Jackson County
Jackson County Courthouse
Official seal of Jackson County
Map of Florida highlighting Jackson County
Location within the U.S. state of Florida
Map of the United States highlighting Florida
Florida's location within the U.S.
Coordinates: 30°48′N 85°13′W / 30.8°N 85.21°W / 30.8; -85.21
Country United States
State Florida
FoundedAugust 12, 1822
Named forAndrew Jackson
Largest cityMarianna
 • Total955 sq mi (2,470 km2)
 • Land918 sq mi (2,380 km2)
 • Water37 sq mi (100 km2)  3.9%
 • Total47,319
 • Density52.6/sq mi (20.3/km2)
Time zoneUTC−6 (Central)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−5 (CDT)
Congressional district2nd

Jackson County is a county located in the U.S. state of Florida, on its northwestern border with Alabama. As of the 2020 census, the population was 47,319.[1] Its county seat is Marianna.[2]


Jackson County was created by the Florida Territorial Council in 1822 out of Escambia County, at the same time that Duval County was organized from land of St. Johns County, making them the third and fourth counties in the Territory. The county was named for Andrew Jackson, a General of the War of 1812, who had served as Florida's first military governor for six months in 1821.[3] Jackson County originally extended from the Choctawhatchee River on the west to the Suwannee River on the east. By 1840 the county had been reduced close to its present boundaries through the creation of new counties from its original territory, following an increase of population in these areas. Minor adjustments to the county boundaries continued through most of the 19th century, however.[4][5][6]

There were no towns in Jackson County when it was formed. The first county court met at what was called "Robinson's Big Spring" (later called Blue Springs) in 1822 and then at the "Big Spring of the Choctawhatchee" in 1823. The following year the county court met at "Chipola Settlement", which is also known as Waddell's Mill Pond.[citation needed]

The free labor of enslaved African Americans allowed European Americans to develop this area of Florida as part of the plantation belt in the antebellum years. Cotton was cultivated as a commodity crop by large workgangs, and so Florida became a slave society.

Gradually towns were developed. In January 1821, Webbville had been established as the first town in Jackson County. It was the first designated as the county seat. Marianna was founded in September 1821 by Robert Beveridge, a native of Scotland. It developed about 9 miles (14 km) southeast of Webbville. About 1828, Beveridge and other Marianna settlers went to Tallahassee to lobby the state legislature to move the county seat to Marianna.

They enticed the Florida Legislature with offers of free land, locally paying for construction of a county courthouse and development of a related public square, and donating an additional $500 to purchase a quarter section of land to be sold at public auction as a way to finance the new government, if the county seat was moved to Marianna.[7] Beveridge and his supporters succeeded in their civic bribe. Marianna became the de facto county seat of the county justice and civil authority, although it was never officially proclaimed as such. Marianna began to grow and prosper when the county government moved into the new courthouse in 1829. It became the market and court town for the rural county.

Webbville's prominent citizens moved to Marianna to follow the courts, as did numerous businesses. When the L&N Railroad decided to bypass putting a station at Webbville, the town declined further and became defunct.[citation needed]

Jackson County war

After the Civil War, the county was convulsed by violence as Confederate veterans and their allies attacked and intimidated freedmen and their sympathizers. The county faced the worst economic conditions in the state, as it had been most extensively developed for cotton plantations before the war, and was adversely affected by the international decline in the market.[8]: 461–462  White planters resisted dealing with freedmen as free workers. Insurgent Confederate veterans formed a Ku Klux Klan chapter and carried out masked violence to exert power, intimidate freedmen and white sympathizers, suppress their voting, and restore white supremacy.

Throughout the Reconstruction, Jackson County was the main site [in Florida] of political and class struggle between planters and black laborers.... Jackson County [was] so thoroughly dominated by the Klan at every level as to render the county and state governments completely powerless to stop them.[8]: 548–550 

Planters were defaulting on tax payments due to the poor economic conditions, and Republican county officials began to sell thousands of acres in tax sales.[8]: 462  In addition the two representatives of the Freedmen's Bureau, Charles Memorial Hamilton and William J. Purman, worked to break the cycle of black labor exploitation. Planters would throw sharecroppers off the land at the end of the season with no payment, claiming infractions that the Bureau deemed minor. The Bureau agents worked to enforce labor contracts.[8]: 549 

