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Two Mexican-American men, Francisco Arias and José Chamales, lynched in Santa Cruz, California, in 1877
The lynching of Frank McManus in Minneapolis, Minnesota for rape in 1882

This is a list of lynching victims in the United States. While the definition has changed over time, lynching is often defined as the summary execution of one or more persons without due process of law by a group of people organized internally and not authorized by a legitimate government. Lynchers may claim to be issuing punishment for an alleged crime; however, they are not a judicial body nor deputized by one. Lynchings in the United States rose in number after the American Civil War in the late 19th century, following the emancipation of slaves; they declined in the 1920s. Nearly 3,500 African Americans and 1,300 whites were lynched in the United States between 1882 and 1968.[1] Most lynchings were of African-American men in the Southern United States, but women were also lynched. More than 73 percent of lynchings in the post–Civil War period occurred in the Southern states.[2] White lynchings of black people also occurred in the Midwestern United States and the Border States, especially during the 20th-century Great Migration of black people out of the Southern United States. The purpose was to enforce white supremacy and intimidate black people through racial terrorism.[3]

According to Ida B. Wells and the Tuskegee University, most lynching victims were accused of murder or attempted murder. Rape or attempted rape was the second most common accusation; such accusations were often pretexts for lynching black people who violated Jim Crow etiquette or engaged in economic competition with white people. Sociologist Arthur F. Raper investigated one hundred lynchings during the 1930s and estimated that approximately one-third of the victims were falsely accused.[4][5]

On a per capita basis, lynchings were also common in California and the Old West, especially of Latinos, although they represented less than 10% of the national total. Native Americans, Asian Americans and Italian-Americans[6][7] were also lynched.[8] Other ethnicities, including Finnish-Americans[9] and German-Americans[10] were also lynched occasionally. At least six law officers were killed trying to stop lynch mobs, three of whom succeeded at the cost of their own lives, including Deputy Sheriff Samuel Joseph Lewis in 1882,[11] and two law officers in 1915 in South Carolina.[12] Three law officers were themselves hanged by lynch mobs (Henry Plummer in 1864; James Murray in 1897; Carl Etherington in 1910).[citation needed]

Postcard commemorating the lynching of Allen Brooks in Dallas in 1910
Postcard of crowd two hours after the lynching of Allen Brooks in 1910

19th century

Name Age Ethnicity City County or Parish State Year Accusation Comment
McIntosh, Francis 26 African-American St. Louis an independent city Missouri 1836 Arrested on charge of disturbing the peace, McIntosh stabbed the deputies who told him he would serve five years for the offense. Burned alive. Lynching had broad local support. Reported on by abolitionist editor Elijah Lovejoy, who was soon lynched himself.
Lovejoy, Elijah 35 White Alton Madison Illinois 1837 Abolitionist newspaper editor and publisher Had moved to Alton to escape violence in St. Louis. Four successive printing presses destroyed. "Not guilty" verdict; jury foreman member of mob.[13]
Smith, Joseph (founder of Mormonism) and brother Hyrum Smith 38,
44
White Carthage Hancock Illinois 1844 Technically, treason against state of Illinois, but lynching was for religious views, especially plural marriage/polygamy. In jail awaiting trial. Five men were tried and acquitted.
Tucker, John 40-50 African American Indianapolis Marion Indiana 1845 Unprovoked attack [14]
Segovia, Josefa Adult Latina Downieville Sierra California 1851 Killing a white man She was found guilty of murdering a local miner, Frederick Cannon, a man who had attempted to assault her after he had broken into her home.[15]
Berryessa, Demasio 30 Latino San Jose Santa Clara California July 1854 Alleged murder of a man named Alexander McClure Hanged from a tree by the Vigilance Committee.[16]
Thomas, David 34 African-American Denton Caroline Maryland 1854 Beating a white man to death [17]
Thompson, Bill Saul; Despano, Sloan African-American Greensburg Green Kentucky 1858 Alleged murder and robbery of wealthy white farmer, "Mr. Simpson." Thompson and Despano were two of four men jailed for allegedly murdering a Mr. Simpson. A mob broke into the jail which was abandoned by the jailor. To avoid lynching, one of the four, Elias Scraggs, slit his own throat. Thompson and Despano were taken by the mob and hanged from a tree. After seeing Scraggs, Thompson and Despano die, a fourth man after "a good deal of reluctance" avoided lynching by implicating five others, including Simpson's own son-in-law, though the son-in-law was "generally considered innocent."[18]
Adam African-American Tampa Hillsborough Florida 1859 In response to the murder of a white man, and "in keeping with local custom, a slave man was selected to be killed in retribution". Adam was tried and convicted of the murder of a white man. He was represented by Ossian Hart, who appealed the conviction. The Florida State Supreme Court declared a mistrial, following which a mob broke into the jail, seized Adam and hanged him.[19]: 269 
Hamilton, Jacob 28 African-American Smyrna Kent and New Castle Delaware 1861 Believed to have assaulted a white woman in her home. While a trial was in progress, preparations to lynch the victim were made outside. When constables walked out with Hamilton, the crowd seized and hanged him.[20]
Great Hanging at Gainesville (number > 16) Adult men White Gainesville Cooke Texas 1862 Lynching, plus "legal" executions, of Union supporters by Confederate supporters Many lynched before trial was concluded. Prosecution of perpetrators "half-hearted"; only one convicted.[21][22]
Wilson, Jim African-American Oakland Caroline Maryland 1862 Rape and murder of an eight year old white girl [17]
Mulliner, Robert African-American Newburgh Orange New York 1863 Alleged rape of Irish woman Hanged from a tree by mob of Irishmen
Plummer, Henry 31 White Bannock Beaverhead Montana Territory 1864 Alleged leader of an outlaw gang. A sheriff who was dragged from his house and lynched; the only evidence of his alleged crimes was in an account written by a lynch mob member to justify lynching; 130 years later Plummer was posthumously tried; the jury reached a split decision (six to six) and a mistrial was declared.[23]
Campbell, John (Jack) Mixed race (White/Dakota)[24] Mankato Blue Earth, Nicollet, and Le Sueur Minnesota 1865 Double murder Lynched by a mob after an extrajudicial "trial".[25][26]
Taylor, John 17 African-American Mason Ingham Michigan 1866 Attempted murder of his employer's wife following a wage dispute Taylor was a former slave, and had been a teenage soldier for the Union. A mob dragged him from a jail, tortured him and hanged him from a tree, and mutilated and decapitated his body; no one was prosecuted. In 2018, a local park was named the "John Taylor Memorial Park" after him.[25][27]
Coleman, Thomas 34 African-American Salt Lake City Salt Lake Utah December 10, 1866 Walking with a White woman Coleman, formerly enslaved by White Mormon people, was bludgeoned to death by an unknown number of assailants. His throat was deeply slit and body dumped with a note pinned to his chest stating "Notice to all niggers! Take warning!! Leave white women alone!!!"[28][29]
Pippin, James unknown White Church Hill or Centerville Queen Anne's Maryland 1867 Tried for killing a merchant, but acquitted. Angry about Pippin's acquittal, a mob of 20 people dragged him from under the floorboards of his father's house and hanged him.[30][31]
McLain, Tom unknown African-American Coffeeville Yalobusha Mississippi 1868 Alleged murder of white overseer. A masked mob broke into the jail cell with sledge hammers, dragged McLain and Gilbert Quinn from the jail and hanged both from a gum tree with the same rope.[32][33]
Quinn, Gilbert unknown African-American Coffeeville Yalobusha Mississippi 1868 Alleged accomplice to murder of white overseer. A masked mob broke into the jail cell with sledge hammers, dragged Quinn and Tom McLain from the jail and hanged both from a gum tree with the same rope.[32][33]
Bierfield, Samuel, Bowman, Lawrence Jewish-American, African-American Franklin Williamson Tennessee 1868 None A group of masked men appeared at both the rear and front doors of Samuel Bierfield's store. When he refused to open the back door, they broke in. He ran out the front, where he encountered the rest of the group. The masked men shot Bierfield five times. They mortally wounded his black clerk Lawrence Bowman, who had been with him at the store. Henry Morton, another black man, had been sitting and chatting with the pair and escaped without injury during the melee. Bierfield pleaded for his life on the street in front of his dry goods store but was shot to death by the masked men at close range.
Moore, Isaac unknown African-American Bel Air Harford Maryland 1868 Robbing a white woman of a sum of money. Moore was accused of having other "nepharious designs" not carried out after he was frightened away by the screams of the woman from whom he allegedly took money. Moore was before a magistrate when a crowd took him away and hanged him naked from a tree.[34]
Juricks, Thomas 35 (approx.) African-American Piscataway Prince George's Maryland 1869 Assault of a white woman Sharecropper and father of six, Juricks was "hung from an oak tree before the mob fired a volley of gunshots into his body".[35]
Quinn, Jim unknown African-American Jarrettsville Harford Maryland 1869 Assaulting a white woman [36][37]
Two Mexicans Latino Las Vegas San Miguel New Mexico 1870 Stealing groceries A group of masked men had taken the two Mexicans during the night, hanging them from a beam in the jail yard.[38]
Outlaw, Wyatt 49–50 African-American Graham Alamance North Carolina 1870 Prominent local figure (no crime alleged) Sixty-three indictments, but the North Carolina Legislature, to end their cases, repealed the law they were charged with violating.[39]
Stephens, John W. 35 White Yancyville Caswell North Carolina 1870 State senator who worked to help freedmen Ku Klux Klan; no one charged.
Johnson, Offey African-American Monroe Ouachita Louisiana March 31, 1870 None. A witness in protective custody. Johnson was held in protective custody at jail so he could testify against a prisoner in jail named Beavers. Sheriff John H. Wisner killed by mob who then killed prisoner[40] It is believed Johnson was killed so that he could not testify against Beavers.[41]
Compton, J.L. and Wilson, Joseph Helena Lewis and Clark Montana Territory April 30, 1870 Accused of murder A one-thousand-member vigilance committee accused the two men of shooting and robbing an old man named George Lenhart. Their fate was decided on the courthouse steps by mock trial, because "the law was tedious, expensive, and uncertain." When law officers interrupted the proceedings, they were imprisoned by the mob.[42]
Ah Wing and at least 15 others Chinese Los Angeles Los Angeles California 1871 None Group of Chinese immigrants killed in retaliation for the accidental homicide of a white rancher.

