Julian Bond
Bond in 2000
Chairman of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
In office
Preceded byMyrlie Evers-Williams
Succeeded byRoslyn Brock
Member of the Georgia State Senate
from the 39th district
In office
January 13, 1975 – January 12, 1987
Preceded byHorace Ward
Succeeded byHildred Shumake
Member of the Georgia House of Representatives
In office
January 9, 1967 – January 13, 1975
Succeeded byMildred Glover
Constituency136th district (1967–1969)
111th district (1969–1973)
32nd district (1973–1975)
Personal details
Horace Julian Bond

(1940-01-14)January 14, 1940
Nashville, Tennessee, U.S.
DiedAugust 15, 2015(2015-08-15) (aged 75)
Fort Walton Beach, Florida, U.S.
Political partyDemocratic
Other political
Democratic Socialists of America
Alice Clopton
(m. 1961; div. 1989)
Pamela Horowitz
(m. 1990)
EducationMorehouse College (BA)

Horace Julian Bond (January 14, 1940 – August 15, 2015) was an American social activist, leader of the civil rights movement, politician, professor, and writer. While he was a student at Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia, during the early 1960s, he helped establish the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). In 1971, he co-founded the Southern Poverty Law Center in Montgomery, Alabama, and served as its first president for nearly a decade.

Bond was elected to serve four terms in the Georgia House of Representatives and later he was elected to serve six terms in the Georgia State Senate, serving a total of twenty years in both legislative chambers. Following his career in the legislature, he was a professor of history at the University of Virginia from 1990 to 2012. From 1998 to 2010, he was chairman of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).

Early life and education

Bond was born in 1940 at Hubbard Hospital in Nashville, Tennessee, to parents Julia Agnes (née Washington) and Horace Mann Bond. His father was an educator, then president of Fort Valley State College. His mother, Julia, was a former librarian at Clark Atlanta University, also a historically black college.[1]

The family resided on campus at Fort Valley State College. The house of the Bonds was a frequent stop for scholars, activists, and celebrities passing through, such as W. E. B. Du Bois and Paul Robeson.

In 1945, Bond's father accepted the position of president of Lincoln University, where he was its first African-American president, and the family moved North.[2][3][4]

In 1957, Bond graduated from George School, a private Quaker preparatory boarding school near Newtown in Bucks County, Pennsylvania.[3] He attended Morehouse College, a historically black college in Atlanta, Georgia. He was very involved at Morehouse. He was a swimmer on the varsity squad. He worked as an intern at Time magazine and was one of the founding members of The Pegasus, a literary magazine.[5][6]

Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee

On April 17, 1960, Bond helped co-found the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC).[7]

In 1961, Bond left Morehouse to join the staff of the Atlanta Inquirer, a new black protest paper he had helped establish in the summer of 1960 with Jesse Hill, Herman J. Russell,[8] and various other students in the Atlanta Student Movement including Charlayne Hunter-Gault, and Lonnie King.[9][10][11]

Following the white violence visited in the summer of 1961 on the first voter registration efforts (under the direction of Bob Moses) in McComb, Mississippi, including the murder of activist Herbert Lee,[12] Bond took the new full-time position of communications director for SNCC assisted by Casey Hayden, Mary King and Dottie Miller,[13] until September 1966. During this period, he traveled frequently to Mississippi (active in the Freedom Summer registration drive on 1964) and to Georgia, Alabama, and Arkansas.[14]

By the mid-1960s, and without embracing a black-separatist agenda, Bond was concluding that the continued presence of white organizers in SNCC was undermining black self-confidence. He later reflected:

the successes Freedom Summer achieved resulted from its embrace of a paradox — it tried to fight bigotry by appealing to people more concerned about whites, not blacks. Appealing to the nation's racism accepted white supremacy. By acknowledging its dependence on whites to popularize the civil rights struggle in the South, SNCC contradicted its rhetorical belief in the equal worth of all races, and undermined its insistence that indigenous blacks were best prepared to lead the struggle for their deliverance from white dominance.[15]

At age 31, with SNCC shedding staff and volunteers after its abortive merger with Black Panther Party, Bond returned to Morehouse College in 1971, to complete his Bachelor of Arts in English.[16]

