Winter Haven
Intersection viewed diagonally with remodeled building on opposite corner
Central Avenue at the west side of downtown (Central Park is behind the photographer)
Winter Haven in a green serif font on top except for a cursive W, "The Chain of Lakes City" on bottom in an italicized sans serif font
Nickname: 
"The Chain of Lakes City"[1]
Winter Haven is located in Florida
Winter Haven
Winter Haven
Winter Haven is located in the United States
Winter Haven
Winter Haven
Coordinates: 28°01′23″N 81°44′04″W / 28.02306°N 81.73444°W / 28.02306; -81.73444
CountryUnited States
StateFlorida
CountyPolk
IncorporatedNovember 27, 1923[2]
Area
 • City41.52 sq mi (107.53 km2)
 • Land32.84 sq mi (85.05 km2)
 • Water8.68 sq mi (22.47 km2)
Elevation161 ft (49 m)
Population
 (2020)
 • City49,219
 • Density1,498.75/sq mi (578.68/km2)
 • Urban
253,251 (US: 161st)[4]
 • Urban density1,774.5/sq mi (685.1/km2)
 • Metro
725,046 (US: 80th)
Time zoneUTC-5 (Eastern (EST))
 • Summer (DST)UTC-4 (EDT)
Area code863
FIPS code12-78275
GNIS feature ID2405773[5]
Websitewww.mywinterhaven.com

Winter Haven is a city in Polk County, Florida, United States. Neighboring Lakeland to its east, Winter Haven is located about 51 miles east of Tampa and about 47 miles southwest of Orlando. The city's population was 49,219 at the 2020 census, making it the second most populated city in Polk County after Lakeland. It is a principal city of the Lakeland-Winter Haven, Florida Metropolitan Statistical Area.[6]

History

Pre-history

The Timucua and the Calusa were the earliest known inhabitants of the Winter Haven area.[7] Both of these groups were deeply affected by war and disease from the Spanish conquest of Florida in the early 1500s. The Timucua were particularly affected by the expedition of Hernando de Soto. By the 19th century, both these groups no longer existed. During these expeditions the Spanish explorers claimed the entire peninsula of Florida for the Spanish monarchy.

In the 19th century the Creek and the Seminole were known to live and hunt in this area.[8] During the Seminole Wars the Seminole leader, Chipco, and his followers were known to live in the Winter Haven area. Several small skirmishes during the war were fought in and around Winter Haven.[9]

19th century

In 1819, after the signing of the Adams-Onís Treaty, the United States gained control of Florida. The first American or European settlers in the area were encouraged to settle there by the Armed Occupation Act of 1842.[8]

During the 1840s and 1850s, the United States government conducted the first surveys of the area. Henry Washington conducted the first survey of the area in 1843. In 1849, Dr. John Westcott completed an extensive survey of the area, including mapping many of the local lakes.[8] The first maps of the area were published by the United States government in 1854.[8] In 1883, Henry Haines working for Henry Plant and the Plant System, successfully built the first railroad across Polk County, passing just north of Winter Haven. Lake Haines, in Winter Haven, was named after Haines, who served as a colonel in the Confederate States Army.

The arrival of the railroad created the first real growth in area.[10] The area was platted in 1884 and would first be known as Harris Corners.[11] This name was in reference to F.A.K. Harris, who opened the first mercantile store in the area around this time.[11] The name Winter Haven was later suggested, in reference to the area's pleasant climate.[11]

Early 20th century

By the end of the century, the population grew to approximately 400 and in 1911, the City of Winter Haven was incorporated. The Chain of Lakes canals were begun in 1915. The first Florida boom took place in the 1920s as towns sprang up all over the peninsula. Florida's potential as a place to live and a place to visit was first realized in the 1920s, but the Great Depression slowed growth until after World War II. Winter Haven Hospital was founded in 1926 and has been in the city ever since.

During this period, the population of Winter Haven began to grow substantially. Many beautiful single-family homes were built in Winter Haven at this time in the colonial revival style. Over 50 these homes are on the National Register of Historic Places today. They are noted for their architectural style and grace. Most of these historic homes are located in the Interlaken neighborhood. There are four historic districts in Winter Haven. They are Interlaken, Pope Avenue, Winter Haven Heights, and the downtown area.

Growth and development

In 1930, George W. Jenkins opened the first Publix supermarket in Winter Haven.[12] His second store and the first stand-alone Publix store, was a 27 ft by 65 ft building at 199 West Central Avenue, opened in 1935, which exists today as the Regenerations thrift store.[12][13][14] During the 1930s and 1940s, citrus magnate, John A. Snively operated one of the largest fruit packing plants in the world in Winter Haven.[15]

Another defining event in Winter Haven was the opening of Cypress Gardens in 1936 by Dick Pope Sr. and his wife, Julie Pope. They first got the idea for the park from a Good Housekeeping magazine that they were reading. By the 1950s, Cypress Gardens was nationally famous. It featured a beautiful botanical garden, water skiing shows, and a staff of southern belles. Many famous celebrities of that time visited the park, including Elvis Presley, Frank Sinatra, Betty Grable, and King Hussein of Jordan. In the 1980s, the Anheuser-Busch corporation purchased the park. They continued to operate the park until 1995. After that, the park struggled, finally closing for good in 2009. On January 21, 2010, the site of Cypress Gardens was formally announced as the selected location for the Legoland Florida theme park,[16] which opened on October 15, 2011. Legoland Florida has successfully retained some of the tradition and history of the original site, including part of the original botanical garden and a water ski show.[17]

Winter Haven features many buildings designed by the architect Gene Leedy, one of the founders of the Sarasota School of Architecture. Regency Medical Center, which is Winter Haven Hospital's women's hospital, was built in 1987.[18] Some of Leedy's structures are part of the Downtown Winter Haven Historic District.