See: Chinese massacre of 1871

Johnson, George;
Taylor, Squire;
Davis, Charles
Adults African American Charlestown Clark Indiana November 1871 Accused of killing a white man, Cyrus Park, and his family Indiana Legislature Exonerated Johnson, Taylor, and Davis in 2022[43]
Jones, David African-American Nashville Davidson Tennessee 1872 Murdering Henry Murray. Taken out of his prison cell and lynched by a mob on the public square.[44][45]
Castro, José 35 Latino San Juan Bautista San Benito California 1872 Alleged conspiracy to rob a stage coach. After Tiburcio Vásquez robbed a stage on the San Benito Road, a group of vigilantes seized José Castro, a local saloon owner, and hanged him from a tree based on the flimsy suspicion that he was associated with the bandit.[46]
McCrory, James White Visalia Tulare California 1872 Murder A group of vigilantes broke into the jail, seized McCrory and hanged him from a bridge.[47]
Kelsey, Charles G. 30s white Huntington Suffolk New York November 4, 1872 Sexual indecency Man dies from castration after being tarred and feathered by a mob[48]
St. Clair, John W. and Triplett, Z.A. unknown white Bozeman Gallatin Montana Territory February 1, 1873 Both individuals charged with separate murders Both men hanged[49]
Chiesa, Giovanni 20 Italian Church Hill Trumbull Ohio July 27, 1873 None Giovanni Chiesa, the first Italian immigrant lynched in the United States, was clubbed to death by a mob of coal miners.[50][51]
Eli. African-American Alachua Florida May 1874 Assaulting a white woman Killed when Jail burned down by mob; according to a member of mob participant John Wesley Hardin, the local coroner (also allegedly part of the mob) rendered a verdict that Eli had died after setting fire to the jail himself,[52]
Taylor, Rufus P. "Scrap";
Tuggle, John Alfred "Kute";
and White, James
White Clinton, Texas DeWitt Texas June 22, 1874 Three men were members of the Taylor faction in the Sutton-Taylor feud. Members of the Sutton faction lynched the three men in revenge for murder of Sutton leader William E Sutton in Indianola, Texas on March 22, 1874
Randolph, John African-American Osceola Mississippi Arkansas 1875 Lynched after allegedly confessing to murder of white man[53]
Reed, Joseph African-American Nashville Davidson Tennessee 1875 Killing a police officer Taken out of his jail cell by an unmasked mob and hanged on a suspension bridge.[54]
Simms, John African-American Annapolis Anne Arundel Maryland 1875 Alleged assault of Adaline Jackson. Simms was shackled and in jail when a mob searched the jailor for his keys and took Simms away, irons and all, and hanged him from a tree. “Many of the lynchers were painted black and some were masked.”.[55]
Keemer, William 23 African American Greenfield Hancock Indiana June 26, 1875 Accused of sexually assaulting a white woman State Historical Marker to be Installed in 2022[56]
Arias, Francisco and Chamales, José Latino Santa Cruz Santa Cruz California May 2, 1877 Murder of a man named Henry De Forrest Broken out of jail by a mob and hanged from a tree.[57]
Arajo, Justin Latino San Juan Bautista San Benito California July 1877 Shooting a man named Manuel Butron Broken out of jail by a disguised mob and hanged from a willow tree.[58]
Garnett, Simeon African-American Oxford, Ohio Butler Ohio September 1877 Assaulting a white woman. Taken from jail and shot[59]
Green, Michael[60] African-American Upper Marlboro Prince George's Maryland 1878 Arrested for assaulting Miss Alice Sweeny on August 26, 1878 Green was being held at the jail in Upper Marlboro. Threats of lynching were openly made and were held off by the vigilance of Sheriff James N.W. Wilson. On September 1, 1878, a band of masked men removed Green from the jail and took him a mile outside of town to the corner of Queen Anne's Road and Hills Lane. There a noose was placed around his neck and he was hanged 15 feet in the air from a cherry tree. His body remained dangling from the tree and was observed the next morning.[60]
Horrell, Mart and Tom White Meridian Bosque Texas December 15, 1878 Armed robbery and murder Two of the five Horrell Brothers, outlaw brothers best known for their involvement in the Horrell–Higgins feud. While awaiting trial for robbery and murder in Texas, they were shot to death by a mob of armed vigilantes who stormed the jail.
Ketchum, Ami "Whit";
and
Mitchell, Luther H.
Calloway Custer Nebraska December 10, 1878 Livestock theft and murder of a posse member Taken from the custody of the county sheriff and burned alive.[61]
Seven men African-American Mount Vernon Posey Indiana 1878 Accused of rape Largest recorded lynching in Indiana. No one was ever indicted.
Easley, Albert 13–14 African-American Jacksonville Calhoun Alabama 1879 Alleged assault and rape of a white woman Accused of assaulting and raping Mrs. Moses Ables, Easley was taken by force from the jail and lynched during the day within the city limits of Jacksonville.[62]
Gilmer, Bill African-American Memphis Shelby Tennessee 1879 Shot attorney Thomas J. Wood Shot. Gilmer was accused of shooting Wood, who had whipped Gilmer for using offensive language near his wife.[63][64]
Porter, Nevlin African-American Starkville Oktibbeha Mississippi 1879 Arson [65]
Spencer, Johnson African-American Starkville Oktibbeha Mississippi 1879 Arson [66]
Frost, Elijah; Gibson, Abijah; McCracken, Tom 29 (Frost), 19 (Gibson and McCracken) White Willits Mendocino California September 4, 1879 Theft of a saddle and harness Local petty thieves accused without evidence of stealing a saddle and harness. Kidnapped from jail and hanged by 30 members of the local Masonic Temple.
Peck, George Washington African-American Poolesville Montgomery Maryland 1880 Accused of assaulting a white girl Taken by a mob and hanged from a tree before he could be transported to Rockville for a trial.[67][68][69]
House, T.J.; West, James; Dorsey, John White Las Vegas San Miguel New Mexico 1880 Murder of Marshal Joe Carson Accused of murdering a U.S. marshal during the Variety Hall shootout. Hanged by a mob.
Ramírez Refugio,
Ramirez Wife,
María Ines (daughter)
Latino South Texas Collins Texas May 1, 1880 Accused of bewitching their neighbors. All three were burned to death[70]
Johnson, Jim African-American Pine Bluff Jefferson Arkansas December 24, 1881 Threatening several men with a shotgun. After being hit on the head with a pistol by Thomas Barksdell, Johnson retaliated by threatening several people with a shotgun and allegedly preventing a doctor from reaching a woman who was in labor.[71]
Three Mexicans Latino Los Lunas Valencia New Mexico 1881 Murder of James Little A mob took the three Mexicans and hanged them from a tree[72]
Shorter, Josh African-American Eufaula Barbour Alabama June 1881 Harassing a white girl
Harrington, Levi African-American Kansas City Jackson Missouri 1882 Killing a police officer Newspapers reported he was innocent, but no one was held accountable for the lynching.[73][74][75][76]
McManus, Frank White Minneapolis Hennepin Minnesota April 19, 1882 Raping a four-year-old child Taken from jail and lynched[77]
Mentzel, Gus Raton Colfax New Mexico June 27, 1882 Resisting arrest; killing three citizens and wounding two Deputy Sheriff William A Bergin was either mortally wounded by suspect[78] or was killed by mob who then killed prisoner[79][80]
Francisco Tafoya aka "Navajo Frank" Native American Deming New Mexico June 29, 1882 Lassoing and dragging a citizen Taken from jail and lynched on telephone pole in railyard.[81][82][83]
Agirer, Augustin Latino Austin Travis Texas 1882 Filing a complaint against a white man Mr. Agirer had filed a complaint after one of the Anglo men had shot at his dog. In retaliation, the Anglos tracked Mr. Agirer down and fatally shot him in front of his wife[70][84]
Thurber, Charles African-American Grand Forks North Dakota Oct 24, 1882 Assaulting and raping two white women Taken from law officers in jail and lynched from a bridge[85]
García, Encarnción Latino Los Gatos Santa Clara California 1883 Murder Encarnación García was a nephew of the bandido Tiburcio Vásquez. He was arrested for stabbing another man to death following a card game at the Los Gatos Saloon. A mob broke into the jail, seized García and hanged him from the Los Gatos Creek bridge.[86][87]
Green, James and Ingraham, Fred White Hastings Adams Nebraska April 3, 1883 Robbery and murder of a shopkeeper Accused of the robbery and murder of Cassius Millet, a mob forcibly took the pair from the jail and hanged them from a bridge.[88]
Harvey, William "Sam Joe" 35 Black Salt Lake City Salt Lake Utah August 25, 1883 Alleged murder of White police chief After police severely kicked and beat him they handed him over to a White mob of up to 2,000 people who hung Harvey in front of the city jail then dragged his body down the main city street.[89][90]
Heath, John 28 White Bisbee Cochise Arizona Territory 1884 Accessory to robbery Mob unsatisfied with lenient sentence
Weinberger, Martin Jewish-American Pittsburgh Allegheny Pennsylvania 1884 Murder Hanged in County Jail yard[91]
Conorly, Huie 16 African-American Bogalusa Washington Louisiana 1884 Attempted rape A mob of 10 to 15 men broke into the jail, seized Conorly and hanged him on the jail steps.[92]
Briscoe, George 40 African-American On a rural road[a] Anne Arundel Maryland 1884 Alleged robbery of the residence of George Schievenent. “[A]sked the magistrate with an oath what right he had to commit him to jail?” angering the crowd. Hung by “a large party” of masked men.[55]
McChristian, Perry White Grenada Grenada Mississippi 1885 Murder of white peddler [93]
Williams, Felix White Grenada Grenada Mississippi 1885 Murder of white peddler [93]
James, Bartley African-American Grenada Grenada Mississippi 1885 Suspicion of murder of white peddler [93]
Campbell, John African-American Grenada Grenada Mississippi 1885 Suspicion of murder of white peddler [93]
Cook, Townsend 21 African-American Westminster Carroll Maryland 1885 Assaulting a white woman [94]
Jackson, Lizzie; Jackson, Andy; Hayes, Frank; Norman, Joe; Rogers, Willie African-American Elkhart Anderson Texas 1885 Rape and murder of a white woman [95]
Cooper, Howard[96] 15–17 African-American Towson Baltimore Maryland 1885 Assaulting a white woman Convicted of assault and rape after one minute deliberation, his attorneys intended to file an appeal; 75 masked men broke Cooper out of jail and hanged him from a tree.[94][97]
Lockwood, Charles 35 White Morris Litchfield County Connecticut 1886 Allegedly murdered a 16-year-old girl Found hanged from a tree three days later. Public opinion divided on whether Lockwood committed suicide or was lynched. Coroner's jury returned a verdict of suicide.[98]
Mingo Jack 66 African-American Eatontown Monmouth New Jersey 1886 Rape of a white woman All suspects acquitted.[99][100]
Woods, Eliza "Colored" Jackson Madison Tennessee 1886 Supposedly poisoning her employer. Taken from the county jail, stripped naked, hanged in the courthouse yard and her body riddled with bullets and left exposed to view.[101]
Johnson, David 50 African-American Westernport Allegany Maryland 1886 Alleged murder of Edward White. Hanged by a mob. Newspaper accounts describe Johnson as troubled with “religious mania” and regarded as insane.[55]
Whitley, Charles 18 African-American Prince Frederick Calvert Maryland 1886 Alleged assault of five-year-old child. A mob of 35–40 heavily armed men broke into the jail, seized Whitley and hanged him from a tree about a mile and a half away.[55]
Villarosa, Federico (Francesco Valoto) Italian Vicksburg Warren County Mississippi 1886 Attempted rape of a 10-year-old white girl Hanged from a tree by a mob despite the efforts of the sheriff and state militia.[102]
Waldrop, Manse White Pickens South Carolina 1887 Raping and killing a 14 year old African-American girl One of various unique incidents in which a white person is lynched by African-Americans
McCutchen, Frank Latino Oakdale Stanislaus California 1887 Arson Fires had been appearing around Oakdale and McCutchen had allegedly been caught in the act of setting fire to a barn. McCutchen was arrested and while being transferred to Modesto jail, a mob overpowered the constable and hanged McCutchen from a tree.[103]
Salazar, Santos Latino South Texas Jim Wells Texas 1888 Murdering a white man Jake Stafford was found dead two miles away from the road he was on; one of the main suspects of murdering Mr. Stafford was Mexican-American Salazar Santos. When the news spread across the city, a mob hanged Salazar due to the suspicion of him being the murderer[104]
Miller, Amos 23 African-American Franklin Williamson Tennessee 1888 Assaulting a white woman Taken from the courthouse during his trial and lynched on the balcony railings.[105]
Keith Bowen African-American Aberdeen Monroe County Mississippi August 14, 1889 Found with white girl Hanged
Fletcher, Magruder about 35 African-American Tasley Accomack Virginia 1889 Raping a white woman in her home[106] [107]
Anderson, Orion 14 African-American Leesburg Loudoun Virginia 1889 "Scaring a teenaged white girl"[108] Hanged from a derrick[107]
Bush, George 17 African-American Columbia Boone Missouri 1889 Rape of a five year old white girl [109]
Martin, Albert 23 African-American Port Huron St. Clair Michigan 1889 Assault and rape A mob broke into his jail cell with sledge hammers, dragged him from the jail with a noose around his neck, beat and shot him to death, then hanged his corpse from a bridge.[25][110]
Meadows, George African-American N/A Jefferson Alabama 1889 Rape and murder Lynched despite calls from his accuser that she could not confirm he was guilty. Sheriff eventually determined he had been innocent, and another man was later arrested.
Johnson,Ripley; Mitchell Adams; Jones, Judge; Phoenix, Robert.; Furz, Hugh;Johnson, Bell, Peter; Harrison; Morral, Ralph. African-American Barnwell vicinity Barnwell South Carolina December 28, 1889 Alleged murder of a merchant and another person. Some were only being held as witnesses. A mob of about 100 took the men from the jail to the outskirts of Barnwell and shot them.[111]
Williams, Willie African-American Kosse Limestone Texas 1890 Rape of an eight year old white girl Taken from his jail cell by a mob, hanged, and shot multiple times.[112]
Taylor, Jim African-American Franklin Williamson Tennessee 1891 Shooting a policeman Taken from his jail cell by a mob and lynched on Murfreesboro Road.[113]
Salceda, Jesus Latino Knickerbocker Tom Green Texas 1891 Seducing one of the white men daughters On February 4, 1891, three white men took Jesus Salceda and hanged him from an oak tree for supposedly seducing one of the white men's daughters. They later found out that they had mistaken Jesus Salceda for another Mexican.[114]
11 Italian Americans Italian-American New Orleans Orleans Louisiana 1891 Killing of police chief Three had been acquitted; three had a mistrial; five were never tried. Lynching organized by local leaders, including future mayor Walter C. Flower and future governor John M. Parker. Grand jury brought no charges.
Clark, Robert African American Bristol Sullivan Tennessee June 13, 1891 Rape [115][116]
Ortiz, Louis Latino Reno Washoe Nevada 1891 Shooting of Officer Dick Nash A repeat, violent, intoxicated offender was arrested for shooting the town's night watchman. Prior to due process, a vigilante crew freed

Ortiz from jail at gunpoint and hanged him from the Virginia Street Bridge.[117]

George Smith ("A married man with two children") AKA Joe Coe African-American Omaha Douglas Nebraska 10 Oct 1891 Assault on a white girl of five The Governor and the sheriff tried unsuccessfully to quiet the crowd in front of the courthouse. Pieces of the lynching rope were sold as souvenirs. Despite 16 wounds to his body and three broken vertebrae, Coroner said he died of "fright". Grand jury declined to indict.
Lundy, Dick Adult African-American Edgefield Edgefield South Carolina 1891 Murder of son of sheriff Coroner's jury: "by persons unknown"
Champion, Tony
Kelly, Michael
African-American,
White (Irish)
Gainesville Alachua Florida 1891 Murder Taken together from jail by mob and hanged.[118]
Ford, Andrew African-American Gainesville Alachua Florida 1891 Beating a man, aiding Harmon Murray Taken from jail by mob and hanged.[118]
Corbin, Henry African-American Oxford, Ohio Butler Ohio January 14, 1892 Death of a white woman. Taken from jail and hanged/[59]
Bright, John Wesley Forsyth Taney Missouri March 16, 1892 Killing his wife Deputy Sheriff George Williams killed by mob who then shot and killed prisoner[119][120]
Jim Redmond, Gus Roberson, and Bob Addison[121] African-American Clarkesville Habersham Georgia May 17, 1892 Arrested for the fatal assault of Toccoa City Marshal James Carter.[122] Due to threats against the suspects, they were transferred to a jail in Clarkesville, 15 miles east of Toccoa. A week after their arrest, a mob surrounded the jail, overpowered the guards, and dragged the three suspects out of their cells. Using chains and padlocks, the three victims were hanged from a single tree.[123]
Taylor, James[124] 23 African-American Kennedyville Kent Maryland May 19, 1892 Accused of the rape of 11-year-old Nettie (Nellie) Silcox on May 16, 1892 By 9:00 p.m. on May 19, nearly 1,000 men and women gathered at the jail. A body of masked men carrying an assortment of weapons demanded the Sheriff open the jail's door. When the Sheriff refused, the men used a sledgehammer to breach the door rushed in, and swiftly overpowered the Sheriff and other officers on duty. The mob placed a rope around Taylor's neck and dragged him down the steps and out of the jail into Cross Street. They hanged him from a tree just outside the city limits at a point between the Rockwell House and the old Armstrong Hotel.
Stewart, Charles Perryville Perry Arkansas May 21, 1892 Rape Suspect killed Deputy Sheriff T Holmes while escaping from jail; lynched by posse.[125][126]
Lewis, Robert 28 African-American Port Jervis Orange New York June 2, 1892 Assaulting a white woman Hanged.[127]
Hinson, Henry African-American Micanopy Alachua Florida 1892 Murder Hanged.[118]
Unknown African-American Waldo Alachua Florida 1892 Suspicion of burglary and incendiarism Hanged.[118]
Moss, Tom Adult African-American Memphis Shelby Tennessee 1892 Complaint from competing white grocery store owner. So-called Curve Riot (not a riot). Reported on by Ida B. Wells, whose newspaper was destroyed and had to leave the state.[128]
McDowell, Calvin Adult African-American Memphis Shelby Tennessee 1892 Complaint from competing white grocery store owner. So-called Curve Riot (not a riot). Reported on by Ida B. Wells, whose newspaper was destroyed and had to leave the state.[128]
Stewart, Will Adult African-American Memphis Shelby Tennessee 1892 Complaint from competing white grocery store owner. So-called Curve Riot (not a riot). Reported on by Ida B. Wells, whose newspaper was destroyed and had to leave the state.[128]
Grizzard, Ephraim African-American Nashville Davidson Tennessee 1892 Assaulting two white girls in Goodlettsville. Taken out of his prison cell and lynched on a bridge in downtown Nashville in front of 10,000 onlookers. Later taken back to Goodlettsville.[129]
Heflin, Lee White Fauquier Virginia 1892 Convicted murderer Seized from police when they were trying to move him to a safer location.[107]
Dye, Joseph White Fauquier Virginia 1892 Convicted murderer Seized from police when they were trying to move him to a safer location.[107]
Bates, William White Shelbyville Bedford Tennessee 1892 Alleged murder of his wife. Mob formed as officers were transporting Bates to jail. He was hanged.[130]
Shorter, William 17 African-American Winchester N/A (independent city) Virginia 1893 Assault on a white woman [107]
Henry Smith 17 African-American Paris Lamar Texas 1893 Kidnapping and murder of white girl; Smith confessed under duress. Tortured, burned with hot irons, doused in oil and set afire; his remains were sold as souvenirs.
Miller, C.J. African-American Bardwell Kentucky July 7, 1893 Killing two white girls

Despite no evidence that he was the murderer, he was taken from jail and hanged and his dead body cremated. Investigated by Journalist Iba B. Wells.[131]

Peterson, John Adult African-American Denmark Bamberg (at the time, Barnwell County) South Carolina 1893 Attack on a white girl
Willis, Charles African-American Rochelle Alachua Florida 1894 Being a "desperado"[132] Shot and burned in bed.[118]
Puryear, Richard African-American Stroudsburg Monroe Pennsylvania 1894 Murder Lynched by a mob after escaping from jail.[25][133]
Suiato, Floantina Latino Cotulla La Salle Texas 1895 Murder October 12, 1895, 10 masked man went into the jail where Suiato was being held, took him to the banks of the Nueces River, where they hanged him from a tree and riddled his body with bullets[134]
Rawls, William African-American Newnansville Alachua Florida 1895 Murder Hanged and shot.[118]
Divers, Emmett Adult African-American Fulton Callaway Missouri 1895 Murder of a white woman; Jennie E. Cain "Horrible fury of the mob...500 horsemen." Hanged from bridge until dead, taken down and hanged a second time from a telegraph pole at the fairground, "at the request of the murdered woman's husband, John William Cain". Body and cabin burned.[135]
Hillard, Robert African-American Tyler Dewitt Texas 1895 Rape and murder of a white woman Burned.[136][137]
Castellán, Aureliano Latino San Antonio Bexar Texas 1896 Accused of looking at a white woman Shot and burned[138]
Saladino, Lorenzo; Arena, Salvatore; Giuseppe Venturella 33–36, 27, 48 Italian Hahnville St. Charles Parish Louisiana 1896 Murder Saladino was accused of murdering a wealthy merchant. Arena and Venturella happened to have been in the same prison, accused of a different murder. All were rounded up together and lynched to "teach the lawless Italians a salutary lesson." After the lynching, another person confessed to the murder for which Arena and Venturella had been lynched.[139]
Daniels, Alfred African-American Gainesville Alachua Florida 1896 Suspicion of arson (barn burning) (no evidence) Taken by mob on way to jail, hanged and shot.[118]
Randolph, Sydney Adult African-American Gaithersburg Montgomery Maryland 1896 Killing a white girl Taken from the jail by a mob.[140]
Smith, George White Ransomville Niagara New York 1896 Alleged murder of his father-on-law and wounding a posseman Shot by mob; ruled by coroner as suicide
McCoy, Joseph 20 African-American Alexandria N/A (independent city) Virginia 1897 Assault on a young girl [107]
Mitchell, Charles 23 African-American Urbana Champaign Ohio June 4, 1897 Robbery/Rape Hanged[141]
Murray, James Bonanza Arkansas Dec 6, 1897 Victim was a law officer who was shot and lynched by friends of a man who had been arrested for murder[142]
James, John Henry Adult African-American Charlottesville (near) Albemarle Virginia 1898 Rape Hanged and shot by a mob.
Baker, Frazier B. 41 African-American Lake City Florence South Carollna 1898 Appointed Postmaster

Grand jury did not indict. Since it was a Federal crime (attack on a postmaster), there were 13 Federal indictments; no one was convicted.

Smith, Wright 56 African-American Annapolis Anne Arundel Maryland 1898 Alleged assault of Mary Morrison. Wright Smith was identified by Mary Morrison as the man who broke into her house and assaulted her. Mob broke Smith out of jail and riddled his body with bullets.[55]
Stewart, F. W. Adult African-American Lacon Marshall Illinois 1898 Alleged assault of Mary O'Brien O'Brien was the daughter of a miner. About 100 miners broke into the county jail, abducted Stewart, and hanged him.[143]
Eight or more African-American Phoenix Greenwood South Carolina November, 1898 Phoenix election riot Eight or more men were lynched.[144]
Thompson, Benjamin 20 African-American Alexandria N/A (independent city) Virginia 1899 Attempting to criminally assault an eight-year-old white girl[108] hanged from a lamppost at Cameron and Lee Sts., site of several lynchings.[107]
Embree, Frank unknown African-American Fayette, Missouri Missouri July 29, 1899 Charged with assaulting a 14-year-old girl Taken from officers and Lynched[145][146]
DiFatta brothers (Francesco, Carlo, and Giuseppe);
Cerami, Giovanni;
Rosario Fiducia
Italian Tallulah Madison Parish Louisiana 1899 Shooting a doctor Sicilian immigrant grocery store owners, the DiFatta brothers, quarreled with a local doctor. The doctor fired his pistol at Carlo and was immediately shot and injured by Giuseppe. Sicilian immigrants Cerami and Fiducia were not involved in the dispute and had simply been nearby when the lynching occurred; they were rounded up and lynched alongside the DiFatta brothers because they were Italian.[147]
Hose, Sam about 24 African-American Newnan Coweta Georgia 1899 Killed his white employer in self-defense. Accusations of rape added to incite lynching. Body parts for sale in a store. Widely publicized and privately investigated.

