Lakeland, Florida
Downtown Lakeland
Downtown Lakeland
Flag of Lakeland, Florida
Swan City[1]
Location in Polk County and the state of Florida
Location in Polk County and the state of Florida
Coordinates: 28°03′20″N 81°57′16″W / 28.05556°N 81.95444°W / 28.05556; -81.95444
CountryUnited States
Settledc. 1875
Incorporated (city)January 1, 1885
 • TypeCommission-Manager
 • MayorBill Mutz
 • City ManagerShawn Sherrouse
 • City75.30 sq mi (195.02 km2)
 • Land66.29 sq mi (171.69 km2)
 • Water9.01 sq mi (23.34 km2)  10.9%
Elevation203 ft (62 m)
 • City112,641
 • Density1,699.27/sq mi (656.09/km2)
 • Urban
277,915 (US: 147th)[4]
 • Urban density1,904.4/sq mi (735.3/km2)
 • Metro
725,046 (US: 80th)[3]
Time zoneUTC−5 (EST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−4 (EDT)
ZIP Codes
Area code863
FIPS code12-38250[6]
GNIS feature ID2404873[5]

Lakeland is a city in Central Florida. Located along Interstate 4 east of Tampa and west of Orlando, it is the most populous city and county seat in Polk County, Florida, United States. As of the 2020 U.S. Census Bureau release, the city had a population of 112,641.[7] Lakeland is a principal city of the Lakeland–Winter Haven Metropolitan Statistical Area. The town is sometimes locally referred to by the nickname "Swan City" due to its sizeable population of swans, all of whom are descendants of two mute swans given to Lakeland by Queen Elizabeth II in 1957.

Lakeland is the birthplace of Publix, a supermarket chain.

European-American settlers arrived in Lakeland from Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, Georgia and South Carolina in the 1870s. The city expanded in the 1880s with the arrival of rail service, with the first freedmen railway workers settling here in 1883.[8] They and European immigrants also came because of land development opportunities with farming, citrus, cattle and phosphate industry developing. Lakeland is home to the 1,267-acre Circle B Bar Reserve (513 ha).[9]



The first Paleo-Indians reached the central Florida area near the end of the last ice age, as they followed big game south.[10][11] As the ice melted and sea levels rose, these Native Americans ended up staying and thrived on the peninsula for thousands of years. By the time the first Spanish conquistadors arrived, an estimated 350,000 Native Americans were living in what is now the state of Florida.[12] Some of these first early tribes were the Tocobago, Timucua, and Calusa.

In 1527, a Spanish map showed a settlement near the Rio de la Paz.[10][11] The arrival of the Spanish turned out to be disastrous to these Native American tribes. Within 150 years, the majority of the pre-Columbian Native American peoples of Florida had been wiped out. Those who had not succumbed to diseases such as smallpox or yellow fever were either killed or enslaved.[10][11][13][14] Little is left of these first Native Americans cultures in Polk County except for scant archaeological records, including a few personal artifacts and shell mounds. Eventually, the remnants of these tribes merged with the Creek Indians who had arrived from the north and became the Seminole Indian tribe.[11][14]

Early history

Lakeland's business district, early 1920s
The John F. Cox Grammar School opened in 1925, now re-purposed as the clinic for Lakeland Volunteers in Medicine

In the 18th century Native Americans groups, collectively called "Seminoles", moved into the areas left vacant. In 1823 the United States and the various tribes in Florida signed the Treaty of Moultrie Creek, which created a reservation in central Florida that included what is now Polk County.[15] Starting in 1832 the United States government tried to move the Seminoles in Florida west to the Indian Territory. Most of the Seminoles resisted, resulting in the Second Seminole War, 1835–1842. By the end of that war, most of the Seminoles had been sent west, with a few remnants pushed well south of what is now Polk County.[16]

Statehood and the 19th century

Florida became a state in 1845, and Polk County was established in 1861. After the American Civil War, the county seat was established southeast of Lakeland in Bartow. While most of Polk County's early history centered on the two cities of Bartow and Fort Meade, eventually, people entered the areas in northern Polk County and began settling in the areas which became Lakeland.[17]

