The Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education, or simply the Carnegie Classification, is a framework for classifying colleges and universities in the United States. It was created in 1970 by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Indiana University's Center for Postsecondary Research manages the classification system with the exception of the voluntary Classification on Community Engagement which is managed by the Public Purpose Institute at Albion College.[1] The framework primarily serves educational and research purposes, where it is often important to identify groups of roughly comparable institutions.[2] The classification includes all accredited, degree-granting colleges and universities in the United States that are represented in the National Center for Education Statistics Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS).

General description

The Carnegie Classification was created by the Carnegie Commission on Higher Education in 1970. The classification was first published in 1973 with updates in 1976, 1987, 1994, 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015, 2018 and 2021.[2] To ensure continuity of the classification framework and to allow comparison across years, the 2015 Classification update retains the same structure of six parallel classifications, initially adopted in 2005.[2] The 2005 report substantially reworked the classification system, based on data from the 2002–2003 and 2003–2004 school years.[3]

In 2015, the Carnegie Foundation transferred responsibility for the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education to the Center for Postsecondary Research of the Indiana University School of Education in Bloomington, Indiana.[4] The voluntary Classification on Community Engagement is managed by the Public Purpose Institute at Albion College.[1] In March 2022, the universal and elective Carnegie classifications moved to the nonprofit American Council on Education in Washington, D.C.[5]

Information used in these classifications comes primarily from IPEDS and the College Board.

Basic classification

The number of institutions in each category is indicated in parentheses.[6]

Doctorate-granting Universities

Doctorate-granting Universities are institutions that awarded at least 20 research/scholarly doctorates in 2013–14. Professional doctorates (M.D., J.D., etc.) are not included in this count but were added as a separate criterion in 2018–19. The framework further classifies these universities by their level of research activity, as measured by research expenditures, number of research doctorates awarded, number of research-focused faculty, and other factors.[7] A detailed list of schools can be found in the List of research universities in the United States.

Master's Colleges and Universities

"Master's university" redirects here. For the university located in Santa Clarita, California, see The Master's University.

Master's Colleges and Universities are institutions that "awarded at least 50 master's degrees in 2013–14, but fewer than 20 doctorates."[7]

Baccalaureate Colleges

"Baccalaureate College" redirects here. For other uses of "Baccalaureate", see Baccalaureate (disambiguation).

Baccalaureate Colleges are institutions where "bachelor's degrees accounted for at least 10 percent of all undergraduate degrees and they awarded fewer than 50 master's degrees (2013–14-degree conferrals)."[7]

Associates Colleges

Associates Colleges are institutions whose highest degree is the associate degree, or bachelor's degrees account for fewer than 10 percent of all undergraduate degrees (2013–14-degree conferrals).

Special Focus Institutions

Special Focus Institutions were classified "based on the concentration of degrees in a single field or set of related fields, at both undergraduate and graduate levels. Institutions were determined to have a special focus with concentrations of at least 80 percent of undergraduate and graduate degrees. In some cases this percentage criterion was relaxed if an institution identified a special focus on the College Board's Annual Survey of Colleges, or if an institution's only accreditation was from a body related to the special focus categories".[7]

Tribal Colleges

Tribal Colleges are institutions that belong to the American Indian Higher Education Consortium.

Not classified

The Basic Classification omits 26 institutions.[citation needed]

Undergraduate instructional program

The Undergraduate Instructional Program classification combines (a) the ratio of Arts and sciences and professional fields (as defined in the Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP)) and (b) the coexistence of programs at the undergraduate and graduate levels (again using the CIP).[8]

Arts and sciences and professional fields

The framework categorizes institutions based on the proportion of undergraduate majors in arts and sciences or professional fields, based on their two-digit CIP.[8]

Graduate coexistence

The framework categorizes institutions based on the proportion of undergraduate and graduate programs (defined by their 4-digit CIP) that coexist.[8]

Graduate instructional program

The Graduate Instructional Program classification indicates (a) if the institution awards just master's degrees or master's degrees and doctoral degrees, and (b) in what general categories they predominantly award graduate degrees. Institutions that do not award graduate degrees are not classified by this scheme.[9]

Postbaccalaureate graduate programs

Institutions that offer graduate and professional programs (such as law schools) but do not award the doctorate are classified as having Postbaccalaureate graduate programs.[9] These programs are classified by the fields in which the degrees are awarded.