20th century

1900–1909

Name Age Ethnicity City County or Parish State Year Accusation Comment
George and Ed Silsbee[148] White Fort Scott Bourbon Kansas January 20, 1900 Murder Taken from jail and lynched[149]
Watt, W.W. White Newport News an independent city Virginia 1900 Assault Shot[150]
Gause, Anderson African-American Henning Lauderdale Tennessee 1900 Helping two Black prisoners to escape who had killed two law officers. Mr. Gause was hanged from a tree.[150][151][152]
Pete, Dago African-American Tutwiler Tallahatchie Mississippi 1900 Assaulted colored woman Killed by African-American mob[150]
Cotton, Walter
O'Grady,Brandt
African-American
White
Virginia March 24, 1900 accused of Murder Cotton killed by a white mob; O'Grady Killed by African-American mob[153]
Lee, William 29 African-American Hinton Summers West Virginia May 11, 1900 Assault on a white woman [154]
Wright, Charlotte 62 White Gilman Iroquois Illinois Aug. 27, 1900 Performed an abortion that killed a 16-year-old girl Shot during shoot-out with sheriff and angry mob that set fire to her home[155][156]
Porter, Preston 15 African-American Limon Colorado Colorado November 16, 1900 Rape and murder of a 12 year old white girl Burned alive by a mob[157]
Alexander, Fred 22 African-American Leavenworth Leavenworth Kansas 1901 Rape and murder allegations Lynched and burned at stake[158]
Berryman, Peter 45 African-American Mena Polk Arkansas 1901 Kicking a young White girl Beaten, shot, and hanged[159]
Estes, Siles African-American Hodgenville LaRue Kentucky 1901 "Forcing...a 15 year old boy...to commit a crime." Mr. Estes was taken from his jail cell at 2:00 a.m. by a mob of 50 or 75 persons and hanged in front of the courthouse.[160]
Carter, George African-American Paris Bourbon Kentucky 1901 "Assaulting a white woman." [161]
Ward, George African-American Terre Haute Vigo Indiana February 26, 1901 Suspected of murder of a white woman Struck in head with sledgehammer. Hanged from bridge, burned; toes and hobnails from boots kept as souvenirs.[162]
Fred Rochelle 16 African-American Bartow Polk Florida 1901 Murder and rape of a white woman Doused with kerosene and burned. Special train from Lakeland to see the "barbecue".
Godley, William African-American Pierce Lawrence Missouri 1901 Murder of a white woman Mob subsequently went on a rampage in a nearby black community[163]
Price, Manny,
Scruggs, Robert
African-American Newberry Alachua Florida 1902 Murder,
suspected accomplice
Taken by mob on way to jail, hanged and shot.[118]
Unknown African-American Savannah Chatham Georgia April 16, 1902 Accused of assaulting white woman and killing her son Suspect Richard Young was sought on March 27, 1902, injuring Mrs Fountain and mortally injuring her son Dower Fountain.[164] Victim was hanged and burned in a swamp[165][166] However, victim was not suspect Richard Young-since Richard Young and accomplice James Stewart were captured, tried and sentenced to prison in June 1902[167]
Gillespie, James and Harrison 10, 14 African-American Salisbury Rowan North Carolina 1902 Murder of a white woman Two brothers were accused of stoning a neighbor to death. Hanged by a mob of an estimated 400 persons and their bodies shot dozens of times.[168]
Yellow Wolf, John Native-American Deadwood Lawrence South Dakota 1902 Horse stealing After being released from jail, he was given a worthless horse and saddle, while on his way to the reservation he grew up in, he spotted a young horse that he wanted. A group of men took over Yellow Wolf and hanged him from a tree near White River.[169]
Carter, James African-American Amherst Amherst Virginia 1902 Unknown [170]
Craven, Charles African-American Leesburg Loudoun Virginia 1902 Assault [107]
Brown, Curtis and Burley, Garfield African American Newbern Dyer Tennessee October 8, 1902 One confessed to murder of a white man and claimed the other was accomplice [171]
Dillard, James ? African American Sullivan Sullivan Indiana November 1902 Accused of sexually assaulting two white women [172]
Vazquez and Unknown Mexican 17, unknown Latino Huachuca Mountains Cochise Arizona 1903 Stealing Cattle and Skinning stolen beef Vazquez was found hanging from the tree and was suspected to be one of the Mexicans stealing cattle from the ranch of Will Parker, who discovered the 17 year old. Three Mexicans were also caught nearby skinning stolen beef, with which they tried to escape arrest, but one of the Mexicans who did was fatally shot.[173]
Steers, Jennie Adult African-American rural area near Shreveport Caddo Louisiana 1903 Poisoning daughter of a planter [174]: 70 
Malone,"Rev" D.W. 50 Wardell, Missouri Pemiscot Missouri May 3, 1903 Suspect had been arrested for living with woman not his wife When mob burned the man's house down, Constable W. J. Monneyhan placed man under arrest in his own home to protect him. Officer was killed by mob, who then shot and killed prisoner.[175][176][177]
Jarvis, Washington 25 White Madison Madison Florida May 20, 1903 Accused of murdering his cousin. [178]
Unknown African-American St. Louis, Missouri St Louis County Missouri June 1903 Assaulted African American woman and a white girl Hanged on tripod[179][180]
White, George Adult African-American Wilmington New Castle Delaware June 23, 1903 Accused of sexually assaulting and stabbing to death an 18-year-old girl Taken from the city jail by a mob and burned alive.[181]
Gorman, Jim and Walters, J.P. Basin, Wyoming Big Horn Wyoming July 19, 1903 each accused of a murder Deputy Sheriff C. E. Pierce was killed by mob, who then shot the prisoners[182][183]
Surasky, Abraham 30 Jewish-American rural area near Aiken Aiken South Carolina July 29, 1903 Being a Jewish-American peddler who was helping the murderer's wife carry some things to her house. Murdered by gun and ax; an anti-Semitic murder.[184]
Fambro, William African-American Griffin Spalding Georgia 1903 Insulted white home [185]
Johnson, William African-American Thebes Alexander Illinois 1903 Assaulting a girl Hanged[186]
Johnson, William African-American Thebes Alexander Illinois 1903 Assaulting a girl Hanged[186]
Clark, Jumbo African-American High Springs Alachua Florida 1904 Assault of 14 year old white girl Taken by mob on way to jail, hanged and shot.[118]
Dickerson, Richard unknown African-American Springfield Clark Ohio March 7, 1904 Murder of a Patrolman Charles B. Collis[187] shot and then hanged[188][189]
Lee, "General" African-American Reevesville Dorchester South Carolina 1904 Knocking on the door of a white woman's house [190]
Holbert, Luther,
unnamed female
African-American Doddsville Sunflower Mississippi 1904 Murder of a white landowner Tortured and burned alive; crowd of some 600 attended the lynching.[191]
Cato, Will
Reed, Paul
African-American Statesboro Bulloch Georgia August 16, 1904 Murder of five members of a family Seized by mob from courthouse after conviction for murder, chained to stump and burned
Maples, Horace African-American Huntsville Madison Alabama 1904 Murder Mob of 2,000 burned jail where he was held, then hanged and shot him.[192]
Munoz, Carlos Latino Lockhart Caldwell Texas 1905 Assaulting a White woman After assaulting one of the farmers' wives, Munoz ran off where officers captured him and tried protecting him, but were overpowered by the mob of 40+ people who dragged him to into the woods, where they shot and hanged Munoz.[193]
Goodman, Augustus African-American Bainbridge Decatur Georgia November 4, 1905 Accused of killing Decatur County Sherriff Martin C. Stegall on October 29, 1905 [194][195]
Johnson, Ed 23–24 African-American Chattanooga Hamilton Tennessee March 16, 1906 Rape of white woman Sheriff and two others sentenced to three months in jail, three others to two months, for abetting the lynching. Only criminal case ever with direct involvement of the U.S. Supreme Court; see United States v. Shipp
Duncan, Horace 20 to 21 African-American Springfield Greene Missouri 1906 Assault of white woman Fred Coker, Horace B. Duncan, and William (Bill) Allen were lynched by large mob of white citizens, though they were innocent. All three suspects were hanged from the Gottfried Tower, which held a replica of the Statue of Liberty, and burned in the courthouse square by a mob of more than 2,000 citizens. Duncan's and Coker's employer testified that they were at his business at the time of the crime against Edwards, and other evidence suggested that they and Allen were all innocent. After the mass lynching in Springfield, many African Americans left the area in a large exodus. Judge Azariah W. Lincoln called for a grand jury, but no one was prosecuted. The proceedings were covered by national newspapers, the New York Times and Los Angeles Times.
Richardson, Bunk African-American Gadsden Etowah Alabama Feb 11,1906 Not charged Was arrested/held as a witness for one of three defendants accused of rape and murder of a white woman. The three defendants were sentenced to death, but the governor commuted to life one man's sentence. Angry at the lighter sentence, a mob seized Richardson from the jail and hanged him from a train trestle over the Coosa River.[196][197][198][199]
Nease Gillepsie, John Gillepsie, "Jack" Dillingham, Henry Lee, and George Irwin African-American Salisbury Rowan North Carolina August 6, 1906 Accused of murdering a family The five men were arrested and accused of the murder several members of a local white family, the Lyerlys. When returned for a court hearing and while under heavy guard, a mob led by George Hall pulled Dillingham and the Gillepsies, father and son, from their jail cells. They were paraded through the town and hanged from a tree[200] at the Henderson Ballground near the corner of Long and Henderson Streets.[201] George Hall would later be convicted for his role in the lynching.[201]
Robinson, Dick and Thompson African American Pritchard Mobile Alabama October 6, 1906 Assaulting white women [202]
Davis, Henry African-American Annapolis Anne Arundel Maryland December 21, 1906 Assaulting a white woman Dragged from his jail cell and shot over 100 times. Last known lynching in Anne Arundel County.[94][203]
Pitts, Slab African-American Toyah Reeves Texas 1906 Living with a white woman Dragged to death before being hanged.[204]
Burns, William 22 African-American Cumberland Allegany Maryland 1907 Alleged murder of Patrolman August Baker.[205] A crowd estimated at 10,000 examined the lynching victim's body.[55]
Higgins, Loris White Bancroft Thurston County Nebraska August 27, 1907 Murder of a farmer and his wife and rape of daughter Murdered couple killed May 12, 1907; suspect was taken from law officers and lynched from a bridge over creek and then shot[206][207][208][209]
Long, Jack White Newberry Alachua Florida 1908 Murder Hanged.[118]
Pigot, Eli Black Brookhaven Lincoln Mississippi 1908 Assault on a White girl Shot, hanged[210]
Scott, Charley African American Conroe Montgomery Texas Feb 28, 1908 Peeping Tom looking in windows hanged on tree see[211]
Miller, William African-American Brighton Jefferson Alabama 1908 Labor activist Jefferson County had the highest number of lynchings in Alabama (29).[212]
Patton, Nelse African-American Oxford Lafayette Mississippi 1908 Killing a white woman Prominent attorney and former U.S. Senator William V. Sullivan, in his own words, "led the mob...and I'm proud of it".[213][214][215]
Walker, David,
his wife and
four children
African-American Hickman Fulton Kentucky 1908 Using inappropriate language with a white woman [216]
Jerry Evans, Will Johnson, Moss Spellman, Clevel Williams, and Will Manuel 22–27 African American Hemphill Sabine Texas June 15, 1908 Murder of two white men Five black men accused of murder were hanged by a mob of an estimated 150[217][218]
Smith, Ted 18 African American Greenville Hunt Texas July 27, 1908 Raping a 16-year old white girl After victim identified suspect as the person who assaulted her, Smith was taken by mob from Sheriff and lynched (burned)[219][220][221]
Leander Shaw African American Pensacola Escambia Florida July 29, 1908 Attempted murder and rape of 21-year-old Lillie Davis After Shaw was identified by Davis, he was arrested and taken to the county jail. An angry white mob broke into the jail and took Shaw, lynching him in Plaza Ferdinand VII.[222]
Riley, Joseph;
Jones, Virgil;
Jones, Robert;
Jones, Thomas
African-American Russellville Logan Kentucky July 31, 1908 Victims expressed approval of their lodge brother Rufus Browder's killing his employer. Rufus Browder killed his employer with an axe after being shot in the chest. Browder was arrested and sent to Louisville. The lynching victims expressed approval for his actions and were jailed for disturbing the peace. On August 1, 1908, a mob demanded release of the men, and lynched them from a tree. A note pinned to one of the men read, "Let this be a warning to you niggers to let white people alone or you will go the same way."[223][224]
Hilliard 18 African American Hope Hempstead Arkansas 1909 Using inappropriate language with a white woman Hung[225]
Wades, Jake African American Lakeland Polk Florida 1909 Accused of rape Transported from Gainesville to Lakeland to be identified and lynched[226]
Brown, Joe White Whitmer Randolph West Virginia March 25, 1909 Shooting a law officer [227][202]
Miller Jim 47 White Ada Pontotoc Oklahoma April 19, 1909 Suspicion of murder of a lawman Lynched by a mob along with Berry Burrell, Joseph Allen, and Jesse West.[228]
Burrell, Berry 38 White Ada Pontotoc Oklahoma April 19, 1909 Suspicion of murder of a lawman Lynched by a mob along with Jim Miller, Joseph Allen, and Jesse West.[228]
Allen, Joseph 43 White Ada Pontotoc Oklahoma April 19, 1909 Suspicion of murder of a lawman Lynched by a mob along with Jim Miller, Berry Burrell, and Jesse West.[228]
West, Jesse 46 White Ada Pontotoc Oklahoma April 19, 1909 Suspicion of murder of a lawman Lynched by a mob along with Jim Miller, Berry Burrell, and Joseph Allen.[228]
James, Will African American Cairo Alexander Illinois November 11, 1909 Murder of a white woman three days earlier[229] [202]
Salzner, Henry White Cairo Alexander Illinois November 11, 1909 Murder of his wife the previous year Dragged from his jail cell and hanged from a telegraph pole.[230]

