76]

The United Church of Christ among Christian churches has a highly educated membership, with 46% of members holding graduate or post-graduate degrees. Only Presbyterians (47%), Episcopalians (56%), and Anglicans (60%) ranked higher.[77] The church also claims a disproportionate share of high-income earners.[78]

United Church of Christ institutions

Officially related educational institutions


Colleges and universities

These 19 schools have affirmed the purposes of the United Church of Christ Council for Higher Education by official action and are full members of the Council.

Secondary academies

Historically related educational institutions

Historically related seminaries

Historically related colleges and universities (Council for Higher Education)

"These colleges continue to relate to the United Church of Christ through the Council for Higher Education, but chose not to affirm the purposes of the Council. Though in many respects similar to the colleges and universities that have full membership in the Council, these institutions tend to be less intentional about their relationships with the United Church of Christ." (from the United Church of Christ website)[citation needed]

Other colleges and universities (historically related, now unrelated)

These colleges and universities were founded by or are otherwise related historically to the denomination or its predecessors, but no longer maintain any direct relationship.[citation needed]

List of prominent UCC churches

List of notable UCC members

This section lists notable people known to have been past or present members or raised in the United Church of Christ or its predecessor denominations.



See also


  1. ^ a b c "The Morning Call 26 Jun 1957, page 1". Newspapers.com. pp. 1, 15. Retrieved June 4, 2023.
  2. ^ "A statistical profile" (PDF). United Church of Christ Center for Analytics, Research and Data (CARD). 2023.
  3. ^ a b c "SUMMARY STATISTICS 1955 - 2022" (PDF). United Church of Christ. p. 2. Retrieved November 22, 2023.
  4. ^ Johnson, Daniel L. (1990). Theology and Identity - Traditions, Movements, and Polity in the United Church of Christ. Cleveland, Ohio: United Church Press. p. 4. ISBN 0-8298-0807-8.
  5. ^ a b Queen, Edward L.; Prothero, Stephen R.; Shattuck, Gardiner H. (January 1, 2009). Encyclopedia of American Religious History. Infobase Publishing. p. 818. ISBN 978-0-81606-660-5. Retrieved October 31, 2012. Next in size and historical importance is the United Church of Christ, which is the historic continuation of the Congregational churches founded under the influence of New England Puritanism. The United Church of Christ also subsumed the third major Calvinist group, the German Reformed, which (then known as the Evangelical and Reformed Church) merged with the Congregationalists in 1957.
  6. ^ Holznagel, Hans (October 10, 2022). "Afro-Christian tradition's status as distinct UCC 'stream' gets Historical Council support". United Church of Christ. Retrieved July 5, 2023.
  7. ^ United Church of Christ Statistical Profile. Cleveland, Ohio: Center for Analytics, Research and Data (CARD). p. 3.
  8. ^ "Religious Landscape Study". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. Retrieved March 8, 2016.
  9. ^ "Ecumenical partnerships and relationships of full communion". United Church of Christ. Archived from the original on March 6, 2012. Retrieved March 12, 2012.
  10. ^ "Interfaith relations". United Church of Christ. Archived from the original on May 4, 2012. Retrieved March 12, 2012.
  11. ^ "Ecumenical and Interfaith Partners". United Church of Christ. Retrieved March 12, 2012.
  12. ^ Zikmund, Barbara B. (1987). Hidden Histories in the United Church of Christ – Volume I. New York City: United Church Press. ISBN 0-8298-0753-5.