Tensions broke out into violence and in 1869 Jackson County became the center of a guerrilla war extending through 1871; it became known as the Jackson County War. The local Ku Klux Klan, insurgent Confederate Army veterans, directed their violence at eradicating the Republican Party in the county, assassinating more than 150 Republican Party leaders and other prominent African Americans as part of a successful campaign to retain white Democratic power in the county.[9] Another source says that in Jackson County, 200 "leading Republicans" were assassinated in 1869 and 1870 alone; no one was arrested or brought to trial for these crimes.[8]: 549 

The sheriff...Thomas M. West complained that public sentiment was so strongly opposed to him as sheriff that he did not feel safe to go outside of town and serve any legal process whatsoever. His life was constantly threatened.... He was even openly assaulted in the streets of Marianna, severely beaten to the near-point of death."[8]: 552 

In 1871 he resigned, saying given the "lawlessness", he could not carry out the duties of sheriff. The last Republican official in the county, clerk of the circuit court John Dickenson, was assassinated in 1871. (The previous clerk, Dr. John Finlayson, was killed in 1869.)[8]: 552 

In testimony to Congressional hearings about the KKK, state senator Charles H. Pearce, minister of the African Methodist Episcopal Church, said, "Satan has his seat; he reigns in Jackson County."[8]: 549 

Post-Reconstruction era to present

Violence by whites against blacks in the county continued after Reconstruction. Nine African Americans were lynched here after Reconstruction, most around the turn of the century. But notorious lynchings of individual men also took place later.

In 1934, Claude Neal, an African-American suspect in the murder of a young white woman, was tortured, shot and hanged in a spectacle lynching that was announced beforehand on the radio and in a local paper.[10] It was covered by national newspapers, arousing condemnation. In addition, Neal's lynching was followed by a white riot in Marianna, in which whites attacked the black section of town and blacks on the street, injuring 200, including two police officers, and causing much property damage. Howard Kester, a prominent Southern evangelical minister who tried to improve conditions, assessed the economic and class issues related to the racial violence.[10] In 1943 the last lynching in the county was conducted. Cellos Harrison, an African-American man, had been twice convicted by an all-white jury and sentenced to death. He was taken from the county jail in Marianna by a white mob and hanged while his case was being appealed.[11]


According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 955 square miles (2,470 km2), of which 918 square miles (2,380 km2) is land and 37 square miles (96 km2) (3.9%) is water.[12] Jackson County is the only county in Florida that borders both Georgia and Alabama. Jackson County is in the Central Standard Time Zone. Its eastern border with Gadsden County forms the boundary in this area between the Central Standard and Eastern Standard Time Zones.

Adjacent counties

Rivers and water bodies

Three water bodies form the eastern border of Jackson county. The Chattahoochee River forms the northeast boundary between Jackson County and Seminole County, Georgia. It flows into Lake Seminole. The Lake was formed by the Jim Woodruff Dam which was completed in 1952. The outflow at the dam becomes the Apalachicola River which is the eastern boundary of Jackson county with Gadsden county.

The Chipola River is formed in north central Jackson county from the confluences of Black Creek and Cowarts Creek. It continues south through the county and becomes a part of the border between Jackson county and the west side of the northern section of Calhoun county.

Holmes Creek forms the northern portion of the western border of Jackson county with Holmes County.

Blue Springs is a Jackson county recreation area east of Marianna located near the site of former Florida Governor John Milton's Sylvania plantation.

Two other notable water bodies in the county are Compass Lake in the southwest and Ocheesee Pond in the southeast.

Florida State Parks in Jackson county


Historical population
U.S. Decennial Census[13]
1790-1960[14] 1900-1990[15]
1990-2000[16] 2020[1]

2020 census

Jackson County racial composition
(Hispanics excluded from racial categories)
(NH = Non-Hispanic)[17][18]
Race Pop 2010 Pop 2020 % 2010 % 2020
White (NH) 33,111 30,629 66.56% 64.73%
Black or African American (NH) 13,106 12,042 26.35% 25.45%
Native American or Alaska Native (NH) 305 196 0.61% 0.41%
Asian (NH) 227 292 0.46% 0.62%
Pacific Islander (NH) 25 18 0.05% 0.04%
Some Other Race (NH) 50 144 0.1% 0.3%
Mixed/Multi-Racial (NH) 779 1,783 1.57% 3.77%
Hispanic or Latino 2,143 2,215 4.31% 4.68%
Total 49,746 47,319

As of the 2020 United States census, there were 47,319 people, 17,149 households, and 11,152 families residing in the county.