Lakeland was first settled in the 1870s and began to develop as the rail lines reached the area in 1884. Freedmen settled here in 1883, starting development of what became the African-American neighborhood of Moorehead. Lakeland was incorporated January 1, 1885. The town was founded by Abraham Munn (a resident of Louisville, Kentucky), who purchased 80 acres (320,000 m2) of land in what is now downtown Lakeland in 1882 and platted the land for the town in 1884. Lakeland was named for the many lakes near the town site.[18]

In April 1898, the Spanish–American War began and started a crucial point in Lakeland's development. While the war ended quickly and had little effect on most of the nation, the Florida peninsula was used as a launching point for military forces in the war. The then small town of Lakeland housed over 9,000 troops. The 10th Cavalry Regiment, one of the original Buffalo Soldier regiments, were housed on the banks of Lake Wire.[19] Soon after being stationed there, the black troops faced conflict with the local white population. In one event, a local druggist refused to sell to black soldiers and an argument ensued which eventually escalated to the point where the druggist brandished a pistol. The soldiers shot the druggist before he could fire, which resulted in two of the troops being arrested.[20]

The Florida Boom and the 20th century

View of Lakeland, April 1922
Factory under construction, August 1941

The Florida boom resulted in the construction of many significant structures in Lakeland, a number of which are now listed on the National Register of Historic Places. This list includes the Terrace Hotel, New Florida Hotel (Regency Tower, currently Lake Mirror Tower), Polk Theatre, Frances Langford Promenade, Polk Museum of Art (not a product of the 1920s boom), Park Trammell Building (formerly the Lakeland Public Library and today the Lakeland Chamber of Commerce), and others. The city also has several historic districts that have many large buildings built during the 1920s and 1940s. The Cleveland Indians held spring training there from 1923 to 1927 at Henley Field Ball Park. Parks were developed surrounding Lake Mirror, including Barnett Children's Park, Hollis Gardens, and the newest, Allen Kryger Park.[21]

The "boom" period went "bust" quickly, and years passed before the city recovered. Part of the re-emergence was due to the arrival of the Detroit Tigers baseball team in 1934 for spring training. The Tigers still train at Lakeland's Joker Marchant Stadium and own the city's Class A Florida State League team, the Lakeland Flying Tigers. In the mid-1930s, the Works Progress Administration built the Lakeland Municipal Airport.[17]

In 1938, Florida Southern College President Ludd Spivey invited architect Frank Lloyd Wright to design a "great education temple in Florida."[22] Wright worked on the project for over 20 years as Spivey found ways to fund it and find construction workers during World War II.[22] Wright's original plan called for 18 structures; in total he designed 30, but only 12 were completed.[23] Wright's textile block motif is used extensively on the campus. The concrete blocks he used are in need of restoration.[24]

Wright titled the project Child of the Sun, describing his Florida Southern buildings as being "out of the ground, into the light, a child of the sun."[25] It is the largest single-site collection of Frank Lloyd Wright buildings in the world, and attracts 30,000 visitors each year.[23] In 1975, the "Florida Southern Architectural District" was added to the National Register of Historic Places.[23] In 2012, Wright's campus was designated as a National Historic Landmark by the National Park Service.

World War II

At the beginning of World War II, the Lakeland School of Aeronautics—headquartered at the recently built Lakeland Municipal Airport—became part of a nationwide network of civilian flight schools enjoined for the war effort by the United States Army Air Corps.[26]

Between 1940 and 1945, more than 8,000 Army Air Corps and Army Air Forces cadets trained on two-seater Stearman PT-17 and PT-13 biplanes at the school (renamed the Lodwick School of Aeronautics in the midst of this period).[26]

From June 1941 until October 1942, 1,327 British Royal Air Force cadets trained at the Lakeland facility.[26] The Lodwick School of Aeronautics closed in 1945. The airport ceased flight operations in the 1960; the site has since then housed the Detroit Tigers' "Tiger Town" baseball complex.[26]

Geography and climate

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 67 sq mi (173.5 km2), of which 45.84 sq mi (118.7 km2) is land and 5.61 sq mi (14.5 km2) (10.90%) is covered by water. Lakeland is within the Central Florida Highlands area of the Atlantic coastal plain, with a terrain consisting of flatland interspersed with gently rolling hills.[27]


Lake Mirror Park in downtown Lakeland, with surrounding City Hall and Lakeland Terrace Hotel

The dominant feature in Lakeland is the city's many lakes. Thirty-eight lakes are named, with a number of other bodies of water unnamed, mostly phosphate mine pits that eventually filled with water.[28][29] The largest of these is Lake Parker, which is 2,550 acres (10.3 km2) in size. Much of the culture of Lakeland revolves around its many lakes, and many people use the lakes as reference points in much the same way people in other towns use streets as reference points, such as "I live near Lake Beulah." In addition to Lake Parker, some of the more prominent lakes in the Lakeland area are Lake Hollingsworth, Lake Morton, Lake Mirror, and Lake Gibson.