Georgia General Assembly

In addition to his organizing with SNCC, Bond ran for political office in Georgia. In 1965, he was one of 11 African Americans elected to the Georgia House of Representatives. They were aided by expansion of the franchise for blacks in the state, who largely supported Democratic Party candidates, after national passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Voting Rights Act of 1965. The latter especially had brought federal oversight to enforce the constitutional rights of blacks to vote. As states ended discriminatory practices in voter registration, African Americans regained the ability to vote and entered the political process.[17]

Although initially undecided about his party affiliation, Bond ultimately ran and was elected as a Democrat, the party of President Lyndon B. Johnson, who had supported civil rights, and signed the Civil Rights Act and Voting Rights Act into law.[18] On January 10, 1966, Georgia representatives voted 184–12 not to seat Bond after the election, because he had publicly endorsed SNCC's policy of opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War.[19] Five of the representatives who did vote to seat Bond were white, including Republican Rodney Cook.[20][21] They disliked his stated sympathy for persons who were "unwilling to respond to a military draft".[clarification needed][22]

Bond took the legislature to court. A three-judge panel of the United States District Court for the Northern District of Georgia ruled in a 2–1 decision that the Georgia House had not violated any of Bond's constitutional rights. The case reached the Supreme Court of the United States in 1966, which ruled 9–0 in the case of Bond v. Floyd (385 U.S. 116) that the Georgia House of Representatives had denied Bond his freedom of speech and was required to seat him. From 1967 to 1975, Bond was elected to four terms in the Georgia House, where he organized the Georgia Legislative Black Caucus.[23]

In January 1967, Bond was among eleven Georgia House members who refused to vote when the legislature elected segregationist Democrat Lester Maddox of Atlanta as governor of Georgia over the Republican Bo Callaway. Callaway had led in the 1966 general election by some three thousand votes. Under the Georgia Constitution of 1824, the state legislature had to settle the election because neither major party candidate had polled a majority in the general election. Former Governor Ellis Arnall polled more than fifty thousand votes as a write-in candidate, a factor which led to the impasse. Bond would not support either Maddox or Callaway, although he was ordered to vote by lame duck Lieutenant Governor Peter Zack Geer.[24]

Throughout his House career, Bond had to deal with repeated redistricting of his district by the state legislature:

Bond was elected in 1974 for the first of six terms in the Georgia Senate, where he served from 1975 to 1987.[28][29][30][31]

During the 1968 presidential election, Bond led an alternate delegation from Georgia to the Democratic National Convention in Chicago. There he was the first African American to have his name entered into nomination as a major-party candidate for Vice President of the United States. The 28-year-old Bond quickly declined, citing the constitutional requirement that one must be at least 35 years of age to serve in that office.[32][33]

Bond being interviewed by WFSU-TV in 1982

Bond ran for the United States House of Representatives from Georgia's 5th congressional district (encompassing Atlanta) in 1986. He lost the Democratic nomination in a primary runoff to rival civil rights leader John Lewis in a bitter contest.[34] During it Bond was accused of using cocaine and other drugs.[35] During the campaign, Lewis challenged Bond to take a drug test (Lewis had said he took one and passed). Bond refused, saying the drug test was akin to McCarthyism and trivialized the issue of drugs.[36]

While Bond had raised twice as much money as Lewis and had a larger national reputation, Lewis cast himself as the man on the front lines of the Civil Rights Movement and ran up large margins over Bond among white liberals in Atlanta.[37] As the district had a very large Democratic majority, winning the Democratic primary meant that Lewis was almost certain to win the general election. After he did so, he served in Congress for 30 years until his death on July 17, 2020.

