|The Fisk Freed Colored School|
|Motto||"Her sons and daughters are ever on the altar"|
|Type||Private historically black university|
|United Church of Christ (historically related)|
|President||Dr. Vann Newkirk|
|Campus||Urban, 40 acres (16 ha)|
|Colors||Gold and Blue|
|NAIA – Independent|
|Mascot||The Fisk Bulldog|
Fisk University is a private historically black university in Nashville, Tennessee. The university was founded in 1866 and its 40-acre (16 ha) campus is a historic district listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
In 1930, Fisk was the first African-American institution to gain accreditation by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS). Accreditations for specialized programs soon followed.
Fisk Free Colored School opened on January 9, 1866, shortly after the end of the Civil War. It was founded by John Ogden, Erastus Milo Cravath, and Edward Parmelee Smith of the American Missionary Association for the education of freedmen in Nashville. Fisk was one of several schools and colleges that the association helped found across the South to educate freed slaves following the Civil War. The school is named for Clinton B. Fisk, a Union general and assistant commissioner of the Freedmen's Bureau of Tennessee. Fisk secured a site to house the school in a former military barracks near Union Station and provided $30,000 for its endowment.
The American Missionary Association's work was supported by the United Church of Christ, which retains an affiliation with the university. Fisk is the oldest higher education institution in Nashville.
Enrollment rose to 900 in the first several months following the school's opening, indicating the strong desire for education among local freedmen. Student ages ranged from seven to seventy.
During the nation's Reconstruction era, the Tennessee General Assembly passed legislation to enable free public education, which caused a need to increase teacher training. In 1867 the Fisk Free Colored School was reorganized and incorporated as Fisk University to focus on higher education. James Dallas Burrus, John Houston Burrus, Virginia E. Walker, and America W. Robinson were the first students to enroll at the university. In 1875, the two Burruses and Walker graduated from Fisk and became the first African-American students to graduate from a liberal arts college south of the Mason–Dixon line.
In 1870 Adam K. Spence became the school's principal. Spence developed plans to expand and move the school to a larger campus in north Nashville on a site that had been Fort Gillem, a Union army base. To raise money for the school's initiatives, his wife Catherine Mackie Spence traveled throughout the United States to set up mission Sunday schools in support of Fisk students, organizing endowments through the American Missionary Association. With a strong interest in religion and the arts, Adam Spence supported the founding of a student choir; they were the start of the Fisk Jubilee Singers.
With the school facing financial distress, the choir went on tour to raise funds in 1871, led by professor and university treasurer George L. White. They toured the U.S. and Europe and became a sensation, singing before Ulysses S. Grant, Mark Twain, Queen Victoria; popularizing spirituals written by Wallace Willis such as "Swing Low Sweet Chariot"; and changing racial stereotypes. Their tour raised nearly $50,000 and funded construction of Jubilee Hall. (In W.E.B. Dubois book entitled “The Souls of Black Folk”, this number is quoted at $150,000). It was the first building built for the education of freedmen in the South and is now a National Historic Landmark.
Fisk co-founder Cravath returned in 1875 and became the university's first president. He oversaw an active construction program and expansion of the school's curriculum offerings to include liberal arts, theology, and teacher training. By the turn of the 20th century, the university had strengthened its reputation, built several campus buildings, added African-American teachers and staff to the university, and enrolled a second generation of students.
Fisk's dedication to liberal arts education at the turn of the century distinguished it from many other black colleges and universities that emphasized vocational training. The school established a department of social science in 1910, founded and directed by George E. Haynes. It was the first social work training center for African-American graduate students and a model for those established at other universities. The school was criticized by some at the time for fostering an elitist reputation.
From 1915 to 1925, Fayette Avery McKenzie was president of Fisk. McKenzie's tenure, before and after World War I, was during a turbulent period in American history. In spite of many challenges, McKenzie developed Fisk as the premier all Black university in the United States, secured Fisk's academic recognition as a standard college by the Carnegie Foundation, Columbia University and the University of Chicago, raised a $1 million endowment fund to ensure quality faculty, and laid a foundation for Fisk's accreditation and future success. McKenzie was eventually forced to resign when his strict policies on dress code, extracurricular activities, and other aspects of student life led to student protests in 1924 and 1925.
Thomas Elsa Jones became the university's fourth president in 1925. He sought to diversify the university's faculty and further build the school's reputation. In 1930, Fisk became the first historically black college to gain accreditation by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools. It was also the first such institution approved by the Association of American Universities in 1933. Accreditations for specialized programs soon followed.
