Texas Southern University
Former name
Houston Colored Junior College (1927–1934)
Houston College for Negroes (1934–1947)
Texas State University for Negroes (1947–1951)[1]
MottoExcellence in Achievement
TypePublic historically black university
EstablishedMarch 7, 1927; 97 years ago (1927-03-07)
Endowment$78.4 million (2023)[2]
PresidentMary E Sias (interim)
ProvostLillian B. Poats (interim)
Administrative staff
Students8,632 (fall 2022)[3]
Undergraduates6,830 (fall 2022)
Postgraduates1,802 (fall 2022)

29°43′20″N 95°21′40″W / 29.72222°N 95.36111°W / 29.72222; -95.36111
CampusUrban, 150 acres (61 ha)
NewspaperThe TSU Herald[4]
Colors   Maroon & gray[5]
Sporting affiliations

Texas Southern University (Texas Southern or TSU) is a public historically black university in Houston, Texas. The university is one of the largest and most comprehensive historically black college or universities in the United States with nearly 8,000 students enrolled and over 100 academic programs.[6] The university is a member school of the Thurgood Marshall College Fund and it is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools.[7] It is classified among "R2: Doctoral Universities – High research activity".[8]

Texas Southern University is an important institution in Houston's Third Ward. Alvia Wardlaw of Cite: The Architecture + Design Review of Houston wrote that the university serves as "the cultural and community center of" the Third Ward area where it is located, in addition to being its university.[9] The university also serves as a notable economic resource for Greater Houston, contributing over $500 million to the region's gross sales and being directly and indirectly responsible for over 3,000 jobs.[10]

Texas Southern University intercollegiate sports teams, the Tigers, compete in NCAA Division I and the Southwestern Athletic Conference (SWAC). Texas Southern is also home of the Ocean of Soul marching band.


On March 7, 1927, the Houston Independent School District board resolved to establish junior colleges for each race, as the state was racially segregated in all public facilities. The resolution created Houston Junior College, which later became the University of Houston, and Houston Colored Junior College, which first held classes at Jack Yates High School during the evenings. The school's name was later changed to Houston College for Negroes in 1934.

In February 1946, Heman Marion Sweatt, an African American man, applied to the University of Texas School of Law. He was denied admission because of race, and subsequently filed suit in Sweatt v. Painter (1950). The state had no law school for African Americans. To avoid integrating the University of Texas Law School, the state of Texas made several offers to Heman Marion Sweatt to keep him from going to court. They offered to establish the Texas State University of Negroes which would include a law school. Some black leaders welcomed the idea of having another state supported university in Texas, while many others felt as though the university was created to solely avoid the integration of the University of Texas, as well as other white institutions. In the end, they did not grant Sweatt a writ of mandamus to attend the University of Texas. Instead the trial court granted a continuance for six months to allow the state time to create a law school for blacks.

As a result, the Fiftieth Texas Legislature passed Texas Senate Bill 140 on March 3, 1947, authorizing and funding the creation of Texas State University for Negroes as the first state university to be located in Houston.[11] The school was established to serve African Americans in Texas and offer them fields of study comparable to those available to white Texans. The state took over the Houston Independent School District (HISD)-run Houston College for Negroes as a basis for the new university. Houston College moved to the present site (adjacent to the University of Houston), which was donated by Hugh Roy Cullen. It had one permanent building and an existing faculty and students. The new university was charged with teaching "pharmacy, dentistry, arts and sciences, journalism, education, literature, law, medicine and other professional courses." The legislature stipulated that "these courses shall be equivalent to those offered at other institutions of this type supported by the State of Texas."

Given the differences in facilities and intangibles, such as the distance of the new school from Austin, the University of Texas School of Law, and other law students, the United States Supreme Court ruled the new facility did not satisfy "separate but equal" provisions. It ruled that African Americans must also be admitted to the University of Texas Law School at Austin. See Sweatt v. Painter (1950).[11]

In March 1960, Texas Southern University students organized Houston's first sit-in at the Weingarten's lunch counter located at 4110 Almeda.[12][13] The success of their efforts inspired more sit-ins throughout the city, which, within months, led to the desegregation of many of Houston's public establishments.[14] A historical marker commissioned by the Texas Historical Commission stands on the property of the first sit-in to commemorate the courageous acts of those TSU students. That property is now a U.S. Post Office. TSU journalism professor Serbino Sandifer-Walker worked for nearly two years with the Texas Historical Commission, the original students who led the march, and many other stakeholders, to have the historic marker designated on March 4, 2010, the fiftieth anniversary of that sit-in.[15]