Still dogged by allegations of drug use, Bond resigned from the Georgia Senate the following year.[38][39] Bond's estranged wife, Alice, who had publicly accused him of using cocaine, later retracted her statements.[33]

After leaving politics, Bond taught at several universities in major cities in the North and South, including American University,[40] Drexel,[41] and Harvard.[42]

Bond taught the history of the civil rights movement at the University of Virginia from 1990 to 2012. While there he shared his experiences of the movement with thousands of students through stories, newsreels, music, and film.[43] Bond was on the Board of Selectors of Jefferson Awards for Public Service.[44]

Later civil-rights activism

With Morris Dees, in 1971 Bond helped found the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC), a public-interest law firm based in Montgomery, Alabama.[45] He served as its president until 1979,[46][47] and was an emeritus member of its board of directors at the time of his death in 2015.[48] Bond also advocated for Africans in Europe.[49][50]

In 1998, Bond was selected as chairman of the NAACP. Bond once referred to leading the NAACP as "the most powerful job a Black man can have in America."[51] In November 2008, he announced that he would not seek another term as chairman.[52] Bond agreed to stay on in the position through 2009, as the organization celebrated its 100th anniversary. Roslyn Brock was chosen as Bond's successor on February 20, 2010.[53]

Julian Bond and Minnesota Governor Mark Dayton at a rally opposing a ballot initiative aimed at prohibiting same-sex marriage in that state in June 2012.

Bond was an outspoken supporter of the rights of gays and lesbians. He publicly stated his support for same-sex marriage. Most notably, he boycotted the funeral services for Coretta Scott King on the grounds that the King children had chosen an anti-gay megachurch as the venue. This was in conflict with their mother's longstanding support for the rights of gay and lesbian people.[54]

In a 2005 speech in Richmond, Virginia, Bond said:

African Americans ... were the only Americans who were enslaved for two centuries, but we were far from the only Americans suffering discrimination then and now ... Sexual disposition parallels race. I was born this way. I have no choice. I wouldn't change it if I could. Sexuality is unchangeable.[55]

In a 2007 speech on the Martin Luther King Day Celebration at Clayton State University, Bond said, "If you don't like gay marriage, don't get gay married." His positions pitted elements of the NAACP against religious groups in the Civil Rights Movement who oppose gay marriage. Most resistance came from within the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), which was partially blamed for the success of the gay marriage ban amendment in California.[56] On October 11, 2009, Bond appeared at the National Equality March in Washington, D.C., and spoke about the rights of the LGBT community, a speech that was aired live on C-SPAN.[57][58]

Bond was a strong critic of policies that contribute to anthropogenic climate change. He was among a group of protesters arrested at the White House for civil disobedience in opposition to the Keystone XL pipeline in February 2013.[59]

Criticism of Republican administration and Tea Party

(L-R) Bond with John Lewis, US Representative from Georgia, at the Civil Rights Summit at the LBJ Presidential Library in 2014

Bond was a strong critic of the George W. Bush administration, in large part because he believed it was illegitimate. Twice in 2001, first in February when he spoke to the NAACP board and then in July when he spoke at that organization's national convention, he attacked the administration for selecting Cabinet secretaries "from the Taliban wing of American politics". Bond specifically criticized Attorney General John Ashcroft, who had opposed affirmative action, and Interior Secretary Gale Norton, who defended the Confederacy in a 1996 speech on states' rights. In the selection of these individuals, Bond said, Bush had appeased "the wretched appetites of the extreme right wing and chosen Cabinet officials whose devotion to the Confederacy is nearly canine in its uncritical affection". House Majority Leader Dick Armey responded to Bond's statement with a letter in which he accused NAACP leaders of "racial McCarthyism".[60] Bond later said at the annual NAACP convention that year, that since Bush's election, he had "had his picture taken with more black people than voted for him."[60]

On May 14, 2013, while appearing on MSNBC, Bond called the Tea Party the "Taliban wing of American politics".[61] It was under review by the IRS. Bond told MSNBC, "I think it's entirely legitimate to look at the Tea Party." But he also said, "It was wrong for the IRS to behave in this heavy-handed manner. They didn't explain it well before or now what they're doing and why they're doing it." He called Tea Party members "a group of people who are admittedly racist, who are overtly political, who've tried as best as they can to harm President Obama in every way they can". He added, "We all ought to be a little worried about them."[61]

Work and appearances in media

Bond during the filming of Julian Bond (2012)

In 2012, Bond was featured in Julian Bond: Reflections from the Frontlines of the Civil Rights Movement, a documentary film by Eduardo Montes-Bradley.[62][63]

From 1980 to 1997, Bond hosted America's Black Forum.[33] He was also a commentator for radio's Byline and NBC's The Today Show.[64] He authored the nationally syndicated newspaper column Viewpoint,[40] and narrated the critically acclaimed PBS series Eyes on the Prize in 1987 and 1990.[65]