1910–1919

Name Age Ethnicity City County or Parish State Year Accusation Comment
Allen Brooks 60 African-American Dallas Dallas County Texas 1910 Brooks was accused of raping Mary Beuvens, a two-and-a-half year old girl On March 3, 1910, Brooks was in the Dallas County Courthouse to face trial. A mob tied a rope around his neck and pulled him out of the courthouse window. Brooks landed on his head on the street below. He was dragged by a car to Elks Arch at the intersection of Main Street and Akard Street. There the mob hanged him from a telephone pole.[231]
Rodriguez, Antonio 20 Latino Rocksprings Edwards Texas 1910 Accused of murdering White Texan Antonio Rodriguez was a 20 year old migrant worker from Mexico. On November 2, Antonio was accused of murdering a White Texan, which led to him getting arrested and jailed. On November 3, 1910, a mob took him from his jail cell and burned him alive.[232][233]
Etherington, Carl Mayes 17 White Newark Licking Ohio July 8, 1910 Killing a man in self defense Etherington had been sworn in as a law officer by the Granville town mayor to enforce "prohibition" of alcohol in a "wet town"; shot and killed a man who assaulted him; officer taken from jail and lynched by mob in Newark, Ohio[234]
Gentry, Henry African American Belton Bell Texas July 24, 1910 Murder of Constable J. Mitchell Shot and burned[235][236][237]
Albano, Angelo and
Castenge Ficarotta
Italian Tampa Hillsborough County Florida 1910 Complicity in a shooting [238]
Marshall, Eugene unknown African-American Shelbyville Shelbyville Kentucky January 16, 1911 Convicted of murdering an aged negro woman Three men (Eugene Marshall, Wade Patterson, James West) lynched at the same time after the mob broke into jail after threatening the jailor for the keys. All three were hanged from the Chesapeake and Ohio bridge. One rope for two men (Patterson and West) was used, which snapped. Afterward, they were shot multiple times.[34]
Patterson, Wade unknown African-American Shelbyville Shelbyville Kentucky January 16, 1911 Charged with detaining Miss Elizabeth Rubel, a white nineteen-year old Shelbyville girl Three men (Eugene Marshall, Wade Patterson, James West) lynched at the same time after the mob broke into jail after threatening the jailor for the keys. All three were hanged from the Chesapeake and Ohio bridge. One rope for two men (Patterson and West) was used, which snapped. Afterward, they were shot multiple times.[34]
West, James unknown African-American Shelbyville Shelbyville Kentucky January 16, 1911 Charged with detaining Miss Mary Coley, a young white girl. Three men (Eugene Marshall, Wade Patterson, James West) lynched at the same time after the mob broke into jail after threatening the jailor for the keys. All three were hanged from the Chesapeake and Ohio bridge. One rope for two men (Patterson and West) was used, which snapped. Afterward, they were shot multiple times.[34]
Nelson, Laura and Nelson, L.D. African-American Okemah Okfuskee Oklahoma May 25, 1911 Killing of Deputy Sheriff George H. Loney[239] Gang-raped and lynched together with her son, 14, after trying to protect him during a meat-pilfering investigation.[240]
Gomez, Antonio 14 Latino Thorndale Milam Texas 1911 Killing a German man After trying to escape a mob that surrounded the 14-year-old boy, he ended up killing a German man named Charles Zieschang which led to the 14 year old's arrest. While being transported to the jailhouse, four men intercepted the two people taking Antonio and successfully lynched Antonio Gomez.[232]
William Bradford African-American Chunky Newton Mississippi June 16, 1911 Accused of attempted murder of two white farmers [241]
Jones, Commodore 26 African-American Farmersville Collin Texas August 11, 1911 Accused of insulting a white woman over the telephone. Crowd of around 75 men and boys gained access to Jones's cell and marched him to the outskirts of town, where he was forced to climb a telephone pole and was hanged.[242][243]
Lee, John African American Durant Bryan Oklahoma August 13, 1911 Assault and murder of a white woman Picture of victim appeared in Crisis Magazine January 1912 p. 122:[244] Shot and burned[235]
Johnson, King[245] 28 African American Brooklyn Anne Arundel Maryland 1911 Alleged murder of Frederick Schwab. Johnson was to be transported to Annapolis for his safety that same day, but those plans were delayed. Around two o'clock in the morning on December 26, 1911, a mob broke into the unguarded jail where Johnson was kept. When Johnson fought back preventing a noose from being placed on his neck, he was beaten with irons and shot.[55][245]
Walker, Zachariah 20–24 African-American Coatesville Chester Pennsylvania August 16, 1911 Killing of a police officer, possibly in self-defense Taken from hospital room and burned alive. Fifteen men and teenage boys were indicted, but all were acquitted at trials.[246]
Harrison, Ernest
Reed, Sam, and
Howard, Frank
African American Wickliffe Ballard Kentucky September 11, 1911 Robbery and murder of an elderly black man The three men were accused of the robbery and murder of Washington Thomas, an elderly black man.[247]
Unknown African American Andalusia Covington 1911 Postcard of victim, postmarked 1911, appeared in Crisis Magazine January 1912 p. 118[244]
2 Unknown men African American Prior December 1911 Picture of victims appeared in Crisis Magazine twice; first, a cropped picture of one victim in December 1911 in article "Jesus Christ in Georgia" (p. 70)[244] and a full picture of both victims in January 1912 p. 122[244]
Lewis, Sanford African-American Fort Smith Sebastian Arkansas 1912 Shooting a constable Five policemen fined $100 each for "nonfeasance of office". Entire police force fired. Mayor voted out. Man charged with lynching acquitted.[248]
Unknown African American Florida(?) Prior Feb 3, 1912 Picture of victim appeared in Crisis Magazine March 1912 p. 209:[card purchased 3 Feb 1912 in Palm Beach Florida][244][249]
Davis, Dan 25 African-American Tyler Smith Texas 1912 Assault and rape of a 16 year old white girl Burned alive by a mob[250]
Johnson, Walter African-American Princeton, West Virginia County West Virginia West Virginia Sept 4, 1912 Assault and rape of a 14-year-old girl Taken out of his jail cell by an armed mob; hanged and shot.[251]
Green, Joe 16 African-American Heath Covington Alabama February 25, 1913 Fatal shooting of Nobie Spicer Shot and killed by a mob led by the victim's husband who identified Green as the murderer.[252] Samuel Spicer Jr. would later be convicted of the murder of his wife, Nobie, and sentenced to life in prison. He was paroled in December 1929, but then fled.[253]
9 Mexicans Latino El Paso El Paso Texas 1913 Being Mexican Bandits Hanged[254]
Delgadillio, Demecio 28 Latino Albuquerque Bernalillo New Mexico 1913 Murder Demecio killed Mrs. Soledad Zarrazino De Pino in a fit of jealous which led to him being hanged in Bernalillo County Jail[255]
White, Henry African-American Campville Alachua Florida 1913 Found under white woman's bed Hanged, noose broke, shot.[118]
Williams, Andrew 35 African-American Houston Chickasaw Mississippi 1913 Murder of John C. Williams, Wife of the Deputy Chancery Clerk Dragged from jail and hanged at a nearby tree, upon the alleged statement of two African-American women;[256] the women who made the statement were arrested the next day for making a false statement, according to one source[257] and/or disappeared.[258] The day after Williams was lynched, a second African-American, named in different reports as 'Divel Rucker', 'Dizell Rucker' and 'Dibrell Tucker; was lynched and burned at the stake on the assumption that he, not Williams, was the actual murderer[259][260]
Rucker, Divel 20 African-American Houston Chickasaw Mississippi 1913 Murder of John C. Williams, Wife of the Deputy Chancery Clerk The day after Andrew Williams was lynched by hanging for this murder, Rucker was presumed by the mob to be the actual murderer and, allegedly, confessed to the crime. He was tied to an iron stake, covered with tar, and set afire. The family of the victim shot him as he was burning[261] According to the New York Sun report, "The Rucker lynching was the most spectacular in the history of Mississippi and there was no attempt at concealment or evasion."[262][260]
Simmons, Bennie/Dennis African-American Anadarko Caddo Oklahoma June 13, 1913 Killing a 16-year-old girl Taken from officers; was lynched and burned[263]
Richardson, Joseph African-American Leitchfield Grayson Kentucky September 26, 1913 Assaulting a white girl Town drunk who accidentally stumbled near girl; hanged[264]
Adolfo Padilla Latino Santa Fe Santa Fe New Mexico 1914 Accused of killing his wife A mob of masked men seized Padilla from the jail and chopped his body into pieces.[265]
Martinez Jr., Leon 18 Latino Pecos Reeves Texas 1914 Killing a White woman On July 28, 1911, Leon Martinez was tried for the murder of a white woman. They used the forced confessions as evidence of him committing murder and he was sentenced to death but it was postponed due to the outrage. On May 11, 1914, Leon was executed by hanging.
Gonzales, Isidro Latino Oakville Live Oak Texas 1914 Choking a county jailer to death Isidro was accused to have choke Harry Hinton to death and escaped from jail. He was found riddle with bullets after his escape.[266]
Turner, Allen 47 African-American Western area of Parish (county) Union Louisiana 1914 Accused of Assaulting a white man (J.P. McDougall)[267] J.P. McDougall was whipping Allen Turner's son. Allen was defending his son. Taken from deputy sheriff and shot to death. It is said that Allen's body was then dragged through the roads of Spearsville.
Shields, Dallas African-American Fayette Howard Missouri 1914 Murdering a police officer [268]
Sullivan, Fred;
Sullivan, May
African-American Byhalia Marshall Mississippi 1914 Alleged barn burning. Fred Sullivan and his wife May confessed after nooses were placed around their necks. The couple were hanged by a mob of more than 100.[269]
Leo Frank 31 Jewish Marietta Cobb Georgia 1915 Killing a 13-year-old girl No charges filed; posthumously pardoned.
Brown Jeff African-American Cedarbluff Oktibbeha Mississippi 1915 Bumping into a white girl at a train station Pictures of his lynching were sold to white citizens for five cents each.[270]
11 Mexican-Americans Latino Lyford Willacy Texas 1915 Supposedly were Mexican Bandits After hearing news of Luis De La Rose had been killed in battle, Sheriff Vann went to Mission, Texas to see if the news was true, on the way, American troops found the bodies of 11 Mexicans. Commander Blocksom ordered an investigation to investigate the killings. He believed that the Mexicans were not Bandits and were peaceful Mexicans who were killed due to race hatred after the Progreso battle.[271]
10 Mexican-Americans Latino Olmito Cameron Texas 1915 Train wrecking and murder After a train wrecking that killed 3 people, the Americans began to hang or shoot Mexicans who they thought were involved in the wreck[272]
Five Mexicans 33, others unknown Latino South Texas Culberson Texas 1915 Horse theft Orozco successfully executed a planned escape to Sierra Blanca where he met up with leaders and future cabinet members where they crossed into Dick Love's ranch who accused them of stealing his horses and later got the Rangers and other law enforcement to look for the men where they found the men camping in a box canyon where they killed all 5 of the men.
Jesus Bazán and Antonio Longoria 67, 49 Latino South Texas Hidalgo Texas 1915 No accusation Jesus and Antonio went to report that a few of their horses had been stolen to the Texas Rangers. After they reported that stuff to the Rangers and left, Ranger Henry Ransom followed Jesus and Antonio and shot both of them dead. Henry Ransom had called for the bodies to be left in the open to spread fear across the town.[233]
Six Mexicans Latino Brownsville Cameron Texas 1915 Murder Two of the Mexicans were taken from San Benito jail and the other four Mexicans were taken from Mercedes where they shot to death and bodies burned on the side of a road.[273]
Jose and Hilario Leon Latino Southern Arizona Pima Arizona 1915 Outlawry Two white police officers interrogated the brothers and accused them of being outlaws. They hung the brothers from a tree and left their bodies to rot in the desert gulch.[265]
Lorenzo and Gorgonio Manriquez Latino Mercedes Hidalgo Texas 1915 Resisting arrest Shot[274]
Muñóz, Adolfo Latino Brownsville Cameron Texas 1915 Murder and horse theft While being transported by Sheriff Frank Carr, a group of seven to eight men held the Sheriff at gun point, taking Adolfo and later hanging him from a tree.[275]
Lynching of James and Alonzo Green African-American Columbus Jones County Georgia 1915 Mob ran into them while hunting for the murderer of white farmer [276]
Stevenson, Cordella African-American Columbus Lowndes Mississippi 1915 Her son was accused of burning a white man's barn, he was unavailable, so they raped and murdered her Her husband Arch was never seen alive after December 15[277]
Dr Benjamin E Ward 37 White Norman Cleveland Oklahoma 1915 Murdering his wife Mob expected him to be freed on grounds of insanity.[278]
Stanley, Will African American Temple, Texas Texas July 29–30, 1915 Murder of 3 children and assaulting parents Lynched and Burned. Stanley Claimed to have been accessory to murders and claimed leader of mob had hired him and other 2 men[279][280]
Sheffield, Caesar 17 African-American Lake Park Lowndes Georgia 1915 Allegedly stealing meat from a smokehouse owned by a white man. Jailors abandoned the jail allowing a mob to take Caesar Sheffield to a field where they shot him multiple times and left his body.[281]
Richards, John African American Goldsboro, North Carolina North Carolina January 12, 1916 murder Taken from jail and lynched[282]
Lerma, Greonimo Latino Brownwood Brown Texas 1916 Assaulting a White woman Greonimo was suspected to have assaulted one of the white woman in the town which led to him being shot and left dead.[283]
Buenros, Jose; Chapa, Melquiades Latino Brownsville Cameron Texas 1916 Murder of A. L. Austin and Charles Austin The 2 Mexican men were accused of having killed A. L. Austin and his son in raids the fall of 1915, they were hanged in Cameron County Jail[284]
Newberry Six lynchings
(Baskins, Rev. Josh J.;
Dennis, Bert;
Dennis, James;
Dennis, Mary;
McHenry, Andrew; and
Young, Stella)
Adults African-American Newberry Alachua Florida 1916 Helping a man who had shot and killed a constable James Dennis was shot. The others were hanged. Mary Dennis had two children and was pregnant. Stella Young had four children.[118][285]
Hoskins, Silas African-American Elaine, Arkansas Arkansas summer of 1916 "Vanished"; believed to have been killed because a white man coveted his successful saloon business. Uncle of author Richard Wright.
Lang, Ed African-American Rice Navarro Texas 1916 "Attacking a young woman." Taken from a sheriff's posse and hanged.[286]
Anthony Crawford[287] 51 African-American Abbeville Abbeville South Carolina 1916 Offensive language Coroner's jury: "persons unknown"
Jesse Washington[288] 17 African-American Waco McLennan Texas 1916 Murder Washington confessed and a jury found him guilty. Dragged behind car, castrated, fingers cut off, ear cut off, burned alive. Professionally photographed; pictures sold as postcards. Lynching of "political value" to Sheriff and to the judge who presided over his trial. "On the way to the scene of the burning, people on every hand took a hand in showing their feelings in the matter by striking the Negro with anything obtainable, some struck him with shovels, bricks, clubs and others stabbed him and cut him until when he was strung up his body was a solid color of red."[288]: 5 
Boleta Paulo Unknown White (Italian American) Greenwich Village New York City New York December 14, 1916 Murderous assault Randomly fired a revolver on a crowded street, wounding a bystander. Chased down by mob of 500 men and boys. Beaten and trampled to death.[289]
Herman Arthur and brother Irving 19 and 28-years-old African-American Paris, Texas Lamar County Texas 1917 Murder Pulled from jail and burned alive
Daley, Starr 26 White Pinal Arizona May 6, 1917 Homicide (Two murders) plus two rapes Accused admitted guilt in trial; taken from sheriff en route to jail and hanged from a telephone pole; last lynching in Arizona
Ell Persons about 50 African-American Memphis Shelby Tennessee May 22, 1917 Raping and killing a white girl No charges filed.
Lation Scott 32 African-American Dyer, Tennessee Dyer County, Tennessee Tennessee 1917 Rape of a white woman Scott was tortured for 3.5 hours and then burned alive by an angry mob on Sunday December 2, 1917.[290]
15 Mexican Americans 15–50 Latino Porvenir Presidio Texas 1918 Accused of Stealing and Ambushing Texas Rangers January 28, 1918, Texas Rangers enter Porvenir and took 15 Mexican American boys and men away from the town and executed all 15 by gun shot[291]
Garcia, Florencio Latino Port Isabel Cameron Texas 1918 Robbery Two rangers had taken Garcia into custody for a theft investigation. The next day they let Garcia go, and were last seen escorting him on a mule. Garcia was never seen again. A month after the interrogation, bones and Garcia's clothing were found beside the road where the Rangers claimed to have let Garcia go. The Rangers were arrested for murder, freed on bail, and acquitted due to lack of evidence.[292]: 80 
4 Mexicans Latino Douglas Cochise Arizona 1918 Robbery and murder Seized from homes and Hanged[293]
McIlherron, Jim[294][295][296] African-American Estill Springs Franklin Tennessee 1918 Killing two white people Tortured, then burned alive. Spectators came from as far as 50 miles away.
Clark, Andrew and Major;
Alma and Maggie House
16, 20, 16, 20 African-American Shubuta ("hanging bridge") Clarke Mississippi 1918 Alleged murder of dentist Dentist had affairs with both sisters, who were pregnant, likely with his child; the brothers had romantic interest in the girls. After the lynching the babies were seen squirming in their mothers bellies.[297]
Taylor, George African-American Rolesville Wake North Carolina 1918 Rape of a white woman No charges were filed.[298] There is a Web site on this lynching.[299]
Hayes Turner 25 African-American Morven Brooks Georgia 1918 Accused of helping kill an abusive landowner. Wife Mary killed next day for defending him.
Mary Turner[300] 18 African-American Bridge joining Brooks County and Lowndes County, Georgia Georgia 1918 Publicly opposed and threatened legal action against white people who had murdered her husband, unfairly accused (according to her) of killing an abusive landowner. Hanged upside down from a tree, doused her in gasoline and motor oil and set her on fire. Turner was still alive when a member of the mob split her abdomen open with a knife and her unborn child fell on the ground. The baby was stomped and crushed as it fell to the ground. Turner's body was riddled with hundreds of bullets.
Thompson, Allie African-American Culpeper Culpeper Virginia 1918 Assault [107]
Prager, Robert 30 White (German-American) Collinsville Madison Illinois 1918 Socialist; sympathy to Germany during World War I Forced to sing patriotic songs and kiss the flag, before being hanged.
Kinkkonen, Olli 38 White (Finnish-American) Duluth St. Louis County Minnesota 1918 Refusal to join the military during World War I Tarred and feathered before being hanged.
Woodson, Joel African American Green River Sweatwater County Wyoming Dec 10, 1918 Argument with a waitress Hanged in railroad terminal[301][302]
Jose Gonzalez and Salvador Ortez Latino Pueblo Pueblo Colorado 1919 Killing patrolman The two Mexicans natives were accused of shooting and killing a patrolman Jeff Evans, which they were arrested and charged for. A mob broke into the jail captured and hung from the girders of a Bridge.[303]
Mosely, Sam African-American Florida Columbia Florida 1919 Accused of assaulting a white woman. [304]
Jay Lynch 28 White Missouri Barton Missouri 1919 Murder Hanged.
Everest, Wesley 28 White Centralia Lewis Washington 1919 Homicide Hanged from a bridge during the Centralia Massacre labor conflict
Little, Wilbur African-American Blakely Early Georgia 1919 Wearing uniform of his WWI military service to the United States
Brown, Will 41 African-American Omaha Douglas Nebraska 1919 Rape Part of the Omaha race riot of 1919
Williams, Eugene African-American Chicago Cook Illinois 1919 Racial unrest A white officer refused to arrest the murderer, and instead arrested a black man who complained about it.[305]
Robinson, Robert African-American Chicago Cook Illinois 1919 He was black, and they wanted to kill a black Robinson was an Army Reserve veteran.[306]
Ashley, Bob African-American Dublin Laurens Georgia 1919 Hoped to shoot someone else A group of men thought another man might be inside Ashley's house, so they shot into the house, mortally wounding Ashley.[307]
Hamilton, Eugene African-American Jasper Georgia 1919 Convicted by all-white jury of attempting to shoot a white farmer; case before Georgia Court of Appeals. Mob of 60 stopped car of sheriff who was driving him for protection to nearest large city, Macon. Driven to a bridge in Jasper County and shot to death. Governor was "livid".[308]: 233–234 
Cox, Obe African-American Oglethorpe Georgia 1919 Accused of murdering a white farmer's wife Taken to the scene of the crime, his body riddled with bullets and burned at the stake. Several thousand persons witnessed the scene. Controversial as the local Black communisty "thanked" the mob for just killing Cox and not attacking their community.[309]
Moore, Will African-American Ten Mile Stone Mississippi May 20, 1919 Shooting J.H. Rogers Lynched[310]
Jones, Paul African-American Macon (near) Bibb Georgia 1919 Attacking a white woman. Mob of 400 found him, refused to turn him over to sheriff's deputies. Soaked in gasoline, set on fire; shot while he burned.[308]: 241 
Jameson, Jordan African-American Magnolia Columbia Arkansas 1919 Killing a sheriff Burned to death in the public square.[308]: 241 
Walters, Lemuel African-American Longview Gregg Texas 1919 Making "indecent advances" to a white woman
Holden, George African-American Monroe (near) Ouachita Louisiana 1919 Writing a suggestive note to a white woman[311] Mob stopped a train, dragged him off, and shot him.[308]: 18 
Wilkins, Willie African-American Jenkins Georgia 1919 Friend of man believed to have killed lawman. [308]: 8 
Ruffin, John African-American Jenkins Georgia 1919 Son of man believed to have killed lawman. [308]: 7–8 
Ruffin, Henry African-American Jenkins Georgia 1919 Son of man believed to have killed lawman. [308]: 7–8 
Walters, Lemuel African-American Longview Gregg Texas 1919 Consensual sex with white woman The report of the affair and the subsequent coverup led to the Longview riots.[312]
Richards, Benny African-American Warrenton Warren Georgia 1919 Accused of murdering his ex-wife and shooting 5 others 300 men lynched Richards, a farmer.[313][314]
Clay, Lloyd African-American Vicksburg Warren Mississippi 1919 False rape accusation 1000 men broke through three steel doors to abduct Clay from jail before hanging, shooting, and burning him.[315]
Prince, Henry African-American Hawkinsville Pulaski Georgia 1919 Unknown [316]
Waters, Jim African-American Johnson Georgia 1919 Rape accusation Investigation closed in one hour with no witnesses interviewed.[316]
Livingston, Frank 25 African-American El Dorado Union Arkansas 1919 False murder accusation One of many returning WWI veterans lynched in 1919.[317]
Washington, Berry 72 African-American Milan Dodge and Telfair Georgia 1919 Defended black girls from white home invaders. Many black homes burned to discourage citizens from coming forward[318]
Chilton Jennings 28 African-American Gilmer Upshur County Texas 1919 Assaulted a white women, Mrs. Virgie Haggard He was arrested and a mob of about 1,000 white people stormed the jail and broke down the door with sledgehammers. A noose was placed around his neck and he was dragged by horse to the town square where he was hanged.[319] Four people were later arrested for the lynching, murder indictments were served for Willie Howell, Charlie Lansdale, Fritz Boyd, and Francis Flanagan.[320][321][322]
Phifer, Miles (or Relius) African-American Montgomery Montgomery Alabama 1919 Assault of a white woman Was wearing military uniform[323]
Temple, Will African-American Montgomery Montgomery Alabama 1919 Killing a police officer [323]
Miles Phifer,
Robert Crosky and
John Temple
African-American Montgomery Montgomery Alabama 1919 Assault of a white woman [323]
Hartfield, John African-American Ellisville Jones Mississippi June 26, 1919 Assaulting a young white woman "The biggest newspaper in the state, Jackson Daily News, carried headlines announcing the exact time and place of the coming orgy.[324] Ten thousand people answered the paper's invitation and they were addressed by the District Attorney, T. W. Wilson, while the lynching was going on."[325]: 9 [326]
Paul, Jones African-American Macon Georgia Nov 2, 1919 Assault of a white woman Hanged/shot/burned in railyard.[327][328]