On May 17, 1967, it was reported that students at TSU rioted on campus. When officers responded thousands of shots were fired and there were injuries on both sides including a death of a police officer. Nearly 500 students were arrested.[16] Although media sources reported this as a riot, there were no reports of looting, destruction of property, or resistance of any arrest. Furthermore, the reports failed to mention the prior invasion of police officers on campus, or the reports of students getting roughed up on campus. The police raid caused over $10,000 of damage and it was reported over 3,000 shots were fired into the Lanier dormitory. There was little coverage that, the five students whom were charged with conspiracy and incitement of riot were all exonerated due to lack of evidence, or that the police officer died not from student fire, but the ricochet of Houston Police Department bullets. [17]

A Democratic presidential debate took place on September 12, 2019, in TSU's Health and Physical Education Arena.

The university drew national attention in early 2020 when the Governor of Texas appointed board of trustees targeted the university's sitting president and changed its bylaws to give the board the power to remove anyone employed by the university. The board first suspended and then fired president Austin Lane, alleging that he failed to inform them about allegations of fraud committed by a former assistant dean at the Thurgood Marshall School of Law. Lane disputed the allegations.[18] Just prior to removing Lane, the board also changed its bylaws to allow it to "approve the termination of any position" at the university, a change that drew condemnation from several university governance experts as inappropriate micromanagement.[19] In February 2020, the board of trustees publicly agreed there was no wrongdoing on the part of Lane and paid him nearly $900,000 in the buyout of his contract.[20] A new president was to be named in 2020.[21] In February 2020, one month prior to the visit of a site visit team representing the university's regional accreditor, the board partially repealed the new bylaws that allowed them to fire any university employee.[22]


Granville M. Sawyer Auditorium

The university has more than 45 buildings on a 150-acre (0.61 km2) urban gated campus centrally located in Houston. The campus is two miles southeast of Downtown Houston and five miles east of Uptown Houston. TSU is recognized as a Tree Campus USA school for its commitment to preserving and increasing campus trees.[23]

The school's first structure was the Thornton B. Fairchild Building, built 1947–1948 and housing administration and classroom space. Temporary buildings served as faculty housing during that time.[9] The Mack H. Hannah hall, designed by Lamar Q. Cato and opened in 1950, was the second building. In the late 1950s many more buildings opened, including classroom, dormitory, and student union facilities.[24]

Notable buildings

University Museum

Completed in 2000, the 11,000-square-foot (1,000 m2) exhibition space displays a variety of historical and contemporary art. The museum is the permanent home of the Web of Life, a twenty-six-foot mural by world-renowned artist John T. Biggers,[25] founding chairman of the TSU art department.[26]

Mack H. Hannah Hall

Multiple TSU student-created murals are present in Hannah Hall.[27]

The building had two 1971 murals by Harvey Johnson,[28] a longtime TSU art instructor, about African influences in U.S. culture and mothers: Mothers of "the Fathers and the Son" and Dere's a "Han Writin on de Wall". He was educated by the founder of the TSU art school, Dr. John T. Biggers.[29] It, as part of the Black Power movement, was Johnson's senior project, as the university at the time allowed its students to create murals on campus property. African American Vernacular English (AAVE) was a feature of the titles.[28]

In 2008 incoming TSU president John Rudley had the murals painted over with white paint, stating that they were not high quality enough.[29] A spokesperson initially stated that the painting over was an error but Rudley later stated it was intentional. The director of the university museum, Alvia J. Wardlaw, who teaches art history, expressed disagreement with the decision.[27] The Houston Chronicle criticized the removal in an editorial.[30] Johnson himself expressed disappointment with the removal. Rudley later appropriated funds for possible restoration of memorials due to the negative reception.[29]

Leonard H.O. Spearman Technology

Leonard H.O. Spearman building

In 2014, TSU unveiled a $31 million, 108,000-square-foot, four-story structure named after the school's fifth president. In addition to having 35 labs, the facility is home to a Tier 1 University Transportation Center, the Center for Transportation Training and Research, and the National Science Foundation Center for Research on Complex Networks. The departments of Engineering, Transportation Studies, Computer Science, Industrial Technology, Physics, and Aviation Science and Technology academic programs are housed in the building.[31] TSU is the only four-year state supported university in Texas to offer a Pilot Ground School course and the first HBCU to implement a Maritime Transportation degree program.[32][33]