In 1946, Charles S. Johnson became the university's sixth president and first African-American president. Johnson was a premier sociologist, a scholar who had also been the editor of Opportunity magazine, a noted periodical of the Harlem Renaissance. Johnson expanded the school's Institute of Race Relations, which was established in 1942. The institute conducted research and fostered discussion about racial disparity in the U.S. and would later help develop strategies for desegregation in schools, employment, and the military. In 1949, Fisk received the Stieglitz Collection of modern art from photographer and arts patron Alfred Stieglitz.
In 1952, Fisk was the first predominantly black college to earn a Phi Beta Kappa charter. Organized as the Delta of Tennessee Chapter of the Phi Beta Kappa National Honor Society that December, the chapter inducted its first student members on April 4, 1953.
In 1960, Fisk students joined other black leaders in the Nashville sit-ins, nonviolent protests against segregation at lunch counters in the city during the civil rights movement. Martin Luther King, Jr., spoke at the university in May 1960 in response to civil rights movement in the city. Fisk students John Lewis and Diane Nash were leaders during the protests, which led to Nashville becoming the first major city in the South to desegregate lunch counters. The two became early leaders of the national Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC).
On April 8, 1967, a riot occurred near the Fisk and Tennessee State University campuses after Stokely Carmichael spoke at Vanderbilt University. Although it was viewed as a "race riot", it had classist characteristics. Protestors marched from Fisk to the Nashville courthouse to protest police brutality during the riots.
In 1978 Fisk's campus was recognized as a National Historic Landmark. The campus underwent significant restoration in the 1990s through assistance from a U.S. Congressional Grant.
From 2004 to 2013, Fisk was directed by its 14th president, Hazel O'Leary, former Secretary of Energy under President Bill Clinton. She was the second woman to serve as president of the university. On June 25, 2008, Fisk announced that it had successfully raised $4 million during the fiscal year ending June 30. It ended nine years of budget deficits and qualified for a Mellon Foundation challenge grant. However, Fisk still faced significant financial hardship, and said that it may need to close its doors unless its finances improved.
H. James Williams, served as president from February 2013 to September 2015. Williams had previously been dean of the Seidman College of Business at Grand Valley State University in Michigan and, before that, an accounting professor at Georgetown University, Florida A&M, and Texas Southern University. Williams was succeeded by interim president Frank Sims. In March 2017 the Fisk board of trustees announced that Kevin Rome would be Fisk university's seventeenth president.
In June 2017, a service in memory of 1892 lynching victim Ephraim Grizzard was held in the Fisk Memorial Chapel. A plaque memorializing Grizzard and two other lynching victims—is brother Henry and Samuel Smith—was installed at St. Anselm's Episcopal church in Nashville.
In 2018 the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools placed the university on probation. The accreditor cited failings related to financial responsibility, control of research funds, and federal and state responsibility. Fisk announced a fundraising record and increased enrollment the following year. In 2020, Fisk was taken off probation and maintained its accreditation.
Fisk University Historic District
|Location||Roughly bounded by 16th and 18th Aves., Hermosa, Herman and Jefferson Sts.|
|Architectural style||Italianate; Queen Anne|
|NRHP reference No.||78002579|
|Added to NRHP||February 9, 1978|
Fisk's 40-acre campus was dedicated in 1876. It sits on a small hill approximately two miles northwest of downtown that was previously Fort Gillem, a Union fort during the Civil War. The campus lies on Jefferson Street, a historic center of Nashville's African-American community.
The Fisk University Historic District was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1978. Notable campus buildings that contribute to the historic district include:
Additional campus buildings listed on the register include Little Theater, Harris Music Building, numerous residential structures, and a limestone wall built around 1873.
In the 1930s the university hired the Olmsted Brothers firm to lead a master design of its campus at this time, resulting in the Beaux-Arts landscape.
Fisk is the home of a music literature collection founded by the noted Harlem Renaissance figure Carl Van Vechten, for whom the campus museum is named. It also holds a substantial collection of materials associated with Charles W. Chestnutt.
Harlem Renaissance painter Aaron Douglas was commissioned to paint murals for the new campus library, Cravath Hall, in 1930. Douglas described them a "panorama of the development of Black people in this hemisphere, in the new world." Douglas returned to Fisk in 1939 to teach and later served as chair of the university's art department. The murals were restored in 2003.