Swans are one of the most visible features on the lakes near downtown Lakeland. They have a long history, the first swans appearing around 1923. By 1954, the swans were gone, eradicated by alligators and pets. A Lakeland resident who mourned the passing of the swans wrote to Queen Elizabeth II. The royal family allowed the capture of two of the royal swans, and the swans now on the lakes of Lakeland are the descendants of the one surviving royal swan sent by the Queen.[30]

In July 2006, Scott Lake, one of the city's lakes, was almost totally drained by a cluster of sinkholes.[31] Later the lake partially refilled.[32]


Lakeland, like most other parts of Florida north of Lake Okeechobee, is in the humid subtropical zone (Köppen climate classification: Cfa). Typically, summers are hot and humid with high temperatures seldom dropping below 90 °F and 70 °F for the overnight low. Like most of Central Florida, afternoon thunderstorms are the norm throughout the summer. Winters in Lakeland are drier and warm, with frequent sunny skies. High temperatures range in the mid 70s during the day, with lows in the 50s. Cold snaps drop temperatures below freezing twice a year on average.

Climate data for Lakeland, Florida, 1991–2020 normals, extremes 1948–present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 91
Mean maximum °F (°C) 83.1
Mean daily maximum °F (°C) 73.7
Daily mean °F (°C) 62.2
Mean daily minimum °F (°C) 50.6
Mean minimum °F (°C) 31.2
Record low °F (°C) 20
Average precipitation inches (mm) 2.99
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 6.9 6.4 5.4 5.4 7.8 16.5 19.0 18.7 14.9 7.5 5.1 7.1 120.7
Source: NOAA[33][34]


Historical population
U.S. Decennial Census[35]

2010 and 2020 census

Lakeland, Florida – Racial and ethnic composition
Note: the US Census treats Hispanic/Latino as an ethnic category. This table excludes Latinos from the racial categories and assigns them to a separate category. Hispanics/Latinos may be of any race.
Race / Ethnicity (NH = Non-Hispanic) Pop 2000[36] Pop 2010[37] Pop 2020[38] % 2000 % 2010 % 2020
White (NH) 54,555 61,468 61,372 69.54% 63.09% 54.48%
Black or African American (NH) 16,500 19,788 20,963 21.03% 20.31% 18.61%
Native American or Alaska Native (NH) 176 253 258 0.22% 0.26% 0.23%
Asian (NH) 1,040 1,717 2,437 1.33% 1.76% 2.16%
Pacific Islander or Native Hawaiian (NH) 35 62 55 0.04% 0.06% 0.05%
Some other race (NH) 92 167 613 0.12% 0.17% 0.54%
Mixed race or Multiracial (NH) 1,022 1,696 4,241 1.30% 1.74% 3.77%
Hispanic or Latino (any race) 5,032 12,271 22,702 6.41% 12.60% 20.15%
Total 78,452 97,422 112,641 100.00% 100.00% 100.00%

As of the 2020 United States census, there were 112,641 people, 41,750 households, and 24,433 families residing in the city.[39]

As of the 2010 United States census, there were 97,422 people, 40,529 households, and 24,654 families residing in the city.[40]

Between 2008–2012, the per capita income was $23,817 and the median household income was $40,284. Persons below the poverty line in 2008–2012 were 17.5% according to the US Census.[41]

2000 census

As of 2000, 23.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.5% were married couples living together, 13.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 39% were individuals and nontraditional families. About 32.9% of all households were made up of individuals, and 14.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.23 and the average family size was 2.82.

In 2000, the city the population was spread out, with 21.4% under the age of 18, 10.3% from 18 to 24, 24.7% from 25 to 44, 20.6% from 45 to 64, and 23.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 86.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.1 males.