2000 census

As of the census[19] of 2000, there were 46,755 people, 16,620 households, and 11,600 families residing in the county. The population density was 51 people per square mile (20 people/km2). There were 19,490 housing units at an average density of 21 per square mile (8.1/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 72.18% White, 24.56% Black or African American, 0.77% Native American, 0.46% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.61% from other races, and 1.40% from two or more races. 2.91% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 16,620 households, out of which 30.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.50% were married couples living together, 14.40% had a female householder with no husband present, and 30.20% were non-families. 27.00% of all households were made up of individuals, and 12.80% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 2.95.

In the county, the population was spread out, with 22.30% under the age of 18, 9.70% from 18 to 24, 29.60% from 25 to 44, 23.80% from 45 to 64, and 14.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 110.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 111.20 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $29,744, and the median income for a family was $36,404. Males had a median income of $27,138 versus $21,180 for females. The per capita income for the county was $13,905. About 12.80% of families and 17.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.70% of those under age 18 and 21.00% of those age 65 or over.


United States presidential election results for Jackson County, Florida[20]
Year Republican Democratic Third party
No.  % No.  % No.  %
2020 15,488 68.97% 6,766 30.13% 202 0.90%
2016 14,257 67.38% 6,397 30.23% 505 2.39%
2012 13,418 64.00% 7,342 35.02% 207 0.99%
2008 13,717 63.47% 7,671 35.49% 225 1.04%
2004 12,122 61.20% 7,555 38.14% 130 0.66%
2000 9,139 56.06% 6,870 42.14% 294 1.80%
1996 7,189 46.34% 6,667 42.98% 1,657 10.68%
1992 6,725 45.82% 5,482 37.35% 2,469 16.82%
1988 8,405 62.20% 5,008 37.06% 100 0.74%
1984 9,091 64.70% 4,960 35.30% 0 0.00%
1980 6,348 44.76% 7,567 53.36% 266 1.88%
1976 4,795 37.90% 7,687 60.76% 170 1.34%
1972 8,904 79.99% 2,220 19.94% 8 0.07%
1968 1,236 10.02% 2,472 20.05% 8,622 69.93%
1964 7,064 61.69% 4,386 38.31% 0 0.00%
1960 2,851 32.23% 5,994 67.77% 0 0.00%
1956 2,543 29.86% 5,973 70.14% 0 0.00%
1952 2,398 29.53% 5,722 70.47% 0 0.00%
1948 648 11.27% 3,169 55.11% 1,933 33.62%
1944 951 17.03% 4,633 82.97% 0 0.00%
1940 866 13.38% 5,607 86.62% 0 0.00%
1936 351 8.54% 3,757 91.46% 0 0.00%
1932 599 11.03% 4,832 88.97% 0 0.00%
1928 1,398 35.43% 2,516 63.76% 32 0.81%
1924 320 14.59% 1,771 80.76% 102 4.65%
1920 508 16.37% 2,443 78.70% 153 4.93%
1916 410 16.53% 1,975 79.60% 96 3.87%
1912 163 9.61% 1,205 71.01% 329 19.39%
1908 353 20.90% 1,122 66.43% 214 12.67%
1904 354 20.47% 1,186 68.59% 189 10.93%

Jackson County is governed by a five-member board of county commissioners.[21]

Politically, the county is predominantly Republican. The last time a Democrat won the county in the presidential election was 1980, when Jimmy Carter, the former governor of neighboring Georgia, was on the ballot. The county is part of Florida's 2nd congressional district, represented by Neal Dunn (R-Panama City).

At the state level, Jackson County is part of Florida State Senate district 2. This district is represented by Jay Trumbull (R-Panama City). In the State House of Representatives, the county forms part of House district 5. This district is represented by Shane Abbott (R-DeFuniak Springs).


The Jackson County School Board, the sole school district of the county,[22] operates public schools.

Jackson County is also home to Baptist College of Florida, an institution of higher education in Graceville affiliated with the Florida Baptist Convention,[23] and Chipola College, a state college in Marianna.


The Jackson County Public Library System has three branches. Jackson County is also a part of the Panhandle Public Library Cooperative System. The PPLCS also includes Holmes, and Calhoun counties.

Government and infrastructure

The Florida Department of Corrections operates Region I - Correctional Facility Office in an unincorporated area in Jackson County.[24]

The Florida Department of Juvenile Justice Dozier School for Boys, closed in 2011 after extensive investigations of abuse, was located in Marianna.