  13. ^ "What is the United Church of Christ?". United Church of Christ. Archived from the original on January 6, 2010. Retrieved January 16, 2010.
  14. ^ a b c d "About Us: The United Church of Christ". United Church of Christ. Archived from the original on December 15, 2010. Retrieved January 16, 2010.
  15. ^ Gunnemann, Louis H. (1977). The Shaping of the United Church of Christ. United Church Press. ISBN 0829813454.
  16. ^ "Basis of Union". United Church of Christ. Archived from the original on May 7, 2010. Retrieved January 16, 2010.
  17. ^ "Statement of Faith of the United Church of Christ – La Declaración de Fe de la Iglesia Unida de Cristo". United Church of Christ. Archived from the original on January 30, 2010. Retrieved January 16, 2010.
  18. ^ a b c Cornell, George W. (March 27, 1959). ""United Church of Christ's Statement of Faith Unique", Denton Record-Chronicle". Newspapers.com. p. 6. Retrieved June 4, 2023.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g "United Church of Christ Adopts Constitution for Merger of 2 Million Protestant Members". Newspapers.com. Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania: Wilkes-Barre The Times Leader. July 5, 1961. p. 3. Retrieved June 4, 2023.
  20. ^ D'Agostino, Maic (July 4, 2023). "From Synod stage, Dorhauer apologizes to Afro-Christian Convention for 'rewriting of our history'". United Church of Christ. Retrieved July 5, 2023.
  21. ^ "Testimonies, not Tests". United Church of Christ. Archived from the original on February 1, 2010. Retrieved January 22, 2010.
  22. ^ a b "Constitution and Bylaws". United Church of Christ. Archived from the original on April 27, 2011. Retrieved January 22, 2010.
  23. ^ a b "What is the United Church of Christ? A brief history". United Church of Christ. Archived from the original on March 2, 2010. Retrieved January 22, 2010.
  24. ^ Lang, Andy (April 2001). "Denominational identity still important". United Church of Christ. Archived from the original on December 20, 2006. Retrieved December 24, 2006.
  25. ^ Smith, Peter (November 5, 2006). "United Church of Christ Divided". The Courier-Journal. Retrieved December 24, 2006.
  26. ^ Fowler, Sidney D. & Royle, Marjorie H. (June 27, 2005). "Worshiping into God's Future: Summaries and Strategies 2005" (PDF). United Church of Christ. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 26, 2006. Retrieved December 27, 2006.
  27. ^ "What we believe". United Church of Christ. Archived from the original on May 28, 2010. Retrieved January 22, 2010.
  28. ^ a b "Ecumenical partnerships and relationships of full communion". United Church of Christ. Archived from the original on March 6, 2012. Retrieved January 22, 2010.
  29. ^ "'Kirchengemeinschaft' between the UCC and the Union of Evangelical Churches (UEK) in Germany". United Church of Christ. 1981. Archived from the original on December 2, 2014. Retrieved January 7, 2014.
  30. ^ "Baptism, Eucharist and Ministry (Faith and Order Paper No. 111, the "Lima Text")". World Council of Churches. 1982. Archived from the original on December 10, 2008. Retrieved December 10, 2008.
  31. ^ "A United Church of Christ Response to 'Baptism, Eucharist and Ministry'" (PDF). United Church of Christ. Retrieved December 26, 2006.
  32. ^ Moujaes, Anthony. "UCC, United Church of Canada formalize full communion through worship, word and sacrament". United Church of Christ. Archived from the original on April 25, 2016. Retrieved May 13, 2016.
  33. ^ "Historic Full Communion Agreement Signed". The United Church of Canada. Retrieved May 13, 2016.
  34. ^ "Report From the Committee on Ecumenical and Interfaith Relations" (PDF). United Church of Christ. April 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 3, 2013. Retrieved August 12, 2012.
  35. ^ "Constitution of the United Church of Christ". United Church of Christ. Archived from the original on December 26, 2006.