Jesse H. Jones School of Business

Jesse H. Jones (JHJ) School of Business is located in a three-story, 76,000-square-foot building completed in 1998 and accommodates 1,600 students in undergraduate and graduate studies. The Jesse H. Jones School of Business is the first business school at a HBCU to be accredited by the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB)[34][35] and been named one of the "Best Business Schools" by the Princeton Review.[36] JHJ School of Business is consistently one of the highest ranked business schools from a public HBCU in the U.S. News & World Report rankings.[37]

College of Education

The College of Education building consists of the Department of Counseling, the Department of Curriculum and Instruction, the Department of Educational Administration & Foundations, and the Department of Health and Kinesiology. The college has an enrollment of approximately 1,000 in undergraduate and graduate studies.[38] In 2014, the National Council on Teacher Quality ranked TSU's College of Education 56th in the nation for best secondary education programs and gave the college a "top-ranked" distinction.[39]

Barbara Jordan–Mickey Leland School of Public Affairs

An extensive set of curricular offerings is provided through the Barbara Jordan–Mickey Leland School of Public Affairs, which offers courses in Administration of Justice (AJ), Political Science (POLS), Public Affairs (PA), Military Science (MSCI), and Urban Planning & Environmental Policy (UPEP) on the undergraduate, graduate, or doctoral level. The school sits in an 82,000-square-foot facility completed in 2008.

TSU Justice Center

On January 22, 2018, the university published a new establishment Center for Justice Research (CJR) in the Barbara Jordan–Mickey Leland School of Public Affairs. The center is intended to create innovative solutions to criminal justice alteration and address challenges in America's criminal justice system. The award is granted by Charles Koch Foundation and Koch Industries.[40]

TSU Science Center

TSU Science Center

The TSU Science Center building is home to several scholastic programs, such as the Houston Louis Stokes Alliance Minority Program (H-LSAMP). It also houses several research programs, such as the NASA University Research Center for Bio-Nanotechnology and Environmental Research (NASA URC C-BER), Maritime Transportation Studies and Research, as well as the STEM research program. TSU's NASA University Research Center (C-BER) addresses human health concerns related to crewed exploration of space. Programs such as TSU's NASA University Research Center (C-BER) and participation in The Louis Stokes Alliance for Minority Preparation Program (LSAMP) support undergraduate, graduate and faculty development while helping to increase the number of US citizens receiving degrees in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) fields.[41] The science center also houses the only doctoral degree program in environmental toxicology in Southeast Texas.

Spurgeon N. Gray Hall (COPHS)

The College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences (COPHS) is housed in the Spurgeon N. Gray Hall. COPHS has approximately 800 students. The 2016 pharmacy graduates had a 90% first-attempt pass rate on the NAPLEX which was above the national average (85%), third highest in Texas, and highest among HBCUs.[42] TSU is one of only two public HBCUs in the United States with an accredited and comprehensive pharmacy program.[43] COPHS is the first and only in Houston to offer a Master of Science in Health Care Administration degree.[44]

Thurgood Marshall School of Law

The Thurgood Marshall School of Law (TMSL) is one of six public law schools in Texas and ranks as one of the most diverse law schools in the nation by U.S. News & World Report.[45] TMSL is accredited by the American Bar Association (ABA) and a member-school of The Association of American Law Schools (AALS).[46] Enrollment is at approximately 600 students.

The Texas College for Negroes was initially housed in Austin, Texas, but was eventually transferred to Texas Southern University's campus. The creation of the Law School did not have the support of Thurgood Marshall or the NAACP. However, in 1976 now U.S. Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall, agreed to name formally the "Law School of Texas Southern University," the "Thurgood Marshall School of Law."[47]


TSU sign on campus

Metropolitan Transit Authority of Harris County (METRO) operates public transportation services, including buses and the METRORail tram service, which serve the university. The METRORail Purple Line station serving the university is Robertson Stadium/UH/TSU station.

In June 2019 Texas Southern University became home to the region's first Shared Autonomous Shuttle in conjunction with a partnership between METRO, TSU and the Houston-Galveston Area Council. The shuttle can carry up to 15 passengers and travels using a pre-programmed route, equipped with a sensor and intelligent vehicle system to detect obstacles and avoid collisions.[48]


Academic rankings
U.S. News & World Report[49]395-435
Washington Monthly[50]369

Texas Southern University offers over 100 bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees. Texas Southern is classified by the Carnegie Foundation as a "doctoral university with higher research activity"[51] comprising several schools and colleges along with several scholastic and research programs.