Sheriff Donald L. Edenfield is the current Sheriff of Jackson County and serves an area of over 955 square miles (2,470 km2). In 2018, the department fired deputy Zachary Wester, who was arrested for planting drugs in the vehicles of innocent motorists.[25] The sheriff's department has dropped charges in 119 cases.[26]

Jackson County Fire Rescue provides EMS and Fire Services with over 30 to 35 personnel.



Jackson County's main airport is Marianna Municipal Airport, originally known as the Graham Air Base. Local and private airports also exist throughout the county.

Major highways

See also: List of county roads in Jackson County, Florida

The sign for Jackson County on U.S. Route 90.


Jackson County has two railroad lines. The primary one is the CSX P&A Subdivision, a line formerly owned by the Louisville and Nashville Railroad that served Amtrak's Sunset Limited. This service formerly went to New Orleans, but in 2005 service was truncated by the extensive damage in the Gulf area due to Hurricane Katrina. Another is the Bay Line Railroad: originally the Atlanta and St. Andrews Bay Railway main line, this railway runs from Panama City through Campbellton. US 231 was constructed parallel to the railroad. The lines have a junction in Cottondale. Other lines within the county were abandoned after restructuring of the railroad industry in the mid to late 20th century. Passenger traffic declined after affordable automobiles became widely available.




Unincorporated communities

See also


  1. ^ a b "2020 Census Data". data.census.gov.
  2. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  3. ^ Publications of the Florida Historical Society. Florida Historical Society. 1908. p. 32.
  4. ^ Jackson County Information - accessed February 10, 2008
  5. ^ Encyclopedia Americana - Jackson, Andrew Archived 2008-02-10 at the Wayback Machine - accessed February 10, 2008
  6. ^ Fernald, Edward A. (1981) Atlas of Florida. The Florida State University Foundation, Inc. ISBN 0-9606708-0-7
  7. ^ Robin Gaby Fisher, Michael O'McCarthy, Robert W. Straley, The Boys of the Dark: A Story of Betrayal and Redemption in the Deep South (2010), p. 53.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h Wasserman, Adam (2010). A People's History of Florida 1513–1876. How Africans, Seminoles, Women, and Lower Class Whites Shaped the Sunshine State (4th ed.). Sarasota, Florida. ISBN 9781442167094.((cite book)): CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  9. ^ Weitz, Seth. "Defending the Old South: The Myth of the Lost Cause and Political Immorality in Florida, 1885-1968," In The Historian, Vol. 71, No. 1 (Spring 2009), pg. 83.
  10. ^ a b Youngblood, Joshua (Summer 2007). ""Haven't Quite Shaken the Horror": Howard Kester, the Lynching of Claude Neal, and Social Activism in the South During the 1930s". The Florida Historical Quarterly. 86 (1): 1, 3–4. JSTOR 30150098.
  11. ^ Tameka Bradley Hobbs, Democracy Abroad, Lynching at Home, Oxford University Press, 2015
  12. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. February 12, 2011. Retrieved April 23, 2011.
  13. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 14, 2014.
  14. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved June 14, 2014.
  15. ^ "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 14, 2014.
  16. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 14, 2014.
  17. ^ "Explore Census Data". data.census.gov. Retrieved March 5, 2022.
  18. ^ "Explore Census Data". data.census.gov. Retrieved March 5, 2022.
  19. ^ "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 14, 2011.
  20. ^ Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved June 15, 2018.
  21. ^ "Jackson County Commissioners". Jackson County, Florida. 2022. Retrieved December 1, 2022.
  22. ^ "2020 CENSUS - SCHOOL DISTRICT REFERENCE MAP: Jackson County, FL" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved July 31, 2022. - Text list
  23. ^ "Baptist College of Florida Official Website". Baptist College of Florida. Retrieved March 5, 2017.
  24. ^ "Region I - Correctional Facility Office Archived March 1, 2010, at the Wayback Machine." Florida Department of Corrections. Retrieved on January 8, 2010.
  25. ^ Burlew, Jeff (February 10, 2020). "Accused drug-planting deputy slapped with two dozen new charges". Tallahassee Democrat.
  26. ^ Burlew, Jeff (September 25, 2018). "119 cases dropped involving fired Jackson County Deputy Zachary Wester". Tallahassee Democrat.

Further reading

Government links/Constitutional offices

Special districts

Judicial branch

Tourism links

30°48′N 85°13′W / 30.80°N 85.21°W / 30.80; -85.21