  36. ^ "Research Services". United Church of Christ. Retrieved May 19, 2010.
  37. ^ Nutall, Lauren (July 6, 2023). "Rev. Karen Georgia Thompson is the first black woman to be President of the United Church of Christ". Black Enterprise. Retrieved July 8, 2023.
  38. ^ "Timeline of Mission". Global Ministries. Retrieved August 26, 2016. 1961 ABCFM merges with Board of International Missions to form the United Church Board for World Ministries (UCBWM)
  39. ^ "Meet Our Officers". United Church of Christ.
  40. ^ "Who We Are". Insurance Board. Archived from the original on August 13, 2016. Retrieved April 13, 2011.
  41. ^ "UCC Firsts". United Church of Christ. Archived from the original on November 6, 2012. Retrieved October 21, 2012.
  42. ^ Guess, J. Bennett (September 25, 2009). "NARAL honors UCC leader as 'champion of choice'". United Church of Christ. Archived from the original on November 1, 2009. Retrieved January 22, 2010.
  43. ^ Goodstein, Laurie (July 15, 2009). "Episcopal Bishops Give Ground on Gay Marriage". The New York Times. Retrieved January 22, 2010.
  44. ^ "UCC Actions". UCC Open and Affirming Coalition. September 11, 2013. Retrieved February 16, 2019.
  45. ^ "Home". UCC Open and Affirming Coalition. Retrieved February 16, 2019.
  46. ^ a b "Stances of Faiths on LGBT Issues: United Church of Christ". Human Rights Campaign. Retrieved November 30, 2011.
  47. ^ "Rabbis group joins N.C. same-sex marriage suit". The Charlotte Observer. June 3, 2014.
  48. ^ "Rabbis Join Marriage Equality Fight". The Advocate. June 6, 2014.
  49. ^ Peralta, Eyder (April 28, 2014). "United Church Of Christ Challenges North Carolina Ban On Gay Marriage". NPR. Retrieved April 19, 2014.
  50. ^ Powell, Barb (June 13, 2006). "Vote by UCC Puerto Rico Conference to disaffiliate 'deeply painful,' says UCC leader". United Church of Christ News. Archived from the original on March 11, 2007.
  51. ^ "An Introduction to the Biblical Witness Fellowship". 1983. Archived from the original on September 5, 2010. Retrieved January 22, 2010.
  52. ^ "UCC Anti-Israel Resolutions "Functionally Antisemitic"". Simon Wiesenthal Center. July 5, 2005. Archived from the original on September 29, 2007.
  53. ^ "United Church of Christ's Israel Divestment Action "Troubling"; Contravenes Months of Interfaith Dialogue". ADL. July 6, 2005. Archived from the original on August 9, 2005. Retrieved April 12, 2014.
  54. ^ Downs, Michael A. (July 7, 2005). "Letter to John Thomas" (PDF). Letter to Rev. John H. Thomas. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 24, 2005.
  55. ^ "Focus is on consent, welcome as church studies polyamory". United Church of Christ. May 7, 2021. Retrieved January 7, 2022.
  56. ^ Pershey, Katherine Willis (August 22, 2016). "Get Ready for the Polyamory Movement". Irreverin. Retrieved January 7, 2022.
  57. ^ Davies, Chris (August 8, 2016). "The Still Speaking God Can Still Say "No!"". United Church of Christ. Retrieved January 7, 2022.
  58. ^ Cornershop Creative (August 7, 2016). "The Still Speaking God Can Still Say "No!"". United Church of Christ. Retrieved January 7, 2022.
  59. ^ Winslow, William C. (July–August 2003). "UCC leader asks for $1 billion in annual giving by 2007". United Church of Christ. Archived from the original on December 20, 2006. Retrieved December 25, 2006.
  60. ^ Thomas, John. "National Evangelism Event". United Church of Christ. Archived from the original on December 19, 2006. Retrieved December 25, 2006.
  61. ^ "December 2004 Archive". UCC Truths. Archived from the original on November 21, 2015. Retrieved November 21, 2006.
  62. ^ "UCC Ad Controversy Highlights Identity Crisis" (PDF). The Witness. Vol. XXVI, no. 1. Candia, NH: Biblical Witness Fellowship. 2005. pp. 1, 7. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 2, 2014. Retrieved November 21, 2006.