The Library Learning Center

Texas Southern University's main library is the Library Learning Center. The Library Learning Center is home to the Thomas F. Freeman Honors College, computer labs, study rooms, tutorial services, an African Art Gallery, The Heartman Collection, and many types of valuable archives.[55][56][57][58]

The Thurgood Marshall School of Law building also houses an extensive library.


Student body composition as of May 2, 2022
Race and ethnicity[59] Total
Black 83% 83
Hispanic 8% 8
Other[a] 3% 3
Foreign national 3% 3
Asian 2% 2
White 1% 1
Economic diversity
Low-income[b] 81% 81
Affluent[c] 19% 19

As of fall 2022, approximately 83% of the student body are Texas residents. The top three feeder states are California (259), Louisiana (209), Georgia (93). The top three countries of origin (outside the U.S.) are Nigeria (58), The Bahamas (36), and Saudi Arabia (15). 64% of the student body identify as female, 36% identify as male.[3]

Student life

TSU cheerleaders at the Cotton Bowl in 2019

Some of TSU's over 80 student organizations include the TSU Royal Court, TSU Cheerleaders, Debate Team, Psi Chi Honor Society, all nine organizations of the National Pan-Hellenic Council, Students in Free Enterprise, Student Business Leadership Organization (SBLO), Living Testimony Gospel Ministry, TSU Dance Company, HER TSU, Women of GOLD, CSL (Caribbean Student Organization), Boys to Men, Campus PALS, Collegiate 100, Hispanic Student Association (HSA), African Student Association (ASA), California Club, Midwest Club, Louisiana Club, Political Science Club, National Society of Black Engineers, Pre-Law Society, Pre-Alumni Association, University Program Council (UPC), and Student Government Association (SGA).[60]

Debate team

The Texas Southern debate team was founded by professor and coach Thomas Freeman in 1949. Freeman led the team for more than 60 years as the team rose to national prominence, according to his obituary in the New York Times. He is credited for training notable leaders such as former U.S. Congresswoman Barbara Jordan, and civil rights activist Martin Luther King Jr. while serving as a visiting professor at Morehouse College.[61][62] He retired in 2017 and died on June 6, 2020.

Ocean of Soul

Main article: Ocean of Soul

Texas Southern's marching band the Ocean of Soul has won numerous awards and performed at Super Bowls,[63] The Stellar Awards,[64] various parades, NBA and Houston Texans games. The 200-plus-member band alumni include Grammy award-winning jazz saxophonist Kirk Whalum. The Ocean of Soul is complemented by The Motion of The Ocean, a female danceline that has been featured on America's Best Dance Crew.


Texas Southern Tigers football players in 2021

Main article: Texas Southern Tigers

Texas Southern sports teams participate in NCAA Division I (Championship Subdivision for football) in the Southwestern Athletic Conference (SWAC). Texas Southern is part of the Western Division in SWAC divisional sports.

Men's varsity sports include baseball, basketball, football, golf, and track and field. Women's varsity sports include basketball, bowling, cross country, golf, soccer, softball, dance (TSU Tiger Sensations), Cheer, track and field, and volleyball.[65]

Texas Southern's most well-known rival is Prairie View A&M.

Athletic facilities

Tiger and Lady Tiger basketball

Main articles: Texas Southern Tigers basketball and Texas Southern Lady Tigers basketball

Tiger football

Main article: Texas Southern Tigers football

Tiger baseball

A Tigers baseball player at bat during a 2022 game at MacGregor Park

The Texas Southern Baseball team competes in the SWAC and plays home games at MacGregor Park. The Tigers were back-to-back conference champions in 2017 and 2018. The Tigers also won the SWAC baseball tournament in 2004, 2008, and 2015. Michael Robertson was hired as head coach in 2009.

Tiger Volleyball

Texas Southern Volleyball competes at the HP&E Arena. Texas Southern University Volleyball won their first SWAC ring in 1989 against Southern University (3–0). Prior to receiving rings, the Volleyball Team won SWAC Championships in 1986 & 1988. Then in 1990 & 1991 they returned with another ring against Prairie View (3–0). The last SWAC championship Lady Tiger Volleyball received was in 1994 against Prairie View (3–0).