Bond hosted Saturday Night Live on April 9, 1977, becoming the first black political figure to do so. In the same year, he also appeared in the Richard Pryor vehicle Greased Lightning. In 1978, Bond played himself in the miniseries King.[66] He also had a small appearance playing State Representative John E. White in the movie Ray (2004),[67] and played himself in the movie 5 to 7 (2014).[68]

Personal life and death

On July 28, 1961, Bond married Alice Clopton, a student at Spelman College. They had five children: Phyllis Jane Bond-McMillan, Horace Mann Bond II, Michael Julian Bond (an Atlanta City councilman), Jeffrey Alvin Bond, and Julia Louise Bond. They divorced on November 10, 1989.

In 1990 Bond married Pamela Sue Horowitz, a former SPLC staff attorney.[69] Bond died from complications of vascular disease on August 15, 2015, in Fort Walton Beach, Florida, at the age of 75.[50]

Awards and honors

Among 25 honorary degrees, he was awarded:[72]


See also


  1. ^ National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. "NAACP Mourns Loss of Julia Washington Bond". naacp.org. Archived from the original on October 1, 2013.
  2. ^ Denise M. Jordan. Julian Bond, Enslow Publishers, Inc., Chapter II. P. 11,12,13.
  3. ^ a b [Montes-Bradley, Eduardo. Julian Bond: Reflections from the Frontlines of the Civil Rights Movement], Heritage Film Project, 2012. Alexander Street Press, 2013.
  4. ^ "Negro Education in Alabama". University of Alabama Press.
  5. ^ Mace, Emily. "Bond, Julian (1940-2015) | Harvard Square Library". Retrieved January 22, 2024.
  6. ^ "Julian Bond | Social Activist | Hilbert College". www.hilbert.edu. Retrieved January 22, 2024.
  7. ^ "Founder Julian Bond Remembers 50 Years of SNCC". NPR. April 15, 2010.
  8. ^ Range, Peter Ross (April 7, 1974). "Making it in Atlanta". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 31, 2019.
  9. ^ Carson, Clayborne, 1944- (1990). The student voice 1960-1965 : periodical of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. Meckler. ISBN 0887363237. OCLC 477165543.((cite book)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  10. ^ Bohannon, Jeanne Law (June 7, 2018). "Dr. Lonnie King Class Lecture 2017". ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  11. ^ Hunter-Gault, Charlayne, author. (January 14, 2014). To the mountaintop : my journey through the civil rights movement. Square Fish. ISBN 978-1250040626. OCLC 829452587. ((cite book)): |last= has generic name (help)CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  12. ^ "SNCC leaves McComb". SNCC Digital Gateway. Retrieved March 21, 2023.
  13. ^ Visser-Maessen, Laura (2016). Robert Parris Moses: A Life in Civil Rights and Leadership at the Grassroots. UNC Press Books. p. 90. ISBN 978-1-4696-2799-1.
  14. ^ "Board Member: Julian Bond". NAACP. Archived from the original on August 22, 2015. Retrieved August 16, 2015.
  15. ^ Julian Bond, "Address to Freedom Summer 50th Commemoration", Jackson, MS. June 28, 2014.
  16. ^ Jared Yeskey; Pennsylvania State University (2005). "Julian Bond – The Pennsylvania Center for the Book". psu.edu. Archived from the original on May 15, 2013.
  17. ^ Timothy Crimmins, Anne H. Farrisee; University of Georgia Press (2007). Democracy Restored: A History of the Georgia State Capitol. University of Georgia Press. pp. 140–144. ISBN 978-0820329116.
  18. ^ Yes We Did?: From King's Dream to Obama's Promise (2009) by Cynthia Griggs Fleming, ISBN 978-0813141060
  19. ^ "Julian Bond Only Candidate For Vacant Post". Rome News-Tribune. Associated Press. February 6, 1966.
  20. ^ Shaw, Michelle E. (January 15, 2013). "Rodney Mims Cook Sr., 88: Former alderman and state representative". The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Retrieved December 28, 2020.