In 2000, the median income for a household in the city was $16,119, and for a family was $17,468. Males had a median income of $14,137 versus $9,771 for females. The per capita income for the city was $15,760. About 47% of families and 35% of the population were below the poverty line, including 97% of those under age 18 and 9% of those age 65 or over.


As of 2000, those who spoke only English at home accounted for 91% of all residents, while 9% spoke other languages at home. The most significant were Spanish speakers who made up 6.4% of the population, while German came up as the third-most spoken language, which made up 0.8%, and French was fourth, with 0.5% of the population.[42]


Annie Pfeiffer Chapel

In 1913, the Wolfson family arrived from Lithuania and became the first Jewish settlers to the area.[43] After some struggles, the Jewish community in Lakeland flourished and the first synagogue, Temple Emanuel opened in 1932.[44]

The Rohr Jewish Learning Institute presents classes and seminars in Lakeland in partnership with Chabad of Lakeland.[45]

Lakeland is home to the Swaminarayan Hindu Temple, which was established in 2005.[46]

In 1994, the first and only mosque in the county was established. It was called Masjid Aisha, but is now called the Islamic Center of Lakeland.[citation needed]

Christianity makes up the largest religious group in Lakeland. As of 2013, an estimated 300 churches existed with an address in the city.[47]


Publix headquarters

Lakeland is the largest city on Interstate 4 between Orlando and Tampa. Large industries in the Lakeland area are citrus, cattle, and phosphate mining. In the past few decades, tourism, medicine, insurance, transportation, and music have grown in importance.

Citrus growing dates back to the early settlers who planted trees in the area in the 1850s. After a series of freezes in counties north of Polk County, the area became the focal point for citrus growing in Florida. Although citrus is no longer the largest industry in the area, it still plays a large part in the economy of Lakeland and Polk County.

Phosphate mining is still important to the economy of Lakeland, although most of the mining now takes place farther south. The Bone Valley produced 25% of the U.S. phosphate supply.

Lakeland's largest employer is Publix Super Markets.[48] Publix is one of the largest regional grocery chains in the United States with over 1,200 stores across the American South. Publix employs over 6,500 people in the Lakeland area including headquarter and warehouse employees.

Lakeland is a transportation hub. FedEx Freight and FedEx Services and the Saddle Creek Corporation employ over 600 people in the area.[48] Other large employers in the area include Amazon,[49] GEICO, Rooms To Go, and Lakeland Regional Health.[50]


The Lakeland History Room is a special collections archive established in 1987 housed within the Lakeland Public Library's main branch. The Lakeland History Room maintains the City's collection of historical materials as well as other locally relevant collections composed of documents, photographs, maps, building plans, audio/visual media, scrapbooks, specialty items like citrus crate labels, artwork, yearbooks, posters, and postcards.[51] The LHR maintains a large digital collection with over 7,000 images of the city of Lakeland, its landmarks, significant historical moments, cultural institutions, and prominent citizens.[51] The LHR provides one-on-one assistance with historic research, a history lecture series with prominent local historians, a DIY Digitizing Lab for personal material preservation, and genealogical programs and resources.[51]

In 2019, an initiative led by Lakeland City Commissioner Phillip Walker, was first presented to the City Commission to create the City's first History and Culture Center. The project was unanimously approved by the Commission and funds were allocated for the project's construction; although, the exhibit's content design would be funded by local donations and grant funding.[52] An advisory committee made up of educators, city officials, local business owners, and civic and community leaders, led by former Mayor Gow Fields, was established to organize and advise the City in the design, content, and construction of the exhibit.[52] The Lakeland Public Library was eventually chosen as the location of the future exhibit space due to its central location within the city, its status as a community hub, and because it was the current home of the city's local archive, the Lakeland History Room, which would be expanded into the Lakeland History and Culture Center. Construction on the project is currently underway and it is unknown when the project will be completed.[citation needed]