Tiger Softball

Texas Southern Softball team competes at Memorial Park in Houston. The Lady Tigers softball team won their first and second SWAC conference championship back to back years in 2014 and 2015. The Lady Tigers then went on to win their third SWAC championship in 2017. The Lady Tigers have also won the western division championship of the conference nine consecutive years. The Lady Tigers are coached by Worley Barker and assisted by Jasmin Hutchinson

KTSU 90.9 FM

Main article: KTSU

In addition to serving as a training unit for TSU students, the station was established to serve the university at the program level as well as Greater Houston by presenting various types of TSU athletic, educational, cultural and social programs to a primarily listening area within a 10-mile (16 km) radius of the university. A 1973 survey indicated that radio was generally the preferred source of information of African-Americans, particularly those with less than a high school education. By the late 1970s, the station had secured an ample audience and programming increased in scope. At the same time, the station increased its power range from 10 watts to 18,500 watts. According to the Arbitron Rating Service (ARS), KTSU has an audience of 244,700 listeners and is number one overall of Houston and Galveston stations for its Sunday format and its Friday format of Golden Oldies.[67]

Notable alumni

Name Class year Notability References
Joseph Dunbar 1966 Medical researcher [68]
Art Strahan 1964-1965 Former NFL defensive end for the Houston Oilers and Atlanta Falcons, former COFL defensive end [69]
DJ Candlestick 2019 Official remix DJ for Drake and OVO Sound, member of The Chopstars
Kenneth M. Hoyt 1969 and 1972 Nominated by President Ronald Reagan to a seat on the United States District Court for the Southern District of Texas. He was the second African-American to serve as federal judge in Texas. He took senior status in 2013.
Ernie Holmes 1971 Former NFL defensive tackle for the Pittsburgh Steelers, original member of the famed Steel Curtain defensive line, two-time Super Bowl Champion
Jennifer Holliday Attended Singer and cast member of Dreamgirls
Tray Walker 2015 Former Baltimore Ravens cornerback
Roberto R. Alonzo 1984 Texas State Representative from District 104 (Dallas) [70]
Barbara Mallory Caraway 1978 Former Member of the Texas House of Representatives from District 110 (Dallas)
Ruth McClendon African-American Democrat member of the Texas House of Representatives from San Antonio since 1996; former member of the San Antonio City Council and Mayor Pro Tem from 1993 to 1996; former juvenile probation officer [71]
Gilbert Pena 1996 2015 Hispanic Republican member of the Texas House of Representatives from District 144 in Pasadena; graduated in Political Science at the age of forty-seven [72]
Morris Overstreet 1975 First African-American to be elected to statewide office in Texas. He served on the state's highest appellate court from 1990 to 1998
Leslie D. King 1973 Mississippi Supreme Court Justice
Kirk Whalum 1982 Jazz saxophonist
Kase Lukman Lawal 1976 Chairman and CEO of CAMAC International Corporation and chairman of Allied Energy Corporation in Houston, Texas, Chairman/Chief Executive Officer, CAMAC HOLDINGS;[1] vice chairman, Port of Houston Authority Commission
Rodney Ellis 1975 Harris County Commissioner Precinct 1 (2017–present); Former member of the Texas Senate, District 13 1990–2016 and the Houston City Council District D (1983–1990) (Houston)
Sylvia Garcia 1978 Member of the Texas Senate, District 6 (Houston)
Harry E. Johnson 1986 President and CEO, from its 2002 establishment, of the Washington, D.C. Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial Project Foundation, Inc. [73]
Jarvis Johnson 1996 Member of the Texas House of Representatives, District 139 (Houston) since January 2017; Former member of the Houston City Council from the B District 2005-11
Tony Wyllie 1993 Senior Vice President for the Washington Redskins. He has previously worked as an Assistant Director of Public Relations for the St. Louis Rams, the Director of Public Relations for the Tennessee Titans, and Vice President of Communications for the Houston Texans
George A. McElroy 1956 Pioneering journalist/educator/activist
Ron Reynolds 1995 Member of the Texas House of Representatives from District 27 since 2011; lawyer in Missouri City [74]
Senfronia Thompson 1961 Member of the Texas House of Representatives from the 141st district (Houston)
Lloyd C. A. Wells Sports photographer and civil rights activist on the behalf of black athletes
Robert Taylor Winner of gold medal in 4x100 m relay at the 1972 Summer Olympics
Greg Briggs 1991 Former NFL defensive back
Ken Burrough 1970 Former NFL wide receiver
Joseph Anderson 2011 Current NFL wide receiver
Brett Maxie 1985 Former NFL defensive back and current NFL assistant coach
Lloyd Mumphord 1969 Former NFL defensive back
Warren Wells 1969 Former NFL wide receiver
Julius Adams 1971 Former NFL defensive lineman ju
Arthur Cox 1982-1983 Former NFL tight end
Donald Narcisse 1986-1987 Former Canadian Football League wide receiver. Canadian Football Hall of Fame inductee, 2010
Markus Howell 1999-2000 Former CFL wide receiver and current CFL Assistant Coach
Cortez Hankton 2002 Former NFL wide receiver and current assistant football coach at Louisiana State University [75]
Oliver Celestin 2002 Former NFL defensive back [76]
Warren Bone 1985-1986 Former NFL player [77]
Wilton Felder Saxophonist and bass player (a founding member of The Crusaders) [78]
Conrad Murray 1977 former cardiologist who was the personal physician of Michael Jackson at the time of his death in 2009.
Belvin Perry 1977 Chief Judge of the Ninth Judicial Circuit in Orlando, Florida, and presided over the Casey Anthony trial. [79]
Byron E. Price 1987 Author, Distinguished Professor, and he is a highly sought and award-winning speaker on implementing ecologically conscious infrastructure restructuring efforts in Africa.
Ronald C. Green 1996 Current City Controller of Houston and a former member of the Houston City Council [80]
Jim Hines 1968 2 Gold medals at 1968 Olympics, First sprinter to officially break the 10-second barrier in the 100 meters, and former NFL player [81]
Delita Martin 2002 Printmaker received her BFA in Fine Art from Texas Southern University. She has exhibited both nationally and internationally in places such as Houston, Little Rock, India, and Denmark. [82]
Jeremy Combs 2019 2 basketball player for Israeli team Hapoel Ramat Gan Givatayim [83]
Marvin Jones 2017 2 basketball player in the Israeli Basketball Premier League [84]
Allen Lyday 1970 Former NFL defensive back