  21. ^ "Rodney Mims Cook Papers". russelldoc.galib.uga.edu. Retrieved December 28, 2020.
  22. ^ The World Almanac 1967, pp. 54–55.
  23. ^ "Photo Vault: Bond denied seat in state House, triumphs a year later". Atlanta Journal-Constitution. January 7, 2015. Retrieved August 16, 2015.
  24. ^ Billy Hathorn, "The Frustration of Opportunity: Georgia Republicans and the Election of 1966", Atlanta History: A Journal of Georgia and the South, XXXI (Winter 1987–1988), p. 47.
  25. ^ Acts and resolutions, 1967, 1968
  26. ^ "wrap.cgi Error". uga.edu. Archived from the original on July 25, 2017. Retrieved August 16, 2015.
  27. ^ "wrap.cgi Error". uga.edu. Archived from the original on July 25, 2017. Retrieved August 16, 2015.
  28. ^ "A Conversation with Civil Rights Icon, Julian Bond". Woodrow Wilson School of Public & International Affairs. November 20, 2012. Archived from the original on October 3, 2015. Retrieved August 16, 2015.
  29. ^ "Members of Georgia House of Representatives alphabetically arranged according to names, with districts and post offices for the term 1974–1975". Acts and resolutions of the General Assembly of the State of Georgia. Georgia Legislature. 1974. p. 2019. Archived from the original on January 7, 2016. Retrieved July 18, 2011.
  30. ^ "Members of the Senate of Georgia by Districts in Numerical Order and Post Offices for the Term 1973–1974". Acts and Resolutions of the General Assembly of the State of Georgia. 1973. p. 1671. Archived from the original on January 7, 2016. Retrieved July 18, 2011.
  31. ^ "Members of Georgia House of Representatives for the term 1987–1988 by districts and addresses". Acts and resolutions of the General Assembly of the State of Georgia. Georgia Legislature. p. CLXXIV. Archived from the original on January 7, 2016. Retrieved July 18, 2011.
  32. ^ Campbell, Rick (August 30, 2008). "The Whole World Was Watching – Chicago 1968, Part 4". The Houston Chronicle. Archived from the original on April 4, 2015. Retrieved August 16, 2008.
  33. ^ a b c "Julian Bond Fast Facts". CNN. January 13, 2015.
  34. ^ Clendinen, Dudley (September 3, 1986). "Ex-Colleague Upsets Julian Bond in Atlanta Congressional Runoff". The New York Times. Retrieved August 16, 2015.
  35. ^ "Julian Bond's Wife Accuses Him of Using Drugs Daily; She Later Recants Story". Jet. Vol. 72, no. 5. 1987. pp. 54–55. ISSN 0021-5996.
  36. ^ Timothy Dwyer (April 15, 1987). "Julian Bond Says He Never Used Cocaine, Blames Wife's Charges on Domestic Rift". philly-archives. Retrieved August 16, 2015.
  37. ^ Clendinen, Dudley (September 3, 1986). "Ex-Colleague Upsets Julian Bond in Atlanta Congressional Runoff". The New York Times. Retrieved August 16, 2015.
  38. ^ Freiman, Jordan (August 16, 2015). "Former NAACP chairman Julian Bond dead at 75". Death and Taxes. Retrieved August 16, 2015.
  39. ^ Grimm, Fred (April 19, 1987). "The Once Shining Star of Julian Bond Dims Even More in Cocaine Scandal". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved August 16, 2015.
  40. ^ a b "Julian Bond". American University. Retrieved August 16, 2015.
  41. ^ "Civil rights leader Julian Bond to speak at commencement, May 23". Wagner College. May 18, 2014. Retrieved August 16, 2015.
  42. ^ "Julian Bond". Corcoran Department of History. Archived from the original on August 19, 2015. Retrieved August 16, 2015.
  43. ^ Leffler, Phyllis (2014). Black leaders on leadership: Conversations with Julian Bond. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-137-34249-2.
  44. ^ "Our Board of Selectors". JeffersonAwards.org. Archived from the original on November 24, 2010. Retrieved November 19, 2013.
  45. ^ "Louisiana State University Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Commemorative Collaboration". Louisiana State University. November 14, 2013.