In 1949, Georgia O'Keeffe, wife and executrix of her late husband's estate, in accordance with the terms of his will, donated to Fisk a number of paintings that had belonged to her husband, the photographer and art patron Alfred Stieglitz. The collection consists of 101 works by important artists, including European modernists Paul Cézanne, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Pablo Picasso and Diego Rivera, as well as American artists Marsden Hartley, Arthur Dove and Charles Demuth and works by O'Keeffe.
In 2005, mounting financial difficulties and deteriorating conditions in the gallery led the University trustees to vote to sell two of the paintings, O'Keeffe's "Radiator Building" and Hartley's "Painting No. 3," together estimated to be worth up to $45 million U.S. The sale was challenged by the Georgia O'Keeffe Museum, the legal guardians of her estate. This challenge failed. A joint agreement was established between Fisk University and the Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art. The two museums now share the works' presentation and display rights of the Stieglitz collection; ownership remains with Fisk University, in accord with the terms of Stieglitz's estate. Presentation and display rights rotate between Fisk University and Crystal Bridges Museum every two years. In 2016, as part of the university's sesquicentennial celebration, the collection was displayed at the newly renovated Carl Van Vechten Gallery.
Fisk University has a strong record of academic excellence: it has graduated more African Americans who go on to earn PhDs in the natural sciences than any other institution.
Started in 2004, the Fisk-Vanderbilt bridge program helps underrepresented groups gain access to Ph.D. programs in STEM fields. The partnership between a small, historically black college and a major research university aims to diversify doctoral study. The program, which has received money from NASA, the National Science Foundation, and the Integrative Graduate Education and Research Traineeship, provides a scholarship for a master's degree at Fisk University and close mentorship for students who go on to a Ph.D. Since 2004, 21 students in the program have completed a Ph.D., with another 56 currently pursuing graduate study. The program has a success rate far higher than the national average for completion of Ph.D. programs, which is about 50%.
|Liberal arts colleges|
|U.S. News & World Report||171–221|
Fisk University teams, nicknamed athletically as the Bulldogs, are part of the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA) Division I level, and competed in the Gulf Coast Athletic Conference (GCAC) until 2014. Men's sports include basketball, cross country, tennis and track & field; women's sports include basketball, cross country, softball, tennis, track & field and volleyball.
|Lil Hardin Armstrong||1915||jazz pianist/composer, second wife of Louis Armstrong|
|Constance Baker Motley||1941–1942||first African-American woman elected to the New York State Senate|
|Marion Barry||1960||former mayor of Washington, D.C.|
|Mary Frances Berry||former Chair, United States Commission on Civil Rights; former Chancellor University of Colorado at Boulder|
|John Betsch||1967||jazz percussionist|
|Joyce Bolden||first African-American woman to serve on the Commission for Accreditation of the National Association of Schools of Music|
|Otis Boykin||1942||inventor, control device for the heart pacemaker|
|St. Elmo Brady||first African American to earn a doctorate in Chemistry|
|Virginia E. Walker Broughton||1875, 1878||author and Baptist missionary|||
|Cora Brown||first African-American woman elected to a state senate|
|James Dallas Burrus||1875||educator|
|John Houston Burrus||1875||educator|
|Henry Alvin Cameron||1896||educator, decorated World War I veteran|
|Elizabeth Hortense (Golden) Canady||past national president of Delta Sigma Theta sorority|
|Alfred O. Coffin||first African American to earn a doctorate in zoology|
|Malia Cohen||2001||San Francisco District 10 Supervisor 2010 – Present|
|Johnnetta B. Cole||anthropologist, former President of Spelman College and Bennett College|
|Neal Craig||1971||NFL Cornerback for Cincinnati Bengals, Buffalo Bills, and Cleveland Browns|
|Minnie Lee Crosthwaite||community organizer, women's activist, and social worker|
|Minnie Lou Crosthwaite||teacher, college administrator, activist|