Notable faculty

Name Department Notability Reference
Mathew Knowles Communications Father of Beyoncé Knowles-Carter and Solange Knowles, founder of Music World Entertainment, former manager for the members of Destiny's Child and Solange, and adjunct instructor in the School of Communication and Jesse H. Jones School of Business. [85]
Robert D. Bullard Sociology Well-noted scholar of environmental justice
Dr. Rod Paige Education Former US Secretary of Education 2001–2005; at TSU served as head football coach, athletic director, education professor, and dean of education [86]

See also


  1. ^ Other consists of Multiracial Americans & those who prefer to not say.
  2. ^ The percentage of students who received an income-based federal Pell grant intended for low-income students.
  3. ^ The percentage of students who are a part of the American middle class at the bare minimum.


  1. ^ "HISTORY". tsu.edu. Texas Southern University. Retrieved July 6, 2022.
  2. ^ "Texas Southern University - Profile, Rankings and Data". US News Best Colleges. March 10, 2016. Retrieved August 6, 2023.
  3. ^ a b "Microsoft Power BI".
  4. ^ "The TSU Herald - Online". The Tsu Herald. Retrieved October 15, 2022.
  5. ^ TSU Graphic Standards (PDF). September 1, 2015. Retrieved April 9, 2016.
  6. ^ "TSU History" (PDF). Jesse H. Jones School of Business. p. 8. Retrieved May 18, 2015. [permanent dead link]
  7. ^ "COC Colleges & Universities" (PDF). Southern Associates of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges. Retrieved May 18, 2015.
  8. ^ "Carnegie Classifications Institution Lookup". carnegieclassifications.iu.edu. Center for Postsecondary Education. Retrieved September 13, 2020.
  9. ^ a b Wardlaw, Alvia. "Heart of the Third Ward: Texas Southern University" (Archive). Cite: The Architecture + Design Review of Houston. Rice Design Alliance, Fall 1996. Volume 35. p.20.
  10. ^ Johnson, Tilicia. "TSU Economic Impact Study".
  11. ^ a b "Histories of TSU and UH marked by segregation". chron.com. August 21, 2016. Retrieved February 3, 2018.
  12. ^ The KPRC-TV Collection. "Lunch Counter Sit-Ins (1960)". Texas Archive of the Moving Image.
  13. ^ KTRK (March 2, 2020). "ABC13 VAULT: 60 Years ago today, students protested to end segregation". ABC13 Houston. Retrieved June 8, 2020.
  14. ^ "How TSU students changed history". Houston Chronicle. February 28, 2010. Retrieved October 14, 2015.
  15. ^ "Residents fighting to save Southmore Post Office at the site of Houston's first sit-in". abc13.com. Retrieved April 9, 2016.
  16. ^ "Riots and Demonstrations (1967)". Texas Archive of the Moving Image. 1967. Retrieved October 25, 2018.
  17. ^ "The TSU Riot, 50 years later". May 16, 2017.
  18. ^ Britto, Brittany (February 4, 2020). "TSU regents start process of firing President Austin Lane". Houston Chronicle.
  19. ^ Ellis, Lindsay (February 3, 2020). "This University's Board Now Has the Power to Fire Anyone — 'Even Down to the Janitor'". The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved February 6, 2020.
  20. ^ Tedesco, John; Britto, Brittany (February 21, 2020). "Outgoing TSU president says his buyout totals at least $879,000". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved June 7, 2021.
  21. ^ Najmabadi, Shannon (February 20, 2020). "Texas Southern University and ousted president agree to part ways". The Texas Tribune. Retrieved June 7, 2021.
  22. ^ Ellis, Lindsay (February 20, 2020). "Texas Southern Board Nixes a Far-Reaching Power to Fire After Chronicle Reporting". Retrieved February 25, 2020.