  46. ^ "Julian Bond". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved August 16, 2015.
  47. ^ Emily Wallace; University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (October 15, 2013). "Julian Bond to Deliver 2013 Charleston Lecture". unc.edu. Archived from the original on January 9, 2014.
  48. ^ Southern Poverty Law Center. "Board of Directors". splcenter.org.
  49. ^ "Longtime U.S. civil rights campaigner Julian Bond dead at 75". The Japan Times Online. August 17, 2015. Retrieved January 26, 2019.
  50. ^ a b Reed, Roy (August 16, 2015). "Julian Bond, Former N.A.A.C.P. Chairman and Civil Rights Leader, Dies at 75". The New York Times. Retrieved August 16, 2015.
  51. ^ "Sen. Julian Bond Would Give Up All For NAACP Job". Charlottesville-Albemarle Tribune. July 24, 1975.
  52. ^ "Julian Bond To Step Down as NAACP Chairman". BET. November 19, 2008. Retrieved May 25, 2021.
  53. ^ "NAACP chooses successor to Chairman Julian Bond". CNN. February 20, 2010. Retrieved February 20, 2010.
  54. ^ "Black Voices – Black News, Entertainment, Style and Culture". www.huffpost.com. Retrieved June 3, 2019.
  55. ^ "NAACP chair says 'gay rights are civil rights'". Washington Blade. April 8, 2004. Archived from the original on March 21, 2006. Retrieved September 24, 2009.
  56. ^ Steinhauer, Jennifer (July 10, 2009). "Civil Rights Group Divided Over Gay Marriage". The New York Times. Archived from the original on February 21, 2014. Retrieved February 21, 2014.
  57. ^ Street vs. suite by Richard J. Rosendall. October 13, 2009. Bay Windows
  58. ^ C-Span archive Archived February 29, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  59. ^ Eilperin, Juliet; Mufson, Steven (February 13, 2013). "Activists arrested at White House protesting Keystone pipeline". The Washington Post.
  60. ^ a b Wickham, DeWayne (July 16, 2001). "Julian Bond: Master needler" (Opinion). USA Today. Retrieved May 7, 2007.
  61. ^ a b "NAACP Chair: Tea Party Is 'Taliban Wing' Of American Politics", The Washington Free Beacon, May 14, 2013.
  62. ^ Hackman, Timothy (May 2, 2013). "Review of Julian Bond: Reflections from the Frontlines of the Civil Rights Movement". Educational Media Reviews Online. Digital Repository at the University of Maryland. Retrieved August 16, 2015.
  63. ^ Schudel, Matt. "Julian Bond, charismatic civil rights figure, dies at 75", The Washington Post, August 16, 2015.
  64. ^ Cowan, Richard (August 16, 2015). "U.S. civil rights leader Julian Bond dies at 75". Reuters. Retrieved August 16, 2015.
  65. ^ "Civil Rights Activist Julian Bond Has Died at 75". The Herald News. August 16, 2015. Retrieved August 16, 2015.
  66. ^ Epic Television Miniseries: A Critical History (2010) by John De Vito and Frank Tropea, p. 181, ISBN 978-0786441495
  67. ^ "Julian Bond". IMDb. Retrieved August 16, 2015.
  68. ^ Hoffman, Jordan (April 2015). "5 to 7 review – Woody Allen-tinged love story worth two hours of your time". The Guardian.
  69. ^ "Julian Bond Weds D.C. Atty. Pamela Horowitz". Jet. Vol. 77, no. 26. April 9, 1990. p. 14. ISSN 0021-5996.
  70. ^ National Civil Rights Museum Freedom Award Winners National Civil Rights Museum. 2015. Retrieved August 16, 2015
  71. ^ "Spingarn Medal Winners: 1915 to Today". naacp.org. Archived from the original on August 2, 2014. Retrieved August 16, 2015.
  72. ^ "Board Member: Julian Bond". naacp.org. Archived from the original on August 22, 2015. Retrieved August 16, 2015.
  73. ^ Roper, Eric; Jake Sherman (March 13, 2008). "NAACP chairman will speak at Commencement". The GW Hatchet. Archived from the original on January 3, 2013. Retrieved November 18, 2008.
  74. ^ "Race Man: Selected Works, 1960-2015". City Lights Publishers. Archived from the original on February 10, 2022. Retrieved April 25, 2022.