|Arthur Cunningham||1951||musical composer, studied at Juilliard and Columbia University|
|William L. Dawson (politician)||1909||U.S. Congressman (1943–1970)|
|Charles Diggs||United States House of Representatives Michigan (1955–1980)|
|Mahala Ashley Dickerson||1935||first black female attorney in the state of Alabama and first black president of the National Association of Women Lawyers|
|Rel Dowdell||1993||acclaimed filmmaker|
|W. E. B. Du Bois||1888||sociologist, scholar, first African-American to earn a Ph.D. from Harvard|
|James J. Durham||1880, 1885||Founder of Morris College|
|Althea Brown Edmiston||1901||Presbyterian missionary in Belgian Congo|
|Venida Evans||1969||actress, best known for IKEA commercials|
|Etta Zuber Falconer||1953||first African-American woman to receive a Ph.D. in mathematics; former Chair, mathematics department at Spelman College|
|John Hope Franklin||1935||historian, professor, scholar, author of landmark text From Slavery to Freedom|
|Victor O. Frazer||United States House of Representatives (1995–1997)|
|Alonzo Fulgham||former acting chief and operating officer of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)|
|Nikki Giovanni||1967||poet, author, professor, scholar|
|Louis George Gregory||posthumously, a Hand of the Cause in Bahá'í Faith|
|Eliza Ann Grier||1891||first African-American female physician in Georgia|
|Kevin Hales||professor, Africologist, Fulbright Scholar, NEH Scholar, Teaching Excellence Professor (Scholar of global African culture)|
|Alcee Hastings||U.S. Congressman and former U.S. district court judge|
|Roland Hayes||concert singer|
|Perry Wilbon Howard||Assistant U.S. Attorney General under President Herbert Hoover|
|Elmer Imes||1903||renowned physicist and second African-American to earn a Ph.D in Physics|
|Esther Cooper Jackson||1940||Founding editor of Freedomways Journal|
|Lena Terrell Jackson||1885||educator in Nashville for over 50 years|
|Leonard Jackson (actor)||1952||Actor, Five on the Black Hand Side; The Color Purple|
|Robert James||former NFL cornerback|
|Judith Jamison||pioneering dancer and choreographer; former artistic Director, Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater|
|Ted Jarrett||R&B recording artist and producer|
|Dr. Charles Jeter||1971||father of Derek Jeter|
|Ben Jobe||1956||legendary basketball coach, Southern University|
|Joyce Johnson||1953||Organist and Professor Emerita of music at Spelman College in Atlanta|
|Lewis Wade Jones||1931||sociologist; Julius Rosenwald Foundation Fellow at Columbia University|
|Ella Mae Johnson||1921||at age 105 years old, Ella Mae Johnson traveled to Washington, DC to attend the inauguration of Barack Obama|
|Mame Stewart Josenberger||1888||businesswoman and clubwoman in Arkansas|
|Anne Gamble Kennedy||1941||Pianist, professor, and piano accompanist for the Fisk Jubilee Singers|
|Matthew Kennedy||1947||Pianist, professor, and former director of the Fisk Jubilee Singers|
|Mathew Knowles||1973||father and former manager of Beyoncé, founder and owner of Music World Entertainment, and adjunct professor at Texas Southern University|
|Dr. John Angelo Lester||1895||Professor Emeritus of Physiology, Meharry Medical College|
|Nella Larsen||1908||novelist, Harlem Renaissance era|
|Julius Lester||1960||author of children's books and former professor at the University of Massachusetts Amherst|
|David Levering Lewis||1956||two-time Pulitzer Prize Winner|
|John Lewis||1967||Congressman, civil rights activist, former President of Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)|
|Hettie Simmons Love||1943||first African-American to earn an MBA at the Wharton School of Business at the University of Pennsylvania|
|Jimmie Lunceford||1925||famous bandleader in the swing era|
|Aubrey Lyles||1903||vaudeville performer|
|Mandisa||2001||Grammy Award-winning and Dove Award-nominated Christian contemporary singer/songwriter, ninth-place finalist in the fifth season (2006) of American Idol|
|Ariana Austin Makonnen||philanthropist and member of the Ethiopian Imperial Family|
|Patti J. Malone||1880||Fisk Jubilee Singer|
|Louis E. Martin||1933||Godfather of Black Politics|
|Fatima Massaquoi||1936||pioneering Liberian educator|||
|Jedidah Isler||2007||Isler became the first African-American woman to receive a PhD in Astrophysics from Yale University in 2014|||
|Wade H. McCree||1941||second African-American United States Solicitor General; Justice, U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit|