Historic districts

Munn Park

Buildings and locations

Century Plaza in downtown Lakeland.
Frances Langford Promenade



Club Sport Founded Current league Stadium
Lakeland Flying Tigers Baseball 1963[53] Florida State League Publix Field at Joker Marchant Stadium
Florida Complex League Tigers Baseball 1995[citation needed] Florida Complex League Publix Field at Joker Marchant Stadium
Lakeland Magic Basketball 2017[54] NBA G League RP Funding Center
Florida Southern Mocs Multi-sport 1883 NCAA DII George W. Jenkins Field House
Henley Field
Moccasin Field
Southeastern Fire Multi-sport 2014[55] NAIA Victory Field
The Furnace
Ted A. Broer Stadium
Caledonia SC Soccer 2022 USL League Two
Lakeland Tropics Soccer 2017[56] UPSL Bryant Stadium
Lakeland United FC Soccer 2022 UPSL
Florida Tropics SC Indoor soccer 2016[57] Major Arena Soccer League RP Funding Center
Lakeland Renegades Rugby league 2019 USA Rugby League All Saints' Academy
Lakeland NightShade eSports 2019[58] Florida eSports League


Main article: Publix Field at Joker Marchant Stadium

Joker Marchant Stadium, north of downtown, hosts spring training for the Detroit Tigers, as well as their Lakeland Flying Tigers class-A Florida State League and GCL Tigers rookie-league Gulf Coast League minor league baseball teams.

Main article: RP Funding Center

RP Funding Center is also home to two indoor sports teams. The Lakeland Magic is a basketball team playing in the NBA G League and is an affiliate of the Orlando Magic. The Florida Tropics SC is an indoor soccer team playing in the Major Arena Soccer League. The Tropics organization also operates an outdoor team, the Lakeland Tropics, which competes in the Premier Development League. The Florida Tarpons were an indoor football team playing in the American Arena League for one season after relocating from Estero, Florida.

History of sports teams

In the 1980s, the Lakeland Center briefly played host to the indoor version of the Tampa Bay Rowdies soccer team. The Lakeland Center has also hosted a few hockey teams, the Lakeland Ice Warriors, the Lakeland Prowlers, and the Lakeland Loggerheads. The United States Basketball League once had a team here as well called the Lakeland Blue Ducks. Sun 'n Fun was home to Lakeland's only roller derby league, the Lakeland Derby Dames; however, the team was dissolved in November 2015.[59]

The Lakeland Center also hosts the Florida High School Athletic Association's state basketball finals.

Government and politics

Former Lakeland city hall, built 1913

Lakeland is governed by a six-member city council. Four members are elected from single-member districts; the other two are elected at-large, requiring them to gain a majority of the votes. The mayor is elected.


The City of Lakeland was incorporated on January 1, 1885. The mayor is one of seven members of the City Commission, acting as the board chair and performing mostly ceremonial and procedural duties beyond the powers of the other six. Prior to 1988, the City Commission selected Lakeland's mayor from among its members. Mayors can be on the board for up to 12 years in a lifetime, or 16 years in combination with holding a regular commission position. Lakeland's first mayor was J.W. Trammell.

The first female mayor was Lois Q. Searl, who served in 1965. The 1970 municipal election placed the first African-American on the City Commission, Dr. John S. Jackson.[60] In 1972, he became the first black mayor for the city. In 1980, Carrie R. Oldham became Lakeland's first African-American female mayor.

Since 1988 the mayor has been elected by the city's voters.

Mayors of Lakeland

Law enforcement

On September 28, 2006, Polk County Sheriff's Deputy Vernon "Matt" Williams and his K-9 partner Diogi were shot and killed after a routine traffic stop in the Wabash area of Lakeland. More than 500 police officers from a variety of law enforcement agencies joined in a search for Angilo Freeland, suspected of murdering Williams and stealing his gun. Freeland was found hiding in a rural area the next morning. Nine officers from five different law enforcement agencies surrounded Freeland and shot him when he raised Williams' stolen gun at them. A total of 110 shots were fired, and Freeland was hit 68 times, killing him instantly.[66][67] Multiple investigations concluded the officers' use of force was justified.[68] Deputy Williams and Diogi were laid to rest on October 3, 2006, after a funeral that included a one-hour-and-45-minute procession to Auburndale.[69]

In 2021, the Lakeland Police Department hired numerous former NYPD officers. Two of the new hires failed to disclose that they had been disciplined by the NYPD, and one new hire used to work in the NYPD's notorious anti-crime units which were disbanded after high-profile scandals.[70]


The 28 elementary schools, seven middle schools, six traditional high schools, and three magnet-choice high schools in the Lakeland area are run by the Polk County School Board.