Doctoral degree programs

Institutions that offer doctoral degrees, including medical and veterinary degrees, are classified by the field in which they award degrees.[9]

Enrollment profile

The Enrollment Profile of institutions are classified according to (a) the level of the highest degree awarded and (b) the ratio of undergraduate to graduate students.[10]

Undergraduate profile

The framework classifies institutions' Undergraduate Profile according to (a) the proportion of part-time undergraduate students to full-time students, (b) the institutions selectivity in admitting undergraduate students, and (c) the percentage of students who transfer into the university.[11]

Enrollment status

The framework classifies Enrollment Status according to the ratio of part-time to full-time students (degree seeking students in four-year institutions).[12]

Achievement characteristics/selectivity

Selectivity is classified according to the SAT and ACT scores of first-time first-year students. This classification only applies to four-year or higher institutions. As of the 2010 edition the criteria were as follows (http://classifications.carnegiefoundation.org/methodology/ugrad_profile.php)[11]

Transfer origin

Transfer origin characterizes the percentage of students who transfer to the institution, and only applies to four-year or higher institutions.[11]

Size and setting

Size and Setting classifies institutions according to (a) size of their student body and (b) percentage of student who reside on campus. This does not apply to exclusively graduate and professional institutions and special-focus institutions.[13]

Size

The size of institutions is based on their full-time equivalent (FTE) enrollment. FTEs are calculated by adding the number of full-time students to one-third the number of part-time students. Two-year colleges are classified using a different scale than four-year and higher institutions.[13]

Setting

Setting is based on the percentage of full-time undergraduates who live in institutionally-managed housing.[13] Two-year institutions are not classified by setting.[14]

2005 edition

In contrast to previous classifications, the 2005 classification scheme provides a "...set of multiple, parallel classifications."[15] According to Alexander C. McCormick, Senior Scholar at The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching and director of the classifications project, "The five new classifications are organized around three central questions: 1) What is taught, 2) to whom, and 3) in what setting?"[16] In addition to the new classification categories, the previously used classification scheme ("Basic classification") has been revised.

The Carnegie Foundation is also developing one or more voluntary classification schemes that rely on data submitted by institutions.[15] The first focuses on outreach and community engagement, and the second on "...how institutions seek to analyze, understand, and improve undergraduate education."[16]

The Carnegie Foundation has no plans to issue printed editions of the classifications. Their website has several tools that let researchers and administrators view classifications.[17]

Revisions in the basic classification

The "basic classification" is an update of the original classification scheme. In addition to changing names of some categories, the 2005 revision differs from previous editions in that it:[7]

  1. Splits Associates colleges into subcategories. This is based on the work of Stephen Katsinas, Vincent Lacey, and David Hardy at the University of Alabama and is an update of work funded in the 1990s by the Ford Foundation.
  2. Categorizes doctorate-granting institutions according to their level of research activity. This level is calculated using multiple measures, financial and otherwise.
  3. Simplifies the measurement of doctorate degrees awarded.
  4. Divides Master's colleges and universities into three categories based on the number of Master's degrees awarded.
  5. Deprecates "Liberal Arts" terminology.[need quotation to verify]
  6. Modified the criteria separating Master's and Baccalaureate institutions. Institutions formerly classified as Master's Colleges and Universities are now classified as Baccalaureate Colleges.
  7. Requires institutions to have higher levels of single-field or related-field concentration for designation as special-focus institutions and utilizes more sources of information to identify special-focus institutions.
  8. Splits the "Schools of engineering and technology" category into two categories and eliminates the "Teacher's colleges" category.
  9. Measures and classifies service academies using to the same criteria as other institutions.

Previous editions

Prior to the 2000 edition, the Carnegie Foundation categorized doctorate-granting institutions according to the amount of federal funding they received. The 2005 edition categorizes doctoral-institutions according to their research support but uses a more complex formula than used in previous editions. Despite the fact that it is no longer used by the Carnegie Foundation, the descriptor Research I is still commonly used in reference to universities with the largest research budgets, often by the institutions themselves in their promotional materials.[citation needed]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Indiana University Bloomington – 2015 Carnegie Classification of more than 4,660 universities and colleges released
  2. ^ a b c "About Carnegie Classification". The Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. Indiana University Center for Postsecondary Research. n.d. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
  3. ^ "Basic Classification Technical Details". Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. 2005. Retrieved September 24, 2008.
  4. ^ "IU research Center to House Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education". Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. October 8, 2014. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
  5. ^ Whitford, Emma (February 9, 2022). "Carnegie Classifications Find a New Home". Inside Higher Ed. Retrieved March 17, 2022.
  6. ^ "Basic Classification Tables". Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. 2005. Retrieved September 24, 2008.
  7. ^ a b c d e "Basic Classification Description". The Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. Retrieved May 31, 2020.
  8. ^ a b c The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching (2005). Technical Details > Undergraduate Instructional Program.
  9. ^ a b c The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching (2005). "Technical Details > Graduate Instructional Program".
  10. ^ The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching (2005). Technical Details > Enrollment Profile Program.
  11. ^ a b c The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching (2005). Technical Details > Undergraduate Profile.
  12. ^ The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching (2005). Undergraduate Profile classification flow chart.
  13. ^ a b c d e The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching (2005). Technical Details > Size & Setting.
  14. ^ The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching (2005). Size and Setting classification flow chart.
  15. ^ a b The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching (2005). The Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education website Archived 22 August 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  16. ^ a b McCormick, Alexander C. (2005). A New Set of Lenses for Looking at Colleges and Universities, Carnegie Perspectives, November 2005.
  17. ^ The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching (2005). Carnegie Classification FAQs: Will the classifications be available in print?.