1920–1929

Name Age Ethnicity City County or Parish State Year Accusation Comment
Thomas, Wade African-American Jonesboro Craighead Arkansas 1920 Killing a policeman Taken from jail by a mob, hanged, then riddled with bullets.[329]
Gathers, Phillip African-American Effingham Georgia 1920 Murder
Scott, Henry African American Bartow Polk Florida 1920 He asked a white woman to wait until he had prepared another woman's train berth Shot[330]
Daniels, Lige 16–18 African-American Center Shelby Texas August 3, 1920 Accused of murdering a white woman. Taken from jail by a mob of approximately 1,000 to the town square and hanged[331][332]
Clayton, Elias,
Elmer Jackson, and
Isaac McGhie
20–23 African-American Duluth St. Louis Minnesota June 15, 1920 Rape of a teenage girl Taken from jail by mob, given mock trials, beaten and hanged from light-post.[333] Three members of the mob received prison terms of up to 5 years for rioting, albeit none of them were convicted of murder.[citation needed]
Belton Roy 18 White Tulsa Tulsa Oklahoma 1920 Suspicion of murder of cab driver [334]
July Perry[335] 52 African-American Ocoee Orange Florida 1920 Sign on body: "This is what we do to niggers that vote." Prosperous black farmer. See Ocoee massacre.
Cade, Henry 25 African-American Sour Lake Texas Texas 1921 Rape of an 8 year old white girl Taken from jail and hanged by a mob[336]
Eley, Jesse 46 African-American Murfreesboro Hertford North Carolina 1921 Owned a 50 arch farm which caused jealousy from some white neighbors. Jesse Eley was returning from the market in Murfreesboro, North Carolina. He bought some grain for his cattle. He had two workers riding with him in his horse-drawn wagon. As he reached the outskirts of town, he entered a path that went into a wooded area. Several men were hiding in the woods entrance waiting for him. As his wagon entered the woods, the men stopped Jesse. They began beating him and eventually hanged him on a tree. Jesse's workers took off running. One of them ran back to Jesse's farm to let the family know what was happening. The family got a horse-drawn buggy and went to rescue him. By the time they got there, Jesse was barely alive. They found him because he raised one of his legs in the air to let them know where he was.

Jesse had a hole in his head, and his stomach was cut open. His throat was seizing up because of the hanging. As they put him into the buggy, he died. [337] [338]

Lowry, Henry
("a negro sharecropper")
African-American Nodena Mississippi Arkansas 1921 Asked for his wages Burned to death; crowd of 500[325]: 3 
Brownie Tuggles African-American Hope Hempstead County Arkansas March 15, 1921 Assaulting a white woman
Hackney, "Curly" 30 White Waco McLennan Texas 1921 Rape of an 8-year-old girl Taken from jail and hanged by a mob[339]
William Turner 18 African-American Helena Phillips County, Arkansas Arkansas November 18, 1921 Alleged assault of 15-year-old white girl Shot, dragged to the park, doused in gasoline and lit on fire
Rouse, Fred 33 African-American Fort Worth Tarrant County Texas December 11, 1921 Shot two While hired as a strikebreaker for a whites-only union, he was attacked and shot two union protesters.
Manuel Cabeza 34 Hispanic Key West Monroe Florida December 25, 1921 Was in a relationship with an African American woman Shot a man who tarred and feathered him (because of his common law marriage); lynched by Ku Klux Klan.
Bill McAllister African-American Near the border of Williamsburg and Florence Counties Florence South Carolina January 8, 1922 Was in a relationship with a white woman Bill McAllister was killed by gunshot. The news of this lynching did not reach the national media until January 8, 1922, and so it is recorded as the first lynching of 1922 in America.[340] The United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary recorded five lynching incidents recorded in December 1921, none of which in South Carolina
Lincoln Hickson African-American Near the border of Williamsburg and Florence Countie Florence County South Carolina January 8, 1922 Was in a relationship with a white woman Lincoln Hickson was reportedly killed by gunfire but other sources say he survived the lynching
Willie Jenkins African-American Eufaula Barbour Alabama January 10, 1922 Dispute with his boss' wife. Newspapers reported that he "insulted a white woman." Shot
Jake Brooks African-American Oklahoma City Oklahoma County Oklahoma January 14, 1922 Working as a strike breaker Hanged. Five men later pleaded guilty to Brooks's murder and were each sentenced to life in prison.
Charles Strong African-American Mayo Lafayette County Florida January 17, 1922 Participated in a shooting that killed mailman W.R. Taylor Hanged
William Arthur Bell 20 African-American Pontotoc Pontotoc County Mississippi January 29, 1922 Assault of a white woman Shot
Unidentified 20 African-American Pontotoc Pontotoc County Mississippi January 29, 1922 Assault of a white woman Shot[341]
Drew Conner/Connor 22–23 White Bolinger Choctaw County Alabama January 28, 1922 Unknown A charred body, of a white man, was discovered on January 28, 1922, by H.T. Raines. Investigators determined that he was burned a few weeks earlier. The body was strung between two trees and a large pile of wood was piled around him. It was reported that the body was most likely Drew Connor who went missing Christmas 1921 but the only clues to the identity were some overall buttons found in the ash.[341][342]
Will Thrasher African-American Crystal Springs Copiah County Mississippi February 1, 1922 Assault of white woman Hanged
John Harrison 38 African-American Malvern Hot Spring County Arkansas February 2, 1922 Harassing white women Shot[341]
Manuel Duarte Hispanic Cameron County Cameron County Texas February 2, 1922 Refused to leave farm Shot for not leaving the farm where he worked
P. Norman African-American Texarkana, Arkansas Miller County Arkansas February 11, 1922 Forced a deputy to drive at gunpoint Pulled from a car and shot four times by masked men.[341]
Will Jones 28 African-American Ellaville Schley County Georgia February 13, 1922 Unknown Shot
William Baker African-American Aberdeen Monroe County Mississippi March 8, 1922 Assault on white girl Hanged
Alfred Williams African-American Harlem Columbia County Georgia March 12, 1922 Assault with a firearm Alfred Williams was lynched on March 12, 1922, in Harlem, Georgia for allegedly shooting and wounding L.O. Anderson, a white farmer. Anderson recovered from his wounds.
Brown Culpepper White Holly Grove Franklin Parish Louisiana March 13, 1922 Unknown Brown Culpepper was living in Holly Grove, Louisiana with his two kids, his wife having moved to Natchez two years earlier. On Saturday, March 11, 1922, a party of unmasked men came to the house he was staying at; when they did not find him, they went to the house of J.R. Hutto where Culpepper was visiting. They called for him to come out but when he didn't, they stormed into the house and shot Culpepper dead.

Sheriff Jesse Gilbert of Winnsboro arrested eight people for involvement in the murder: P. M. Usery Sr., Albert Farrington, P. M. Usery Jr., J. C. Farrington, Charley Parson, George Wactor, Charlie Calendor and Eugene Bradshaw.[341][343]

Jerry Ingram African-American Crawford Lowndes County Mississippi March 17, 1922 Assault on white woman The wife of a popular farmer, Mrs Dewey, was attacked. She was able to yell for help and the attacker fled. Bloodhounds found a man, Jerry Ingram, 8 miles (13 km) from the scene of the attack and he was lynched.[344][345]
Unidentified Man White Okay Wagoner County Oklahoma March 19, 1922 Body of a man chained/tied to a tree was discovered in the Arkansas River near Okay, Oklahoma. He was wearing clothes of "an excellent grade" and had a handkerchief with the initial "B"[346][347][341]
Tompkins, George 19 African American Indianapolis Marion Indiana 1922 No Accusation Made Memorial Service Marked the 100th Anniversary of the Event in 2022[348]
Alexander Smith 60 African-American Gulfport Harrison County Mississippi March 22, 1922 Ran "a house of ill fame" Hanged
McKinley "Snap" Curry, H. Varney (or Johnnie Cornish), Mose Jones, Tom Cornish
  • McKinley "Snap" Curry (23)
  • Johnny Cornish (19)
  • Mose Jones (46)
  • Tom Cornish
African-American Kirvin Freestone County Texas May 6, 1922 Murder of white, 17-year-old Eula Ausley The two white men, Claude and Audey Prowell, who were initially arrested, were released and the sheriff released a statement that they were not involved in the murder of Eula Ausley.[2] Author Monte Akers in his book "Flames After Midnight: Murder, Vengeance and the Desolation of a Texas Community", concluded that McKinley "Snap" Curry conspired with Claude and Audey Prowell to kill and murder Eula Ausley and that Mose Jones and Johnny Cornish were innocent. Tom Cornish was killed on May 8, 1922.
Thomas Early (aka Thomas Early, Jim Earlie) 25 African-American Plantersville Grimes County Texas May 17, 1922 Assault of white woman Burned
Charles Atkins 15 African-American Davisboro Washington County Georgia May 18, 1922 Murder of white woman Burned
Hullen Owens African-American Texarkana Bowie County Texas May 19, 1922 Murder Hanged (body burned)
Joe Winters 20 African-American Conroe Montgomery County Texas May 20, 1922 Assault of white 14-year-old Burned
Mose Bozier 60 African-American Alleyton Colorado County Texas May 20, 1922 Assault of a white woman Hanged
Gilbert Wilson African-American Bryan Brazos County Texas May 23, 1922 Stealing cattle Beaten to death
Jesse Thomas 23 African-American Waco McLennan County Texas May 26, 1922 Assault of white woman and murder of her companion Shot (body burned)
William Byrd African-American Brentwood Wayne County Georgia May 28, 1922 Manslaughter Shot (body burned)
Robert Collins African-American Summit Pike County Mississippi June 20, 1922 Assault of a young white woman Hanged
Warren Lewis 17 African-American New Dacus Montgomery County Texas June 23, 1922 Assault of a white woman Hanged
James Harvey and Joe Jordan African-American Lanes Bridge Liberty County Georgia July 1, 1922 Assault of employer's wife Hanged
Philip Tankard African-American Belhaven Beaufort County North Carolina July 5, 1922 Rioting Tankard was shot to death after riots following a July 4 celebration by J.F. Burrows who was deputized to help put down the riots.[341][349]
Joe Pemberton African-American Benton Bossier Parish Louisiana July 7, 1922 Shot two Black women Joe Pemberton was in the Bossier Parish jail in Benton, Louisiana for shooting two Black women. A white mob surrounded the jail, overpowered Deputy Sheriff J.A. Wilson, and took Pemberton. His body was later found hanging from a tree in Black Bayou swamp, 2 miles (3.2 km) from Benton.[350][351][341]
Jake "Shake" Davis 62 African-American Miller County Georgia July 14, 1922 Consensual relationship with 26-year-old Ethel Skittel Hanged by white mob. After the event, the Miller County Liberal wrote that "hundreds of the citizens throughout the county regret this lynching. Many have said [Ethel Skittel] was guiltier than Jake."[341]
Oscar Mack 29-years-old during the lynching attempt African-American Lake Jennie Jewel Orange County Florida July 19, 1922 Shooting death of two white men According to contemporary sources, Mack was reported to be lynched.[341] However, he was able to escape and died at 67-years-old in Ohio.
William Anderson African-American Moultrie Colquitt County Georgia July 24, 1922 Assaulting a white 15-year-old girl Three men had seized William Anderson and chained him inside a car. While waiting to drop him off to the police outside the Moultrie, Georgia jail, an unknown man jumped in and sped off. Andersen's bullet-ridden body was later found a few miles away next to the Ellenton, Georgia Reedy Creek Baptist Church. The Colquit county grand Jury was called into special session to investigate the people behind the lynching but was quickly adjourned due to lack of evidence.[352][353][341]
John West 50 African-American Guernsey Hempstead County Arkansas July 28, 1922 Fight over West using a drinking cup The newspaper The Little River News reported that West was probably shot and killed "after he flourished a pistol and threatened the men who intended only to whip him."[354][341]
Gilbert Harris 28 African-American Hot Springs Garland County Arkansas August 1, 1922 Killing of Maurice Connelly (insurance solicitor) in a burglary gone wrong A white mob, some 500 strong, broke into the jail and seized Gilbert Harris after overpowering the police in the public square (actually a triangle shape in front of the Como hotel). Even though Harris had a history of break and enters, he professed his innocence. The mob later took the corpse back and laid it in the jail.[355][356][341]
John Glover 35 African-American Holton Bibb County Georgia August 2, 1922 Manslaughter of Deputy Sheriff Walter C. Byrd Beaten, tied to a tree, riddled with bullets and lit on fire. Corpse was displayed in the Black community of Macon.
Bayner Blackwell African-American Swansboro Onslow County North Carolina August 6, 1922 Murder of Cy Jones Onslow Sheriff claims Blackwell wasn't lynched, rather run out of town. The United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary report claims he was shot.[341]
John Steelman 35 African-American Lambert Quitman County Mississippi August 23, 1922 Assault on a white woman, Mrs. Bruce White Mr Bruce White had hired Steelman for some work. White and Steelman ate breakfast at White's house and then walked to the work site. Steelman made an excuse and returned to White's house where he allegedly attacked Mrs. Bruce White. Her yelling alerted a Black field hand who had run away after Mrs. White started screaming. A mob then hunted him down and, even though he had a gun, were able to capture him. John Steelman was tied to a stake wood piled around him and then the pyre was ignited by Mrs. Bruce White.[341][357][358]
Thomas Rivers 25 African-American Bossier Parish Bossier Parish Louisiana August 30, 1922 Assault of a white woman When Thomas Rivers was arrested, the community threatened to lynch him. He was being moved to the Benton jail when a mob overpowered the officers and took Rivers. His body was found hanging near the Shreveport-Bossier highway about 12 miles (19 km) from Shreveport, Louisiana.[359][360][341]
F. Watt Daniels and Thomas F. Richards White Mer Rouge Morehouse Parish Louisiana August 1922 Spoke out against KKK activities Ku-Klux Klan kidnapped the men on August 24, 1922, and the bodies were discovered in nearby Lake Lafourche on December 24, 1922.
Jim Reed Long African-American Winder Barrow County Georgia September 2, 1922 Attack of a white woman, 19-year-old Ms. Violet Wood, daughter of Rev. John H. Wood Ms. Violet Wood was visiting the house of her aunt, Ms. Pearl Saunders, when she interrupted a burglary allegedly undertaken by Jim Reed Long. Startled to find Wood in the house, he struck her with an iron bar. After his arrest, a mob quickly gathered in Winder, demanding that Long be handed over. Sheriff Camp was able to get Long out of the Barrows county jail in Winder but when he was taking him to Atlanta, he was stopped on the roads, overpowered and Jim Reed Long was taken by a mob and hanged.[361][362][363] Some reports say by the Ku-Klux Klan.[341] News media of the time repeated that the lynching was "orderly conducted."[363][362]
O.J. Johnson African-American Newton Newton County Texas September 7, 1922 Johnson was twice tried with killing a Turpentine camp foreman four years earlier. Hanged from a tree
Jim Johnston African-American Georgia September 28, 1922 Assault of a white woman A mob had gathered in Sandersville, and so Deputy Sheriff Davis and Nixon were driving Johnson to Wrightsville when a posse of 50 men overpowered the deputies and seized Johnson. Hanged on the Cedar Creek bridge, his body was riddled with bullets.[364][365][341]
Grover C. Everett African-American Abilene Taylor and Jones Counties Texas September 28, 1922 Unknown Shot in his hotel room by four people
John Brown African-American Montgomery Montgomery County Alabama October 3, 1922 A race riot broke out on October 3, 1922, after African-American Joe Terell was arrested in connection with the murder of George Tilson who in turn was searching for a Black assailant that killed white policeman Albert Sansom. African-American Edward Pearl was killed in the race rioting.[366]