  23. ^ "Tree Campus USA Schools". www.arborday.org. Retrieved February 3, 2018.
  24. ^ Wardlaw, Alvia. "Heart of the Third Ward: Texas Southern University" (Archive). Cite: The Architecture + Design Review of Houston. Rice Design Alliance, Fall 1996. Volume 35. p. 21.
  25. ^ "University Museum". Texas Southern University.
  26. ^ "John Biggers brought African influence to ART | African American Registry". www.aaregistry.org. Archived from the original on February 5, 2016. Retrieved January 18, 2016.
  27. ^ a b Raslan, Sarah (September 6, 2010). "See treasured murals that were painted over at TSU". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved August 9, 2019.
  28. ^ a b Lederman, Doug (September 13, 2010). "Anger at Texas Southern Over Painted-Over Murals". Inside Higher Ed. Retrieved August 9, 2019.
  29. ^ a b c Harwell, Debbie Z. (April 2011). "Beauty in the Eye of the Beholder: Third Ward Art Treasure but a Memory" (PDF). Houston History Magazine. Retrieved August 9, 2019.
  30. ^ "Whitewash: TSU shouldn't have painted over Harvey Johnson's murals". Houston Chronicle. September 11, 2010. Retrieved August 9, 2019.
  31. ^ "Spearman Technology Building". Texas Southern University. Archived from the original on March 2, 2014.
  32. ^ "Texas Southern University". guidrynews.com. Retrieved October 14, 2015.
  33. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on January 16, 2014. Retrieved January 12, 2014.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  34. ^ "AACSB reaffirms JHJ School of Business". www.tsu.edu.
  35. ^ "Business School Data Trends and 2010 List of Accredited Schools" (PDF). AACSB. p. 55. Retrieved May 18, 2015. [permanent dead link]
  36. ^ "Jesse H. Jones School Of Business At Texas Southern University Featured In The Princeton Review's "Best 295 Business Schools: 2014 Edition"". Princeton Review. November 7, 2013. Archived from the original on May 19, 2015. Retrieved May 18, 2015.
  37. ^ "Texas Southern University | Best College | US News". Archived from the original on September 21, 2013. Retrieved September 11, 2013.
  38. ^ "About the College". Archived from the original on July 29, 2014. Retrieved June 20, 2014.
  39. ^ "Texas does well in teacher training rankings". K-12 Zone. Retrieved October 14, 2015.
  40. ^ "TSU introduces new Center for Justice Research". www.tsu.edu. Retrieved February 3, 2018.
  41. ^ TSU. "About Us". tsu.edu. Retrieved October 14, 2015.
  42. ^ NAPLEX pass rates nabp.pharmacy [dead link]
  43. ^ "ACPE Accredited HBCU Pharmacy Schools". March 15, 2015. Retrieved June 7, 2021.
  44. ^ "TSU news" (PDF). www.tsu.edu. 2017.
  45. ^ "Law School Diversity Programs - Top Law Schools - US News Best Graduate Schools". rankingsandreviews.com. Retrieved October 14, 2015.
  46. ^ Forward Times Staff. "Thurgood Marshall School of Law Admitted into AALS". Houston Forward Times. Retrieved October 14, 2015.
  47. ^ "Our History". Thurgood Marshall Law Review. Retrieved May 7, 2018.
  48. ^ "METRO Website". Retrieved June 24, 2019.
  49. ^ "2023-2024 Best National Universities". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved September 22, 2023.
  50. ^ "2023 National University Rankings". Washington Monthly. Retrieved February 10, 2024.
  51. ^ "Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education". Center for Postsecondary Research. 2018. Retrieved December 23, 2018.
  52. ^ "Barbara Jordan-Mickey Leland School of Public Affairs". Archived from the original on September 5, 2012. Retrieved June 7, 2021.
  53. ^ "Mickey Leland Center, Barbara Jordan Institute, Emergency Management Program". Archived from the original on September 5, 2012. Retrieved June 7, 2021.