Traditional public high schools

Magnet high schools

Traditional public middle schools

Magnet middle schools

Charter schools

Private schools

Colleges and universities

The IST building of Florida Polytechnic University

A number of opportunities exist for higher education around the Lakeland area. Southeastern University is the largest university in the area, with undergraduate enrollment around 6200.[71] Southeastern is affiliated with the Assemblies of God. Florida Southern College, established in 1883 and with a current undergraduate enrollment of just over 2600,[72] is on Lake Hollingsworth. Florida Southern is the home of the world's largest single-site collection of Frank Lloyd Wright architecture. In July 2008, the University of South Florida's Lakeland campus was granted partial autonomy by Governor Charlie Crist and became Florida Polytechnic University. Florida Polytechnic (FLPoly) is just inside the Lakeland's northeast border at the intersection of I-4 and Polk Parkway. They also have some administrative offices on the campus of Polk State College on Winter Lake Road. FLPoly is focused on STEM degree programs, such as engineering and computer science.[73] Both Everest University and Keiser University, two multisite, accredited universities, have locations in Lakeland. Traviss Career Center is a vocational school.[74] Webster University offers on-site, regionally accredited graduate degree programs in business and counseling at their Lakeland Metropolitan Campus[75]


See also: List of newspapers in Florida, List of radio stations in Florida, and List of television stations in Florida

Polk County is within the Tampa Bay television market. Charter Spectrum is the cable television franchise serving Lakeland, which offers most television stations from the Tampa Bay market, as well as WFTV, the ABC affiliate from Orlando. WMOR-TV, an independent television station, is licensed to Lakeland, with its studios in Tampa and its transmitter in Riverview.

Lakeland and Polk County are within its own radio market. Local radio stations include:

WLLD 94.1 FM is licensed to Lakeland, but has wider focus on the Tampa Bay area, with studios in St. Petersburg. WKES 91.1 FM is also licensed to Lakeland as part of the statewide Moody Radio Florida network, with studios in Seminole, near St. Petersburg. Most major stations from Tampa Bay and a few from Orlando are also available.

Print media include The Ledger, a local newspaper owned by Gannett. Patterson Jacobs Media Group publishes a magazine, The Lakelander.

LkldNow is a nonprofit digital news organization that covers Lakeland news.



Because Lakeland is the largest city on Interstate 4 between Tampa and Orlando, the city is an important transportation hub. The county nickname, Imperial Polk County, was coined because a large bond issue in 1914 enabled wide roads between the cities of Polk County.[76]

The important freeways and highways in Lakeland today are:

Bicycle routes

In recent years, the Lakeland area has developed a number of paved, multi-use bicycle routes including the Lake-To-Lakes Trail, which runs from Lake Parker through downtown, past several lakes, ending at Lake John. Other routes include University Trail, which connects Polk State College to Florida Polytechnic University, and the Fort Fraser Trail, which runs along US Highway 98 from Polk State College to Highway 60 in Bartow.[77]

Public transportation

Lakeland Amtrak Station


Water and wastewater in the Lakeland area is managed by Lakeland Water Utilities, municipal water supply is treated at local water plants, T.B. Williams and C. Wayne Combee. The water is mainly supplied by wells that draw from the Floridan aquifer.[80] Power is generated by a nonprofit public power utility, Lakeland Electric.[81]

Lakeland Electric is a municipal utility and government department of the city of Lakeland, Florida.[82] [83] Lakeland was the third city in the state of Florida to have electric lighting powered in 1891 by The Lakeland Light and Power Company after Jacksonville and Tampa. Over a decade later in 1904, citizens purchased the private light power plant for $7,500 establishing the locally owned, municipal utility known today as Lakeland Electric.[84][85][86]

Power plants

Lakeland Electric powers the city of Lakeland by two power plants, C.D. McIntosh Power Plant, coal-natural gas combined cycle plant slated to phase out in 2024, and Larsen Memorial. [87] The last coal unit at C.D. McIntosh Power Plant is slated to phase out in 2024 a plan presented by the Lakeland Electric staff in 2019.[88][89]