The report on the lynchings of 1922 by the United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary, lists John Brown as being lynched on October 3, 1922, in Montgomery,[341] but newspaper reports write that he was seized, questioned and released.[367][368]

George and Ed Hartley White Camden Benton County Tennessee October 20, 1922 Manslaughter of Connie Hartley, nephew of Ed Hartley Shot
Elias V. Zarate Hispanic Weslaco Hidalgo County Texas November 11, 1922 Fight with co-worker, J.L. Sullivan, in which Sullivan's arm was broken Shot
Cupid Dickson African-American Madison Madison County Florida December 5, 1922 Shot
Wright, Charles, Albert Young and an unidentified Black man African-American Perry Taylor Florida 1922 Murder of white teacher Escaped convict Wright was taken from sheriff by a large mob, tortured into confession, and burned at the stake. Two other suspects were shot and hanged. Several African American community buildings and homes were burned in the Perry race riot.[369][370]
Less Smith 25 African-American Morrilton Conway County Arkansas December 9, 1922 Murder of Granville Edward Farish Deputy sheriff Granville Edward Farish was trying to collect a debt from Smith when a scuffle broke out. In the fight, Farish smashed a bottle over Smith's head whereupon Smith shot him in the stomach. Smith was arrested and a white mob soon gathered. When officials tried to move Smith to another jail, he was seized, hanged from a tree, and his body riddled with bullets. When the body was taken to the undertaker, the mob burst in to view the body.[371][341]
George Gay 25 African-American Streetman Freestone and Navarro Counties Texas December 11, 1922 Accused of assaulting white 20-year-old Miss Florine Grayson Florine Grayson could not positively identify George Gay when he was brought before her. The mob ignored this, chained him to a tree and shot him around 300 times.
Scott, James T. 35–56 African-American Columbia Boone Missouri 1923 Assaulting a 14 year old white girl Accused of detaining and beating the daughter of a professor at the University of Columbia, where Scott worked as a janitor. Lynched by a mob of over 100 men. Memorial plaque erected in 2016.[372][373]
Wilson, Abraham African-American Newberry Alachua Florida 1923 Cattle stealing Serving 6-month sentence when taken from jail and hanged.[118][374]
Carter, Sam 45 African-American Rosewood Levy Florida 1923 Sexual assault of a white woman Falsely accused, tortured, shot, then hung by white mob which went on a rampage burning homes and killing several other people.
Simmons, Henry African-American Palm Beach Palm Beach Florida June 7, 1923 Killing of police officer A police officer stopped "three negroes in regards to the butchering of a turtle" on June 3, 1923. After a struggle, the officer was shot and described the assailants before dying 3 days later. A lynch mob first seized James Sands, who was beaten before one of the mob declared he was "not the one". Sands was released. The mob later seized Henry Simmons from a boarding house in West Palm Beach. His body was found the morning of June 7, 1923, at a location on Barton Road on Palm Beach Island, a short distance from The Breakers. The body was shot multiple times and hung from a tree close to where the officer was shot. [1][2]
Bell, William 33 African-American Chicago Cook Illinois 1924 Accosting two girls Beaten to death by a mob in a Jewish neighborhood. The girls, when questioned by police, admitted they were unsure if Bell was in fact the same man who had accosted them. The only lynching in Chicago history.[375]
Smith, Samuel 15 African-American Nashville Davidson Tennessee 1924 Robbed a grocery store and shot the white owner. Taken out of his hospital room in Nashville and lynched by a mob of masked men where he was first caught.[376]
L. Q. Ivy African-American Rocky Ford (Etta) Union Mississippi 1925 Rape Burned at the stake[377]
Jordan, James Adult African-American Waverly Sussex Virginia 1925 Married woman "attacked" in her home. The case and two others helped lead to the Virginia Anti-Lynching Law of 1928, the first state law against lynching.[378][379]
Willie Washington African-American St. Louis Duval Florida 1925 Murdered by a local policeman, Washington's body was later displayed in the county courthouse.[380]
Marshall, Robert African-American Price Carbon Utah 1925 Accused of killing a white guard The allegation was based on the testimony of two young boys who said they saw a black man running from the scene of the crime. Marshall was lynched in front of a crowd of 1,000. When the sheriff arrived, he cut Marshall down and was putting him in the car when Marshall made noise indicating he was alive. The mob shouted to lynch him again. Afterward, Marshall's body was put on display in the funeral parlor and photos of the lynching were sold door-to-door for 25 cents. In 1998, the community provided a headstone for him.[381]
Buddington, George 55 African-American Waldo Alachua Florida 1926 Attempted to collect debt from a white woman at gunpoint Mob broke lock on jail, took Buddington out of town and shot him to death.[118][382]
Four Mexican Americans and an Austrian man Latino, White (Austrian) Raymondville Willacy Texas 1926 Murder All five were shot after an ambush.[383]
Clark, James African-American Eau Gallie Brevard Florida July 11, 1926 Rape of a white girl Taken from law officers and lynched. No attempt to verify crime nor identify murderers: last known lynching in Brevard County[384][385][386]
Nelson, Samuel African-American Delray Beach Palm Beach Florida September 26–27, 1926 Assaulting a white woman Nelson was arrested on September 26, 1926 in Delray Beach on charges of assaulting a white woman in Miami. The following morning, the jail door was found torn open and the cell was empty. Later, a body identified as Nelson was found on a canal bank four miles west, with multiple gunshot wounds.

The Delray Beach Chief of Police later testified to the City Council that they had refused to release the prisoner to a stranger claiming to be an official from Miami; however, the prisoner was counted in the cell as of midnight on September 26. The Police department was declared "free of blame of neglect" by the City Council.

The culpability of the accused suspect for the crime in Miami, 55 miles away, was called into question as a major hurricane had struck eight days earlier, hampering travel. [3]

Lowman, Bertha, Lowman, Demon, Lowman, Clarence 27, 22, 14 African-American Aiken vicinity Aiken South Carolina October 8, 1926 Alleged murder of the sheriff After the second day of a retrial, they were taken from the jail to the outskirts of Aiken and shot, with a large crowd in attendance.[387]
Selak, Fred N. 61 White Grand Lake Grand Colorado 1926 None Murdered in part because of a fencing dispute, but also to steal money thought to be stashed on his property.[388]
Payne, Tom[389] African-American Willis Montgomery County Texas February 1, 1927 Arrested in connection with a suspected assault and murder, he was taken by a white mob and hanged from a tree.[390]
Carter, John[391] 38 African-American Little Rock Pulaski Arkansas 1927 None No charges filed; "mob" responsible.
Fox, Jim[392] African-American Louisville Winston County Mississippi June 26, 1927 Murder Arrested along with brother Mark in connection with a suspected murder of a white man, he was taken by a white mob, tied to a telephone pole with barbed wire, and burned.[393]
Fox, Mark[392] African-American Louisville Winston County Mississippi June 26, 1927 Murder Arrested along with brother Jim in connection with a suspected murder of a white man, he was taken by a white mob, tied to a telephone pole with barbed wire, and burned.[393]
Ratliff, Marshall White Cisco Eastland County Texas December 23, 1927 Bank robbery Robbed a bank with three accomplices while dressed as Santa Claus. Ensuing shootout(s), manhunt, capture, and lynch mob. His hands and feet were bound, and he was hanged with rope thrown over a guy-wire between two telephone poles in a vacant lot behind a movie theater.
Benavides, Rafael Latino Farmington San Juan New Mexico 1928 Attacking a white man's wife Benavides was a Mexican shepherd who was accused by the police to have attacked a white man's wife. The police then went to arrest Benavides and shot him for resisting arrest. They rushed him to the hospital; three men then called the hospital asking if the Mexican was being guarded by authorities which the nurse confirmed he wasn't. The three men later on snuck into the hospital, kidnapped Benavides and hung him from a tree near an abandoned ranch.[394]
Bearden, James Black Brookhaven Lincoln Mississippi 1928 Argued with white men over debt Dragged behind car, hanged[395]
Bearden, Stanly Black Brookhaven Lincoln Mississippi 1928 Argued with white men over debt Dragged behind car, hanged[395]

1930–1949

Name Age Ethnicity City County or Parish State Year Accusation Comment
Unknown male African-American Marion Crittenden Arkansas 1930s Teaching the black children of Marked Tree, Arkansas to read Burned, sign posted "run niggers run!".[396]
Wilkins, John H. African-American Locust Grove, Georgia Georgia April 18, 1930 Smiling at a white woman This Pullman Porter was dragged off his train and lynched[397] A protest manifesto mentioning his lynching and two others had a cropped picture of a lynched African American.[398] This cropped photograph is taken from one of an African American lynched/hanged from a telephone pole in a railyard (Georgia(?);[328] it is unknown if the original photo is of Wilkins.
Green, Allen 50 African-American Walhalla vicinity Oconee South Carolina April 24, 1930 Allegedly criminally assaulted white woman After severely injuring the sheriff, the victim was taken from the county jail, tied to a tree outside the city, and shot multiple times by a crowd of about 100 men.[399]
Jenkins, Dan 22 African-American Union vicinity Union South Carolina June 21, 1930 Allegedly raped a white woman Captured by local citizens and identified by the woman, he was shot by a mob of about 150. The governor had been notified of the potential lynching and ordered out the National Guard, which arrived twenty minutes too late.[400]
Grant, George African-American Darien McIntosh Georgia 1930 Killing a police officer, and wounding three other people Sheriff: "I don't know who killed the nigger and I don't give a damn."[325]: 10 
Thomas Shipp 18 African-American Marion Grant Indiana 1930 Robbery of white couple, homicide, rape Lynch mob of thousands broke into jail and took Shipp, Abram Smith and James Cameron. The mob hung the first two up in a tree. Cameron was released by the mob but was convicted of accessory and served time, later becoming an activist and founding the America's Black Holocaust Museum.[401]
Abram Smith 19 African-American Marion Grant Indiana 1930 Robbery of white couple, homicide, rape Lynch mob of thousands broke into jail and took Smith, Thomas Shipp and James Cameron. The mob hung the first two up in a tree. Cameron was released by the mob but was convicted of accessory and served time, later becoming an activist and founding the America's Black Holocaust Museum.[401]
Moore, Oliver 29 African-American Edgecombe North Carolina August 19, 1930 Alleged sexual improprieties with two young white girls Hanged and shot by mob who broke into jail[402]
Hughes, George African-American Sherman Grayson Texas 1930 Pled guilty to criminal assault. Courthouse stormed (during trial), burned down with Hughes locked in vault, fire hoses cut. Body then dragged behind car and hanged, and fire lit under it. Followed by riot and destruction of black businesses. Two persons received two-year sentences for violence.[403]
Charles Wright
[401][verification needed]
21 African-American Rosewood Levy Florida 1930 Homicide during holdup of white man; rumors of rape No charges filed.
Parker, John African-American Conway Faulkner Arkansas 1931 Stealing some peaches [325]< <: 4 
Mendiola, Higinio 46 Latino Edinburg Hildalgo Texas 1931 None A mob of 7 people hung Higinio from a tree near his home to make it appear that he had committed suicide in order to collect insurance for his death.[404]
Gunn, Raymond African-American Maryville Nodaway Missouri 1931 Murdering a white woman Burned to death. National Guard stood by and watched.[325]: 10 
Wise, Mrs. African-American Frankfort (Frankford?) Virginia (West Virginia?) 1931 Objected to her daughter being taken out for "rides" with white Klansmen. [325]: 8 
Charles Bannon 22 White Schafer Williams County North Dakota 1931 Murdering his employer and family Mob broke into jail and hung him from a bridge[405]
Williams, Matthew 23 African-American Salisbury Wicomico Maryland 1931 Killing his employer Taken forcibly from hospital. No indictment despite numerous witnesses.[325]: 9–10 
Tillis, Dave African-American Crockett Houston Texas 1932 "Demanded an accounting from his landlord. Charged with 'entering the bedroom of a white woman'". [325]: 4–5 
Thompson, Shedrick
(also spelled "Shamrock")
39 African-American rural Fauquier Virginia 1932 Assault and rape.
Dendy, Norris 33 African-American Clinton Laurens County South Carolina June 4–5, 1933 Striking a white man following an argument Broken out of jail by a group of men; five white men named in an indictment but none were convicted
Lawrence, Elizabeth African-American rural Jefferson Alabama 1933 Reprimanding a group of white children [406]
Armwood, George 23 African-American Princess Anne Somerset Maryland 1933 Attempted assault and rape Grand jury declined to indict any of the lynchers identified by State Police. Last lynching in Maryland.
Holmes, John, and
Thomas Thurmond
29
27
White San Jose Santa Clara California 1933 Kidnapping and murder of department store heir Brooke Hart An estimated 10,000 people witnessed the lynching. California Governor James Rolph called the act "a fine lesson for the whole nation."[407]
Micou, Reuben 65 African-American Louisville Winston Mississippi 1933 Accused of getting into an altercation with a white man. Abducted from jail by a mob. Micou's injuries suggested he was whipped before being shot multiple times.[408]
Claude Neal 23 African-American Greenwood Jackson Florida 1934 Rape and murder of 19 year old white female Lynchers said he "didn't deserve a trial". Castrated, forced to consume his genitals, stabbed, burned with hot irons, toes and fingers removed, hanged, body tied behind automobile. Followed by Marianna riots. Important case in helping to bring lynching to an end.
Johnson, Robert 40 African-American Tampa Hillsborough Florida 1934 Assault on white woman Investigators determined charges against Johnson were meritless, then released him to a lynch mob.[409][410]
Higginbotham, Elwood 28 African-American Oxford Lafayette Mississippi 1935 Killed in self-defense a white man that attacked him after he complained about the white man's cattle running over his field. Killed when jury did not bring back guilty verdict promptly. Widow and extended family immediately left Mississippi.[411]
Bert Moore and Dooley Morton 26 African-American Columbus, Mississippi Mississippi July 13, 1935 [412]
Reuben Stacey
(also found as Rubin Stacy)
37 African-American Fort Lauderdale Broward Florida July 19, 1935 Threatening and frightening a white woman with a pen knife Law enforcement officer; grand jury refused to indict.[413][414][415] In 2022, a two-mile stretch of Davie Boulevard in Fort Lauderdale was renamed Rubin Stacy Memorial Boulevard.[416][417]
Johnson, Clyde Yreka Siskyou California August 3, 1935 Killing of Police Chief Frank R. Daw[418] Dunsmuir Police Chief Frank Daw was shot and killed on July 29, 1935, when he confronted an armed robbery suspect. Johnson, the alleged perpetrator, was removed from the Siskiyou County Jail and was hung from a tree near Yreka.[419]
Roosevelt Townes and
Robert McDaniels
African-American Duck Hill Montgomery Mississippi 1937 Pair suspected in the robbery and shooting of a shopkeeper. Tied to a tree and tortured with blowtorches to extract a confession. McDaniels shot, Townes burned alive. Photos of the lynching made the national media.[420]
Goodin, Albert 35 African-American Covington, Tennessee Tennessee Aug 16, 1937 Shooting a police officer Taken from sheriff by 100 men and lynched from bridge over Beaver Creek; body recovered from river by Sheriff Deputies.[421]
Lynching of Richard Ponder and Ernest Hawkins 18 African-American Tallahassee, Florida Florida July 19, 1937 Broke into a store, accused of attacking a police officer with a knife Locked up in Leon County Jail after confessing to breaking and entering; four masked men kidnapped the two from the jail, shot them dozens of times, and put warnings to other African-Americans where the bodies laid.[422]
Williams, Elbert African-American Brownsville Haywood Tennessee 1940 Registering to vote and starting an NAACP chapter. Last reported lynching in Tennessee.[423]
Thornton, Jesse 26 African-American Luverne Crenshaw County Alabama 1940 Failure to address a white cop as "Mr."
Green, Ernest, and
Charlie Lang
14, 15 African-American Shubuta ("hanging bridge") Clarke Mississippi 1942 Attempted rape. [424]: 101 
Wright, Cleo 26 African-American Sikeston Scott Missouri 1942 Home invasion, attempted murder, attempted rape, resisting arrest Around 100 black people left Sikeston and never returned.[425]
Harrison, Cellos 31 African-American Marianna Jackson Florida 1943 Murder of a white man. Awaiting new trial after conviction overturned on appeal.
Willie James Howard[426] 15 African-American Live Oak Suwannee Florida 1944 Sending Christmas card with "a note expressing his affection" to a white girl. Forced to jump to his death in the Suwanee River. Grand jury refused to indict.
Moore's Ford lynchings
(George W. and Mae Murray Dorsey;
Roger and Dorothy Malcom)
Adults African-American Walton Georgia 1946 Stabbing of a white man (Roger Malcom) Huge investigation. 2003 and 2016 books on this investigation. No one charged.
Willie Earle 24 African-American Greenville Greenville South Carolina 1947 Killing of taxi driver 31 suspects charged; all acquitted.
Robert Mallard 38 African-American Lyons, Georgia Toombs County, Georgia Georgia 1948 Voting and prosperity Car surrounded by 20 Ku Klux Klan members. Car was shot at with pistols.