  63. ^ Curry, Matt (December 2, 2006). "Gay-friendly church joins UCC". Honolulu Advertiser. Associated Press. Retrieved June 14, 2016.
  64. ^ "Puerto Rico Church Leaves UCC Over Gay Policies". The Christian Post. Associated Press. June 23, 2006. Retrieved January 23, 2010.
  65. ^ Dart, John (July 18, 2013). "UCC has been progressive pacesetter". The Christian Century. Retrieved December 12, 2014.
  66. ^ "One week before Synod speech, Obama addresses UCC's Iowa Conference". United Church of Christ. Archived from the original on October 15, 2014. Retrieved December 26, 2007.
  67. ^ Lord, Jeffrey (September 7, 2007). "Obama, UCC Draw IRS Complaint". The American Spectator. Archived from the original on October 15, 2007. Retrieved September 29, 2007.
  68. ^ Brown, Jim (June 27, 2007). "Barry Lynn: Obama's UCC speech not 'illegal church electioneering'". OneNewsNow. Archived from the original on January 21, 2008.
  69. ^ Zoll, Rachel (February 28, 2008). "IRS Investigates Obama's Denomination". Associated Press. Archived from the original on March 2, 2008.
  70. ^ "Support the UCC's legal defense against the IRS". United Church of Christ. February 27, 2008. Archived from the original on July 22, 2011.
  71. ^ "Breaking News: IRS Determines UCC Followed All Rules". United Church of Christ. May 21, 2008. Archived from the original on September 5, 2008.
  72. ^ a b c "Historic Archive CD and Yearbook of American & Canadian Churches". The National Council of Churches. Archived from the original on May 31, 2012. Retrieved December 18, 2009.
  73. ^ Van Zile, Dexter (November 5, 2009). "Mainline American Christian "Peacemakers" against Israel". Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. Retrieved March 12, 2012.
  74. ^ "2008 Annual Report". United Church of Christ. Archived from the original on July 2, 2014. Retrieved July 5, 2009.
  75. ^ "2010 Annual Report" (PDF). United Church of Christ.
  76. ^ a b "2000 Religious Congregations and Membership Study". Glenmary Research Center. Archived from the original on March 22, 2012. Retrieved December 18, 2009.
  77. ^ "America's Changing Religious Landscape (2015, p. 130)" (PDF). Pew Research Center. Retrieved July 14, 2022.
  78. ^ Leonhardt, David (May 13, 2011). "Faith, Education and Income". The New York Times. Retrieved May 13, 2011.
  79. ^ Buckley, Louise (2012). "Chapter Three: Introduction To "The History Of Colorado College 1874–1904"" (PDF). In Loevy, Robert D. (ed.). A Colorado College Reader: Selected Writings on the History of Colorado College. Colorado Springs, Colorado: Colorado College. pp. 26–40. ISBN 978-0-93505-254-1.
  80. ^ "A Brief History". New College of Florida. Archived from the original on June 20, 2008.
  81. ^ "Timeline: 1888". Pomona College. November 7, 2014. Retrieved February 16, 2019.
  82. ^ Douglass, John; Thomas, Sally. "Digital Archives: U.C. Presidents Overview". University of California. Retrieved February 16, 2019.
  83. ^ Cowan, Alison Leigh (April 12, 2005). "In Quest to Be More Welcoming, Yale Is Severing Ties to a Church". The New York Times.
  84. ^ Stark, Bruce (January 14, 2016). "The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut". Connecticut History. Retrieved November 2, 2019.
  85. ^ Roberts, Sam (November 19, 2021). "Rev. W. Sterling Cary, Pioneering Black Churchman, Dies at 94". The New York Times. Retrieved November 19, 2021.
  86. ^ Lasswell, Mark (July 1, 2006). "On Eagle Pond Farm: The new poet laureate on politics, grief--and Poetry TV". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on July 5, 2006.
  87. ^ Drake, Tim (March 6, 2007). "Chatting With Koontz About Faith". National Catholic Register. Archived from the original on October 9, 2016. Retrieved March 6, 2007.

Further reading

Primary sources