|Samuel A. McElwee||1883||State Senator during the Reconstruction Era and the first African American elected three times to the Tennessee General Assembly|
|Robert McFerrin||first African American male to sing at the Metropolitan Opera and father of Bobby McFerrin|
|Leslie Meek||1987||Administrative Law Judge, wife of Congressman Kendrick Meek|
|Theo Mitchell||1960||Senator, South Carolina General Assembly|
|Undine Smith Moore||first Fisk graduate to receive a scholarship to Juilliard, Pulitzer Prize Nominee|
|Diane Nash||founding member of SNCC|
|Rachel B. Noel||politician; first African-American to serve on the Denver Public Schools Board of Education|
|Lonnie H. Norris, D.M.D., M.P.H.||1964||first African American Dean in the history of Tufts University School of Dental Medicine.|||
|Donna M. Norris M.D.||1964||psychiatrist and the first black and first woman speaker at the assembly of the American Psychiatric Association.|||
|Hon. Hazel O'Leary||former U.S. Secretary of Energy|
|Lucius T. Outlaw, Jr.||Philosophy professor at Vanderbilt University|
|J.O. Patterson, Jr.||1958||first African American to occupy the office of Mayor of Memphis. Tennessee State Representative, State Senator, Memphis Councilman, Jurisdictional Bishop in the Church of God in Christ|
|Helen Phillips||1928||first African-American to perform with the Metropolitan Opera Chorus|
|Annette Lewis Phinazee||1939||first black woman to earn a doctorate in library sciences from Columbia University|
|Alma Powell||wife of Gen. Colin Powell|
|Cecelia Cabaniss Saunders||1903||director of Harlem YWCA, 1914-1947|
|Lorenzo Dow Turner||1910||linguist and Chair, African Studies at Roosevelt University|
|A. Maceo Walker||1930||businessman, Universal Life Insurance, Tri-State Bank|
|Ron Walters||1963||scholar of African-American politics, Chair, Afro-American Studies Brandeis University|
|Margaret Murray Washington||1890||Lady Principal of Tuskegee Institute and third wife of Booker T. Washington|
|Teresa N. Washington||1993||academic, author, activist|
|Ida B. Wells||American civil rights activist and women's suffrage advocate|
|Charles H. Wesley||1911||President of Wilberforce University from 1942 to 1947, and President of Central State College from 1947–1965; third African-American to receive a Ph.D. from Harvard|
|Kym Whitley||actress, comedian|
|Frederica Wilson||1963||U.S. Representative for Florida's 17th congressional district|
|Tom Wilson (producer)||1953||music producer, best known for his work with Bob Dylan and Frank Zappa|
|Frank Yerby||1938||first African-American to publish a best-selling novel|
|Camille Akeju||Art||Art historian and museum administrator|||
|Ebenezer Ako-Adjei||African studies||Ghanaian politician and founding member of the United Gold Coast Convention|
|Arna Bontemps||Librarian||Head librarian and Harlem Renaissance poet|||
|Minnie Lou Crosthwaite||teacher, college administrator, activist|
|Aaron Douglas||Art||Harlem Renaissance painter, illustrator, and muralist|||
|Robert Hayden||United States Poet Laureate (1976–1978)|||
|Charles Spurgeon Johnson||President, Research||First African-American president of Fisk University|||
|James Weldon Johnson||Literature||Author, poet, and civil rights activist; wrote the poem on which the song "Lift Ev'ry Voice and Sing" is based (also known as the Black national anthem)|||
|Thomas Elsa Jones||President||Fifth president of Fisk University|||
|Percy Lavon Julian||Chemistry||Chemist and second African-American member of the National Academy of Sciences|||
|Anne Gamble Kennedy||Music||Concert pianist, piano professor, and accompanist for the Fisk Jubilee Singers|
|Matthew Kennedy||Music||Concert pianist, piano professor, and director of the Fisk Jubilee Singers (1957–1986 intermittently)|||
|John Oliver Killens||Writer in Residence||Two-time Pulitzer Prize nominee|||
|Lee Lorch||Mathematics||Mathematician and civil rights activist. Fired in 1955 for refusing to testify before the House Un-American Activities Committee.|||
|Hazel R. O'Leary||President||First woman and first African-American U.S. Secretary of Energy; fourteenth president of Fisk University|||
|Helen Clarissa Morgan||Latin||First woman to be appointed professor of Latin (1869–1907) at a coeducational college|||
|Robert E. Park||Sociology||Sociologist of the Chicago School|||
|John W. Work III||Music||Choir director, ethnomusicologist, and scholar of Afro-American folk music|||