1950–1975

Name Age Ethnicity City County or Parish State Year Accusation Comment
Council, Lynn about 19 African-American near Raleigh Wake North Carolina 1952 Robbery He survived. Newspapers treat it as a lynching. Council has received apologies from the law enforcement agencies involved.
Banks, Isadore 59 African-American Marion Crittenden Arkansas 1954 Being prosperous [427]
Till, Emmett 14 African-American Money LeFlore Mississippi 1955 Flirting with white woman Beaten and mutilated before shooting him in the head and sinking his body in the Tallahatchie River. Perpetrators acquitted by all-white jury, then openly admitted they did it. Historical markers shot and defaced 2006–2018.[428]
Parker, Mack Charles 22 or 23 African-American Bridge over Pearl River between Mississippi and Louisiana Pearl River Mississippi 1959 Rape and kidnapping of a white woman; charges possibly fabricated. No one indicted.
Chaney, James, Andrew Goodman and Michael Schwerner 21, 20 and 24 African-American, White and White Philadelphia Neshoba Mississippi 1964 Civil rights worker A federal jury in 1967 convicted the sheriff and six others of conspiracy to violate civil rights; they received minor punishment. A state jury in 2005 found the Ku Klux Klan organizer, Edgar Ray Killen, guilty of three counts of manslaughter; he died in prison. National outrage contributed to passage of Civil Rights Act of 1964.
Morris, Frank 49–50 African-American Ferriday Concordia Louisiana 1964 "Flirting" with white females [429]: 152 
Rembert, Winifred 19 African-American Cuthbert Randolph Georgia 1965 Fighting with deputy while in jail for stealing car to get away from two men shooting at him. Survived. As of 2019, Rembert is a successful leatherwork artist. He has had at least two documentary films made about his story.[430][431][432][433][434]
Pyszko, Marian 54 Polish Jew Detroit Wayne Michigan 1975 None. Killed by youths with concrete block during riot. Four of his killers were charged with first-degree murder.

1976–1999

Name Age Ethnicity City County or Parish State Year Accusation Comment
Gardner, Betty 33 African-American St. Helena Island Beaufort South Carolina 1978 None (one of the perpetrators hated black people). Two white men (cousins John Arnold and John Plath) were convicted of Gardner's murder. Arnold and Plath were sentenced to death and executed via lethal injection in 1998.
Higdon, Benny; Owens, Robert; and Barreca, Charles White Miami Miami-Dade County Florida 1980 Killed by African American mob during the 1980 Miami riot.
Donald, Michael 19 African-American Mobile Mobile Alabama 1981 None (Klan looked to kill a black man because accused killer of white policeman got mistrial). Three Klansmen (Henry Hays, James Knowles, and Benjamin Cox) were convicted of Donald's murder. Henry Hays was sentenced to death and executed in the electric chair in 1997. James Knowles and Benjamin Cox were sentenced to life in prison. A civil suit against the United Klans of America caused their bankruptcy.
Turks, Willie 34 African-American New York City Sheepshead Bay, Brooklyn New York 1982 Drove through a majority-white neighborhood between his subway maintenance shifts. Turks and two other black subway employees were attacked by 15 to 20 assailants who shouted racial epithets. Gino Bova, 18 at the time, was sentenced to 5 to 15 years in prison for manslaughter. Justice Sybil Hart Kooper said at the sentencing: "There was a lynch mob on Avenue X that night. The only thing missing was a rope and a tree."[435][436]
Chin, Vincent Jen 27 Chinese Asian Highland Park Wayne County Michigan 1982 Being Asian during a time when Japan was cutting into the profits of Detroit automakers. Two white men working for the Chrysler plant, supervisor Ronald Ebens and his stepson Michael Nitz assaulted Chin outside of a McDonald's with a baseball bat following a brawl that took place at a strip club. A witness described them using anti-Asian racial slurs as they attacked him, ultimately beating him to death.
Hawkins, Yusef 16 African-American New York City East New York, Brooklyn New York 1989 Believed to be attending a party held by a white girl. Mob of 10 to 30, at least seven with baseball bats chased and beat Hawkins and friends. Hawkins was ultimately shot by Joseph Fama, who was convicted of second-degree murder in 1990. Keith Mondello, was acquitted on murder charges but convicted for 12 lessor offenses. Three other men were convicted of crimes while three were charged but not convicted.[437][438]
Rosenbaum, Yankel 29 Australian Jew New York City Crown Heights, Brooklyn New York 1991 Being Jewish. Rosenbaum, a student from Australia, was stabbed to death by a mob as part of the Crown Heights riot.[439] Both New York Senator Daniel Moynihan and New York City Mayor David N. Dinkins called the killing a lynching. Dinkins said: "I think that the death of Yankel Rosenbaum was a lynching, as was Yusuf Hawkins. No question. Whatever term one gives to these kinds of vicious murders, that's what it is."[440]
Wilson, Christopher 28 African-American Valrico, Florida Hillsborough County, Florida Florida 1993 None. Three white men kidnapped Wilson and set him on fire.[441]
Byrd Jr., James 49 African-American Jasper Jasper Texas 1998 None (white supremacists). Dragged to death behind a car, until his head hit a culvert. Perpetrators convicted; two executed, one to life imprisonment.

21st century

Name Age Ethnicity City County or Parish State Year Accusation Comment
Anderson, James Craig 47 African-American Jackson Hinds Mississippi 2011 "Stealing" his own car Beaten, run over with a truck. Driver convicted of murder, ten convicted of hate crimes. Main perpetrator sentenced to life in prison.
Arbery, Ahmaud 25 African-American Satilla Shores Glynn Georgia 2020 Burglary (falsely accused) Chased down and shot. Perpetrators convicted of felony murder and one with malice murder. All perpetrators sentenced to life in prison.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Briscoe was seized at the New Bridge over the Magothy River while being transported from Jacobsville to Annapolis, and was hanged beside the road. The place was said to be "very lonely and far from any habitation."[55]