Notable people




Sister cities

See also: List of sister cities in the United States

Lakeland Sister Cities International (LSCI), a chapter of Sister Cities International, was formed in 1990 with Lakeland's first sister city Richmond Hill, Canada.[130]

Southgate Shopping Center

In popular culture

In 1990, Lakeland made its Hollywood debut when the Southgate Shopping Center was featured in the movie Edward Scissorhands. It was also used in the filming of the Judd Nelson movie Endure.[131] Classrooms from Florida Southern College were used in the Adam Sandler comedy, The Waterboy.[132] The Lakeland civic center also was the filming location for music video for Little Red Corvette by the musician Prince.[133]

See also


  1. ^ Crosby, Kristin (August 30, 2016). "Swan City". Lakelander. Retrieved October 4, 2021.
  2. ^ "2020 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved October 31, 2021.
  3. ^ "Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas Population Totals and Components of Change: 2020-2021". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 2, 2023.
  4. ^ United States Census Bureau (December 29, 2022). "2020 Census Qualifying Urban Areas and Final Criteria Clarifications". Federal Register.
  5. ^ a b U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Lakeland, Florida
  6. ^ "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  7. ^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved May 21, 2020.
  8. ^ Kimberly C. Moore, "Confederate vets, former slaves form Lakeland’s history", The Ledger, 09 May 2018; accessed 27 June 2018
  9. ^ "Circle B Bar Reserve". Default. Retrieved October 29, 2021.
  10. ^ a b c "Ancient Native". HOTOA. Archived from the original on October 17, 2010. Retrieved September 9, 2010.
  11. ^ a b c d "Polk County History". Polk Counjty Historical Association. Archived from the original on July 27, 2011. Retrieved September 11, 2010.
  12. ^ Milanich, Jerald T. (1998) [1995]. Florida Indians and the Invasion from Europe (Paperback ed.). Gainesville, Florida: University Press of Florida. pp. 1–2. ISBN 0-8130-1636-3.
  13. ^ "The Ancient Ones". HOTOA. Archived from the original on October 17, 2010. Retrieved September 9, 2010.
  14. ^ a b Weibel, B. "Trail of Florida's Ancient Heritage". Archived from the original on July 13, 2010. Retrieved September 9, 2010.
  15. ^ Mahon, John K. (1985). History of the Second Seminole War 1835–1842 (Revised ed.). Gainesville, Florida: University of Florida Press. pp. 2–8, 18–37. ISBN 0-8130-1097-7.
  16. ^ Mahon, John K. (1985). History of the Second Seminole War 1835–1842 (Revised ed.). Gainesville, Florida: University of Florida Press. pp. 317–318. ISBN 0-8130-1097-7.
  17. ^ a b Brown, Canter Jr. (2001). In the midst of all that makes life worth living : Polk County, Florida, to 1940. Tallahassee, Fla.: Sentry Press. ISBN 9781889574127.
  18. ^ Sawyer, Martha F. (July 8, 1987). "Polk towns named from various sources". Lakeland Ledger. pp. 5C. Retrieved June 6, 2015.
  19. ^ "Spanish American War" (PDF). Polk County Historical Quarterly. Polk County Historical Association. June 2003. p. 6. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 2, 2012. Retrieved September 26, 2010.
  20. ^ Knetsch, Joe (2011). Florida in the Spanish-American War. Charleston, SC: The History Press. pp. 131–132. ISBN 9781609490881.
  21. ^ "Lake Mirror Complex". City of Lakeland. Retrieved October 29, 2021.
  22. ^ a b "Frank Lloyd Wright's Fla. campus – The Boston Globe". Retrieved April 1, 2017.
  23. ^ a b c MacDonald, Randall M.; Galbraith, Nora E.; Rogers, James G. (January 1, 2007). The Buildings of Frank Lloyd Wright at Florida Southern College. Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 9780738552798.
  24. ^ Sussingham, Robin. "New Frank Lloyd Wright House Constructed at Florida Southern". Retrieved April 1, 2017.
  25. ^ Storrer, William Allin; Wright, Frank Lloyd (April 15, 2002). The Architecture of Frank Lloyd Wright: A Complete Catalog. University of Chicago Press. p. 252. ISBN 9780226776224. wright out of the ground into the light child of the sun.
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