  54. ^ "Thomas F. Freeman Honors College". Retrieved December 31, 2022.
  55. ^ "Special Collections". TSU.edu. December 19, 2011. Retrieved April 9, 2016.
  56. ^ "Texas university libraries renovate to keep student interest". houstonchronicle.com. January 13, 2018. Retrieved February 3, 2018.
  57. ^ "TSU New Library and Learning Center Project Pre-Bid Meeting". Eventbrite. Retrieved February 3, 2018.
  58. ^ "TSU breaks ground on a new Library Learning Center". www.tsu.edu.
  59. ^ "College Scorecard: Texas Southern University". United States Department of Education. Retrieved May 24, 2022.
  60. ^ "Campus orgs list" (PDF). students.tsu.edu. 2016.
  61. ^ cmaadmin (October 5, 2011). "Philosophy Professor Still Teaching after More than 60 Years at Texas Southern". DiverseEducation.com. Retrieved April 2, 2017.
  62. ^ "On Founders Day, TSU honors retiring debate coach". HoustonChronicle.com. September 14, 2013. Retrieved April 2, 2017.
  63. ^ "Houston Bands March at Super Bowl XXXVIII". CHRON. January 29, 2004. Retrieved May 19, 2009.
  64. ^ "RECAP:Stellar Award 20th Anniversary Taping 2005". Gospel Flava. Retrieved May 19, 2009.
  65. ^ "TigerFans.net". TigerFans.net.
  66. ^ "Facilities". May 17, 2013. Archived from the original on May 17, 2013. Retrieved February 3, 2018.
  67. ^ "KTSU FM". Archived from the original on June 12, 2009.
  68. ^ Morin, Katherine A.; Kessler, James H.; Kidd, J. S.; Kidd, Renee A., eds. (1996). Distinguished African American Scientists of the 20th Century. Greenwood. pp. 77–80. ISBN 9780897749558.
  69. ^ "Meet The Men Who Represent Orlando In The CFL". Orlando Evening Star. September 2, 1966. p. 6-D. Retrieved June 9, 2021 – via Newspapers.com.
  70. ^ "Welcome to Thurgood Marshall School of Law in Houston, Texas". tsulaw.edu. Archived from the original on February 21, 2015. Retrieved October 14, 2015.
  71. ^ "Ruth Jones McClendon". intelius.com. Retrieved December 10, 2014.
  72. ^ "Meet Gilbert Pena". Take Back House District 144. Archived from the original on December 20, 2014. Retrieved December 10, 2014.
  73. ^ "Tavis Smiley . Shows . Harry Johnson . April 4, 2007". pbs.org. Retrieved August 30, 2010.
  74. ^ "Ron Reynolds". The Texas Tribune. Retrieved December 12, 2014.
  75. ^ "Cortez Hankton, Past Statistics History Awards". databasefootball.com. Archived from the original on November 23, 2011. Retrieved January 13, 2011.
  76. ^ "Oliver Celestin, Past Statistics History Awards". databasefootball.com. Archived from the original on November 23, 2011. Retrieved January 13, 2011.
  77. ^ "Warren Bone". Pro-Football-Reference.com. Retrieved November 9, 2010.
  78. ^ "Wilton Felder obituary". The Guardian. Retrieved November 14, 2016.
  79. ^ "Biography". Archived from the original on July 1, 2011. Retrieved July 5, 2011.
  80. ^ "City of Houston > Office of the City Controller". houstontx.gov. Retrieved August 30, 2010.
  81. ^ "USATF Hall of Fame". Retrieved August 3, 2012.
  82. ^ "Q & A WITH DELITA MARTIN". Retrieved July 31, 2013.
  83. ^ Lopez, Andrew (July 14, 2018). "Former LSU forward Jeremy Combs transferring to Texas Southern: sources". NOLA.com. Retrieved November 7, 2022.
  84. ^ Coleman, Adam (March 16, 2017). "Second-chance players find home, enjoy new success at Texas Southern". San Antonio Express-News. Retrieved November 7, 2022.
  85. ^ "MEIEA Summit 2015". meiea.org. Archived from the original on October 2, 2015. Retrieved October 14, 2015.
  86. ^ "Rod Paige, Educator". Retrieved March 25, 2022.