Bibliography

Kentucky

References

References

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  87. ^ "Los Gatos Justice". San Jose Weekly Mercury. June 21, 1883. Archived from the original on May 11, 2021. Retrieved May 11, 2021.
  88. ^ "#36 Fred Ingraham and James Green". Without Sanctuary. The lynching of Fred Ingraham and James Green. April 3, 1883, Hastings, Nebraska.
  89. ^ "William "Sam Joe" Harvey". University of Utah. Retrieved June 8, 2023.
  90. ^ Clark, Cassandra; Westwood, Brad (February 2023). "African Americans and Salt Lake's West Side: Part One". Government of Utah. Retrieved June 8, 2023.
  91. ^ "A Jew Hanged in Pennsylvania, Believed to Be the Second Israelite Executed in the United States". Fort Worth Daily Gazette. Fort Worth, Texas: Stock Journal Pub. Co. September 3, 1884. ISSN 1946-6080. OCLC 13695711. Retrieved April 8, 2022.
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  99. ^ "George Kearney". New York Herald. July 19, 1998.
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  103. ^ "A Mexican Lynched". The Cheyenne Daily Leader. OCLC 14926194. Retrieved July 30, 2022.
  104. ^ "Jake Stafford Killed on His Way Home and Robbed – A Suspected Mexican said to Have Been Mobbed". lynchingintexas.org. Retrieved January 21, 2022.
  105. ^ Berger, Paul (December 20, 2014). "Midnight in Tennessee – The Untold Story of the First Jewish Lynching in America". Haaretz. Archived from the original on May 15, 2018. Retrieved May 15, 2018. In 1888, Amos Miller, a black man accused of raping a white woman, was dragged from court in Franklin and hanged from the courthouse railings.
  106. ^ "Shameful Past: Lynchings on Delmarva- Magruder Fletcher Lynched in Accomac in 1889". wboc.com. January 31, 2019. Archived from the original on December 13, 2019. Retrieved August 10, 2020.
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  108. ^ a b "First Of Three Young, Black Lynching Victims In Loudoun County To Be Memorialized". Archived from the original on November 20, 2020. Retrieved August 10, 2020.
  109. ^ "The Community Remembrance Project of Missouri".
  110. ^ Liz Shepard (April 30, 2018). "Port Huron's past included on lynching memorial". The Times Herald. Archived from the original on July 4, 2021. Retrieved January 7, 2019.
  111. ^ "SHOT DOWN IN COLD BLOOD – Eight Defenseless Negroes Lynched at Barnwell". Marion, South Carolina. Marion Star. January 1, 1890. Retrieved May 28, 2022.
  112. ^ "The Galveston Daily News. (Galveston, Tex.), Vol. 48, No. 343, Ed. 1 Saturday, April 5, 1890". The Portal to Texas History. April 5, 1890. Archived from the original on July 4, 2021. Retrieved January 6, 2021.
  113. ^ "Judge Lynch Presided. Would-Be Murderer Strung Up at Franklin. His Most Atrocious Assault on an Officer Avenged. The Body Dangling by the Roadside on the Outskirts. He Also Shot a Circus Man, Who Was Brought to Nashville for Treatment—A Deserved Fate". The Daily American. Nashville, Tennessee. April 30, 1891. Archived from the original on May 14, 2018. Retrieved May 14, 2018 – via Newspapers.com.
  114. ^ "Lynching of Jesus Salceda – February 4, 1891". lyngingintexas.org. Retrieved December 29, 2021.
  115. ^ 30 Years of Lynching 1889–1918 p.91
  116. ^ "Reproduction of a photograph of a lynching – Cornell University Library Digital Collections". digital.library.cornell.edu.
  117. ^ "Daily Nevada State Journal Newspaper Archives September 19, 1891 Page 3". newspaperarchive.com. September 19, 1891. Retrieved January 29, 2022.
  118. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Dan, Nicole (September 27, 2017). "At Least 21 Lynched In Alachua County, Historical Commission Confirms". WUFT News. Archived from the original on September 26, 2019. Retrieved January 9, 2019.
  119. ^ "Deputy Sheriff George Williams". The Officer Down Memorial Page (ODMP).
  120. ^ Humanities, National Endowment for the (March 22, 1892). "The Sedalia weekly bazoo. [volume] (Sedalia, Mo.) 187?–1904, March 22, 1892, Image 2". p. 2 – via chroniclingamerica.loc.gov.
  121. ^ "Triple Lynching Habersham 1892". The Atlanta Constitution. May 18, 1892. p. 1. Retrieved June 8, 2022.
  122. ^ "City Marshal James Carter". The Officer Down Memorial Page (ODMP). Retrieved June 8, 2022.
  123. ^ "Triple Lynching Habersham 1892". The Atlanta Constitution. May 18, 1892. p. 1. Retrieved June 8, 2022.
  124. ^ "James Taylor , MSA SC 3520-13740". msa.maryland.gov. Retrieved June 8, 2022.
  125. ^ Humanities, National Endowment for the (May 21, 1892). "Olympia tribune. [volume] (Olympia, Wash.) 1890–1893, May 21, 1892, Image 1" – via chroniclingamerica.loc.gov.
  126. ^ "Deputy Sheriff Tom Holmes". The Officer Down Memorial Page (ODMP).
  127. ^ "A Lynching in New York 130 Years Ago Shows That the North Isn't Immune to Racial Hatred". June 2, 2022.
  128. ^ a b c Ball, Nathaniel C. (September 30, 2015). "Memphis and the Lynching at the Curve". The Benjamin L. Hooks Institute for Social Change, University of Memphis. Archived from the original on May 18, 2018. Retrieved May 15, 2018.
  129. ^ "Finally Successful. An Attempt to Lynch Negroes At Nashville, Tenn., Successfully Resisted. The Government Takes Charge of the Jail Forces—One of the Lynchers Killed. Another Attempt Proves Successful, and the Negro Is Hanged. Crimes". The Courier. Waterloo, Iowa. May 2, 1892. p. 2. Archived from the original on July 3, 2020. Retrieved April 27, 2018 – via Newspapers.com.
  130. ^ "MURDERER LYNCHED. Wm. Bates swung up at Shelbyville by a mob". Daily Tobacco Leaf-Chronicle. Clarksville, Tennessee. June 27, 1892. p. 1. Archived from the original on April 21, 2021. Retrieved April 20, 2021 – via Library of Congress:Chronicling America.
  131. ^ The_Red_Record_Tabulated_Statistics_and Alleged Causes of Lynching by Ida D Wells
  132. ^ Last, Anne M. (September 19, 2015). "Strange Fruit and Spanish Moss: January 12, 1894: Charles Willis". Archived from the original on December 6, 2019. Retrieved August 10, 2020.
  133. ^ "Lynching of a Negro Murderer". Harrisburg Daily Independent. March 15, 1894. p. 1. Archived from the original on January 8, 2019. Retrieved January 7, 2019.
  134. ^ "Lynching of Floantina Suiato – October 12, 1895". lynchingintexas.org. Retrieved December 29, 2021.
  135. ^ "NEGRO LYNCHED / Murder of a White Woman in Missouri Swung from a Bridge". Evening Argus (Owosso, Michigan). August 16, 1895. p. 4. Archived from the original on March 9, 2021. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
  136. ^ Eagle River Review November 21, 1895 (Library of Congress)
  137. ^ "Hilliard, Robert Henson—Death & burial—Texas—Tyler." (Library of Congress)
  138. ^ "Lynching of Aureliano Castellán – January 26, 1896". lyngingintexas.org. Retrieved December 16, 2021.
  139. ^ "Three Italians lynched in Louisiana". The Journal and Tribune. August 10, 1896. p. 1. Archived from the original on June 27, 2020. Retrieved March 6, 2020.
  140. ^ "Lynched a Suspected Negro". The New York Times. July 5, 1896. p. 24. Archived from the original on February 24, 2021. Retrieved October 8, 2018.
  141. ^ "#61 Charles Mitchell". Without Sanctuary. The lynching of Charles Mitchell, his body hanging from a tree in a courthouse yard.
  142. ^ "Constable James Murray". The Officer Down Memorial Page (ODMP).
  143. ^ "Miners Hang a Negro at Lacon". Chicago Tribune. November 8, 1898. Retrieved January 31, 2022.
  144. ^ Jennings, Matthew H. (October 24, 2016). "Phoenix Riot". South Carolina Encyclopedia. University of South Carolina. Retrieved May 31, 2022.
  145. ^ "#38 Unidentified male". Without Sanctuary. African American male standing on buggy, facing camera, stripped, deep lacerations and wounds, his handcuffed hands placed to cover his genitals. lynch mob. Circa 1900, location unknown.
  146. ^ Humanities, National Endowment for the (July 28, 1899). "The Kinsley graphic. [volume] (Kinsley, Kan.) 1890–1940, July 28, 1899, Image 2" – via chroniclingamerica.loc.gov.
  147. ^ "Act of Unusual Atrocity". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. August 9, 1899. p. 2. Italian authorities regard lynchings as very serious
  148. ^ [30 Years of Lynching 1889–1918 gives surnames as "Smith"]
  149. ^ "#5 George and Ed Silsbee". Without Sanctuary. The corpses of George and Ed Silsbee. January 20, 1900. Fort Scott, Kansas. A large group of spectators holding kerosene lamps, downed fence in foreground.
  150. ^ a b c "Lynchings". Grenada Sentinel. January 5, 1901. Archived from the original on January 11, 2019. Retrieved January 11, 2019.
  151. ^ "Hanging to a tree". Duluth News Tribune. January 17, 1900 – via GenalogyBank.com. It is supposed [Anderson Gause] was lynched for aiding in the escape of the Gingerly brothers, colored, who recently murdered two officers near Ripley, Tenn.
  152. ^ "Constable W. D. Turner". The Officer Down Memorial Page (ODMP).
  153. ^ Lynching In Virginia Encyclopedia Virginia
  154. ^ "Strange Fruit and Spanish Moss: May 11, 1900: William Lee". May 11, 2015. Archived from the original on May 7, 2021. Retrieved May 5, 2021.
  155. ^ "Murder and Mob. Girl at Gilman Died From a Criminal Operation—Two Killed and Two Fatally Wounded". The Weekly Pantagraph. August 31, 1900. p. 5. Archived from the original on January 15, 2024. Retrieved January 15, 2024 – via Newspapers.com.
  156. ^ "Dr. Mrs. Charlotte Wright Is Dead". The Weekly Pantagraph. August 31, 1900. p. 5. Archived from the original on January 15, 2024. Retrieved January 15, 2024 – via Newspapers.com.
  157. ^ "The murder of 12-year-old Louise Frost". January 29, 2020. Archived from the original on July 1, 2021. Retrieved May 5, 2021.
  158. ^ Lovett, Christopher C. (Summer 2010). "A Public Burning: Race, Sex, and the Lynching of Fred Alexander". Kansas History: A Journal of the Central Plains. 33: 94–115.
  159. ^ "Peter Berryman (Lynching of)". Retrieved February 9, 2023.
  160. ^ "Negro Lynched in Kentucky". Lewiston Daily Sun. November 1, 1901. Archived from the original on March 8, 2021. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
  161. ^ "Los Angeles Herald February 12, 1901 — California Digital Newspaper Collection". cdnc.ucr.edu. Archived from the original on July 4, 2021. Retrieved July 31, 2020.
  162. ^ Roznowski, Tom (2009). An American Hometown: Terre Haute, Indiana, 1927. Bloomington, IN: Quarry Books. pp. 159–161. ISBN 978-0-253-22129-2. Retrieved April 8, 2022.
  163. ^ "Lynching in America: Outside the South". Archived from the original on May 5, 2021. Retrieved May 5, 2021.
  164. ^ Humanities, National Endowment for the (March 31, 1902). "Atlanta semi-weekly journal. (Atlanta, Ga.) 1898–1920, March 31, 1902, Image 2". p. 2 – via chroniclingamerica.loc.gov.
  165. ^ Humanities, National Endowment for the (April 16, 1902). "The Abbeville press and banner. [volume] (Abbeville, S.C.) 1869–1924, April 16, 1902, Image 2" – via chroniclingamerica.loc.gov.
  166. ^ "#54 Unidentified male". Without Sanctuary. Four photographs of the lynching of an unidentified African American male in a coastal Georgia swamp. 1902.
  167. ^ Humanities, National Endowment for the (June 11, 1902). "The Savannah morning news. (Savannah, Ga.) 1900–current, June 11, 1902, Image 10". p. 10 – via chroniclingamerica.loc.gov.
  168. ^ "Lynching and Local History: A Review of Troubled Ground". Archived from the original on April 14, 2021. Retrieved May 4, 2021.
  169. ^ "Indian Lynched After Leaving Jail". Barre Evening Telegram. Barre, Vermont: The Barre Newspaper Co. ISSN 2376-8185. OCLC 887947968. Retrieved March 24, 2021.
  170. ^ "Confronting Virginia's Racial History". News & Advance. Editorial Board. March 5, 2014. Archived from the original on July 6, 2020. Retrieved October 15, 2018.
  171. ^ "#48 Garfield Burley and Curtis Brown". Without Sanctuary. The lynching of Garfield Burley and Curtis Brown. October 8, 1902, Newbern, Tennessee.
  172. ^ Trigg, Lisa (May 3, 2018). "One lynching each recorded in Sullivan, Vigo histories". Tribune-Star. Retrieved April 4, 2022.
  173. ^ "Young Mexican Lynched for Stealing Cattle". Bisbee Daily Review. Bisbee, Arizona: W.B. Kelly. April 29, 1903. ISSN 2157-3255. OCLC 11363144. Retrieved April 9, 2022.
  174. ^ Pfeifer, Michael James (2004). Rough Justice: Lynching and American Society, 1874–1947. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 9780252029172. Archived from the original on July 4, 2021. Retrieved October 6, 2020.
  175. ^ "Constable W. J. Mooneyhan". The Officer Down Memorial Page (ODMP).
  176. ^ Humanities, National Endowment for the (May 5, 1903). "The St. Louis Republic. [volume] (St. Louis, Mo.) 1888–1919, May 05, 1903, Image 1" – via chroniclingamerica.loc.gov.
  177. ^ Humanities, National Endowment for the (May 7, 1903). "The St. Louis Republic. [volume] (St. Louis, Mo.) 1888–1919, May 07, 1903, Image 2". p. 2 – via chroniclingamerica.loc.gov.
  178. ^ "White Man Lynched". The Tennessean. May 20, 1903. Archived from the original on August 3, 2020. Retrieved July 2, 2020 – via Newspapers.com.
  179. ^ "Google News Archive Search". news.google.com.
  180. ^ "#65 Unidentified male". Without Sanctuary. Stripped African American male stretched on a tripod rack, raised with pulley, upper body bandaged, lower body wrapped with a blanket tied with rope, fingers curled involuntarily. Circa 1900, St. Louis, Missouri.
  181. ^ "San Francisco Call June 23, 1903 — California Digital Newspaper Collection". Archived from the original on July 4, 2021. Retrieved May 4, 2021.
  182. ^ "Deputy Sheriff C. E. Pierce". The Officer Down Memorial Page (ODMP).
  183. ^ Humanities, National Endowment for the (July 21, 1903). "The Kalispell bee. [volume] (Kalispell, Mont.) 1900-192?, July 21, 1903, Image 1" – via chroniclingamerica.loc.gov.
  184. ^ "Suraskys and Poliers: The Old World Meets the New". Jewish Historical Society of South Carolina. Retrieved May 15, 2022.
  185. ^ "Lynchings" (PDF). St. Tammany Farmer (Covington, Louisiana). February 13, 1904. p. 6. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 14, 2019. Retrieved January 13, 2019.
  186. ^ a b "Illinois Mob Lynches Negro". Bureau County Tribune. May 1, 1903. Retrieved February 5, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  187. ^ "Patrolman Charles B. Collis". The Officer Down Memorial Page (ODMP). Retrieved June 9, 2022.
  188. ^ "Mob May Clash with the Blacks". Cairo Bulletin. March 10, 1904. Retrieved January 11, 2022.
  189. ^ "War on Dives in Springfield". Washington Times. March 9, 1904. Retrieved January 11, 2022.
  190. ^ "Jan. 13, 1904 | Black Man Lynched in South Carolina for Allegedly Knocking on White Woman's Door". Archived from the original on May 5, 2021. Retrieved May 5, 2021.
  191. ^ "Feb. 7, 1904 | Black Man and Woman Brutally Lynched in Doddsville, Mississippi". calendar.eji.org. Archived from the original on January 20, 2021. Retrieved January 9, 2021.
  192. ^ "ALABAMA MOB HANGS NEGRO.; Burns Jail to Get at Him – Vote Taken Before Hanging". The New York Times. September 8, 1904. Archived from the original on May 1, 2021. Retrieved May 1, 2021.
  193. ^ "Two Men Lynched in Texas in Same Section". lynchingintexas.org. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
  194. ^ "Sheriff Martin Crawford Stegall". The Officer Down Memorial Page (ODMP).
  195. ^ "#50 Augustus Goodman (?)". Without Sanctuary. The lynching of Augustus Goodman (?), his body hanging from oak tree that served as a community bulletin board, onlookers. November 4, 1905, Bainbridge, Georgia.
  196. ^ Pilkington, Ed (April 26, 2018). "The sadism of white men: why America must atone for its lynchings". The Guardian. Archived from the original on June 3, 2021. Retrieved June 3, 2021.
  197. ^ Thornton, William (December 11, 2016). "Why the story of a 1906 Alabama lynching won't be forgotten". Al.com. Archived from the original on June 3, 2021. Retrieved June 3, 2021.
  198. ^ "Lynching in America / The Lynching of Bunk Richardson Historical Marker". Historical Marker Database. Archived from the original on June 3, 2021. Retrieved June 3, 2021.
  199. ^ "#71 Bunk Richardson". Without Sanctuary. The lynching of Bunk Richardson, his body suspended over the Coosa River, stripped to long johns."#72 Bunk Richardson". Without Sanctuary. The corpse of Bunk Richardson, propped up for photographer on plank walk of bridge spanning the Coosa River, severely beaten, stripped to long johns. Onlookers hold handkerchiefs to cover nose and mouths.
  200. ^ "#8 Nease Gillepsie, John Gillepsie, "Jack" Dillingham, Henry Lee, and George Irwin". Without Sanctuary. Retrieved April 1, 2024. The corpses of five African American males, Nease Gillepsie, John Gillepsie, "Jack" Dillingham, Henry Lee, and George Irwin with onlookers.
  201. ^ a b "The 1906 Salisbury Lynchings". A Red Record. Retrieved June 9, 2022.
  202. ^ a b c "#58 Unidentified male". Without Sanctuary. Unidentified corpse of badly beaten white male in shredded clothes hanging from rope stretched over unpaved street, onlookers in background. Circa 1900, Virginia City, Montana.
  203. ^ Davis, Phil (December 22, 2018). "Groups pay tribute to Henry Davis, last man to be lynched in Anne Arundel County". capitalgazette.com. Archived from the original on April 17, 2021. Retrieved February 23, 2021.
  204. ^ "Cowboys Lynch Negro in Toyah, Texas for living with a white woman". Reading Times. Reading, Pennsylvania. October 27, 1906. Archived from the original on July 12, 2020. Retrieved March 6, 2020 – via Newspapers.com.
  205. ^ "Patrolman August Baker". The Officer Down Memorial Page (ODMP). Retrieved August 4, 2021.
  206. ^ "Lynch Mob Justice in 1907, Bancroft, Nebraska - HistoricalCrimeDetective.com".
  207. ^ "The Higgins Lynching Party" Sept 30 1907 Library of Congress
  208. ^ Nebraska History
  209. ^ "#11 Unidentified male". Without Sanctuary. Lynching of bound white male, his body hung from a bridge. Circa 1910, location unknown.
  210. ^ "Two thousand citizens hang woman's assailant". Daily Times. Chattanooga, Tennessee. p. 3.
  211. ^ "#2 Unidentified male". Without Sanctuary. Unidentified corpse of African American male. Gallows, courthouse-jail, and windmill in background. Nine onlookers, two young boys. 1900-1915. Location unknown. and The Waxahachie daily light. [volume], February 29, 1908, Image 1; in regard to a 2nd reported lynching March 28, 1908– newspaper account reported that in Magnolia, Texas a young white woman was knocked down, her clothing torn and she was almost criminally assaulted by an unnamed negro; the Sheriff coming to the scene found two negroes shot (one killed) see The new South-news., March 28, 1908, Image 2
  212. ^ Equal Justice Initiative (2015). "Lynching In America / The Lynching of William Miller". Historical Marker Database. Archived from the original on May 4, 2018. Retrieved May 2, 2018.
  213. ^ "Leader of Mob an Ex-U.S. Senator". Fredericksburg Daily Star. September 11, 1908. Archived from the original on March 8, 2021. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
  214. ^ "Ex-Senator Sullivan Will Stand Consequences for Directing Shooting". The New York Times. September 10, 1908. Archived from the original on August 13, 2018. Retrieved May 7, 2018.
  215. ^ Sassoubre, Ticien Marie (2008). "Avoiding Adjudication in William Faulkner's Go Down, Moses and Intruder in the Dust". Criticism. 49 (2): 183–214. doi:10.1353/crt.0.0016. S2CID 153508996. Archived from the original on January 18, 2018. Retrieved May 10, 2018.
  216. ^ "New Lynching Memorial Evokes Terror of Victims". Associated Press. April 23, 2018. Archived from the original on April 28, 2018. Retrieved April 27, 2018.
  217. ^ "Lynching of William Manuel – June 21, 1908". Archived from the original on May 5, 2021. Retrieved May 5, 2021.
  218. ^ "Rare Lynching Postcards – Bing". www.bing.com.
  219. ^ "Triple Lynching in Texas August 1908 – Bing". www.bing.com.
  220. ^ Ted Smith Lynching
  221. ^ "Bryan Morning Eagle" July 29, 1908 (Library of Congress
  222. ^ "A century ago, a lynching in downtown Pensacola". The Pulse. July 28, 2017. Retrieved December 23, 2022.
  223. ^ "Photographic postcard of four African-American men hanging from their necks by ropes in a cedar tree". oshkosh.pastperfectonline.com. Oskosh Public Museum. June 15, 2006. Archived from the original on July 14, 2020. Retrieved July 14, 2020.
  224. ^ "#64 Virgil Jones, Robert Jones, Thomas Jones, and Joseph Riley". Without Sanctuary. The lynching of Virgil Jones, Robert Jones, Thomas Jones, and Joseph Riley, warning note. Black onlookers.
  225. ^ "Hanged For Insult". Youngstown Vindicator. January 19, 1909. Archived from the original on February 21, 2022. Retrieved February 21, 2022.
  226. ^ "State and domestic". The Rice belt journal. February 2, 1909. Archived from the original on July 28, 2020. Retrieved February 10, 2020.
  227. ^ "West Virginia News: Lynching's Are Still Haunting Reminder To Some WV Communities". West Virginia News. April 21, 2011.
  228. ^ a b c d "Four Men Pay Price of Bobbitt's Death/ Miller, Allen, West and Burrell are Lynched by Mob at Ada this Morning". The Daily Ardmoreite. oklahomahistory.net. April 19, 1909. Archived from the original on September 13, 2019. Retrieved July 1, 2020.
  229. ^ McDermott, Stacy Pratt (1999). ""An Outrageous Proceeding": A Northern Lynching and the Enforcement of Anti-Lynching Legislation in Illinois, 1905–1910". The Journal of Negro History. 84 (1): 61–78. doi:10.2307/2649083. ISSN 0022-2992. JSTOR 2649083. S2CID 150209743.
  230. ^ "San Francisco Call 12 November 1909 — California Digital Newspaper Collection". cdnc.ucr.edu. Retrieved June 9, 2022.
  231. ^ Fahy, Claire (November 20, 2021). "Allen Brooks, Victim of a 1910 Lynching, Is Remembered in Dallas". New York Times. Retrieved March 1, 2023.
  232. ^ a b Villanueva, Nicholas (August 2018). The lynching of Mexicans in the Texas borderlands. ISBN 9780826360304. OCLC 1032029983.
  233. ^ a b Martinez, Monica Muñoz. The injustice never leaves you : anti-Mexican violence in Texas. ISBN 9780674976436. OCLC 1020313014.
  234. ^ "Deputy Marshal Carl Mayes Etherington". The Officer Down Memorial Page (ODMP).
  235. ^ a b "#20 Unidentified male". Without Sanctuary. A lynch mob and the smoldering remains of an African American. 1910, Texas. Gelatin silver print.
  236. ^ "Constable James W. Mitchell". The Officer Down Memorial Page (ODMP).
  237. ^ Humanities, National Endowment for the (August 3, 1910). "Mower County transcript. [volume] (Lansing, Minn.) 1868–1915, August 03, 1910, Image 6" – via chroniclingamerica.loc.gov.
  238. ^ "'Quiet Again Resigns; Protest of Italians Brings Investigation" (PDF). Tampa Morning Tribune. September 22, 1910. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 19, 2020. Retrieved May 8, 2020.
  239. ^ "Deputy Sheriff George H. Loney". The Officer Down Memorial Page (ODMP). Retrieved June 9, 2022.
  240. ^ "Lynching memorial shows women were victims, too". The Conversation. April 27, 2018. Archived from the original on January 23, 2019. Retrieved January 22, 2019.
  241. ^ "Mississippi Negro Hanged". The Tennessean. June 18, 1911. Retrieved October 3, 2019.
  242. ^ "Commodore Jones Lynching". Austin American-Statesman. August 12, 1911. p. 1. Retrieved September 4, 2022.
  243. ^ "Clipped From El Paso Herald". El Paso Herald. August 12, 1911. p. 10. Retrieved September 4, 2022.
  244. ^ a b c d e Lesley Pickney Hill (January 1912). "The Vision of a Lyncher". The Crisis. Vol. 3. p. 122 – via HathiTrust.
  245. ^ a b "King Johnson, MSA SC 3520-13760". msa.maryland.gov. Retrieved August 4, 2021.
  246. ^ Eric S. Smith, "Zachariah Walker's lynching haunts the city" Archived May 29, 2018, at the Wayback Machine, Daily Local News (Chester County), August 13, 2011. Retrieved January 5, 2016.
  247. ^ "#57 Ernest Harrison, Sam Reed, and Frank Howard". Without Sanctuary. Retrieved June 9, 2022. The corpses of Ernest Harrison, Sam Reed, and Frank Howard hanging from a rafter in a sawmill, jagged circular blade in lower right hand corner. September 11, 1911, Wickliffe, Kentucky.
  248. ^ Boulden, Ben. "The Lynching of Sanford Lewis". Fort Smith Historical Society. Archived from the original on May 16, 2018. Retrieved April 28, 2018.
  249. ^ "#19". Without Sanctuary. Lynching of an unidentified African American male. Date and location unknown. Tinted lithographed postcard. 5H x 3H".
  250. ^ "1912: Dan Davis Burned Alive". August 13, 2018. Archived from the original on May 5, 2021. Retrieved May 5, 2021.
  251. ^ "Negro Fiend is Lynched at Princeton". The Wheeling intelligencier. September 5, 1912. p. 1. Retrieved May 24, 2022 – via Chronicling of America (Library of Congress).
  252. ^ "Joe Green". Legacy of Lynching. February 25, 2019. Retrieved June 9, 2022.
  253. ^ Sam Spicer Jr. vs. the State of Alabama, Alabama Supreme Court, 4th Div. 598 (July 1916)
  254. ^ "Arming at El Paso to Repulse the Mexicans". The Nome Daily Nugget. Noma, Alaska. ISSN 2771-215X. OCLC 15073038. Retrieved April 22, 2022.
  255. ^ "Mexican is Hanged". The Daily Missoulian. Missoula, Montana. p. 11. ISSN 2329-5457. OCLC 9385382. Retrieved April 24, 2022.
  256. ^ Associated Press, see Nashville Banner February 7, 1913 pg. 1
  257. ^ Lincoln, NE, Star February 9, 1913 p. 1
  258. ^ e.g. San Francisco Call, February 9, 1913 p. 26
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