Old, undated photograph of the Winter Haven Orange Dome.

The Orange Dome, located near the corner of Cypress Gardens Blvd and US Hwy 17, was built in 1964. For 48 years, it hosted the annual Citrus Festival and other civic affairs. In February 2012, the Orange Dome was demolished to make way for The Landings, a proposed $150 million mixed-use development that was intended to include high-end retail stores, restaurants, hotels, apartments and a new movie theater to be built at the Chain of Lakes Complex.[19] However, after the construction of three fast food chain stores, the project collapsed. As of April 2013, the developer and the city were in negotiations to determine the future of the site.[20][needs update]

Pughsville

Pughsville was a neighborhood of Winter Haven where African Americans built a community after the Civil War. A historical marker on Highway 17 at Avenue O commemorates the community.[21] According to the marker, Pughsville was one of Winter Haven's earliest neighborhoods and was settled by African Americans who cleared the land in the southwest section of the city.

Pughsville was named for an early black pioneer, Reverend Charles Pugh, who was a founder of one of Zion Hill Missionary Baptist Church. Pughsville was also home to Bethel A.M.E., St. Paul Holiness, and Church of Christ. The community was most active from the 1900s until the 1950s and had an African-American school, social halls, small grocery stores, and restaurants where some residents worked.[22] Others worked in the citrus industry or in state or federal jobs. Pughsville produced Winter Haven's first African-American commissioner and mayor Lemuel Geathers, medical doctor, fire fighter and postal worker. The community declined in the late 1970s as larger commercial establishments began arriving in the area.

Geography

Fountain Walk in Downtown Winter Haven, Florida

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 25.4 square miles (66 km2), of which 17.7 square miles (46 km2) is land and 7.7 square miles (20 km2) (30.45%) is water. Winter Haven is located within the Central Florida Highlands area of the Atlantic coastal plain with a terrain consisting of flatland interspersed with gently rolling hills.[23] It has an average elevation of 146 feet (45 m) above sea-level.[24] The city is located at the headwaters of the Peace River.[25]

Lakes

Color-altered satellite image showing water in blue around Winter Haven

Winter Haven has 50 lakes within its borders,[26] including its famous Chain of Lakes. The lakes are by far the city's most distinctive feature. Winter Haven bills itself as "The Chain of Lakes City". The city has two prominent chains of lakes; the northern chain has nine lakes interconnected by a series of canals.[27] The southern chain features sixteen lakes interconnected by a series of canals. The southern chain has several prominent lakes, including Lake Eloise, Lake Howard, and Lake Lulu.[27] In 2011, after six years of construction and political infighting, Winter Haven opened a canal lock system connecting the two chains.[28] Most of the lakes in Winter Haven formed in a similar fashion to sinkholes, through dissolving of the limestone ground. These types of lakes are called "solution lakes".[26] The lakes in Winter Haven teem with life, including alligators, bald eagles, great blue herons, and more. The Winter Haven lakes are a world-renowned spot for bass fishing.[24]

Climate

Winter Haven is located in the humid subtropical zone (Köppen climate classification: Cfa). The average temperature is 74.6 °F (24 °C). The city averages 46.12 inches (1,171 mm) of rain per year. The months of June, July, August, and September, which includes the height of the Atlantic hurricane season, are by far the rainiest time of the year. Those four months, which average 26.63 inches (67.6 cm) of rain, account for more than half of the annual rainfall. Winters in Winter Haven are dry and sunny, with high temperatures of 72–76 °F (22–24 °C) and lows of 51–55 °F (11–13 °C). Frost occur about once per year on average.

Climate data for Winter Haven, Florida (Winter Haven's Gilbert Airport), 1991–2020 normals, extremes 1941–present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 89
(32)
91
(33)
94
(34)
98
(37)
103
(39)
103
(39)
101
(38)
100
(38)
98
(37)
96
(36)
99
(37)
95
(35)
103
(39)
Mean maximum °F (°C) 83.0
(28.3)
84.9
(29.4)
87.8
(31.0)
91.0
(32.8)
95.1
(35.1)
96.3
(35.7)
96.7
(35.9)
96.2
(35.7)
94.5
(34.7)
91.4
(33.0)
87.4
(30.8)
83.9
(28.8)
97.7
(36.5)
Average high °F (°C) 72.5
(22.5)
75.6
(24.2)
79.7
(26.5)
84.6
(29.2)
89.7
(32.1)
92.2
(33.4)
92.9
(33.8)
92.7
(33.7)
90.8
(32.7)
86.1
(30.1)
79.5
(26.4)
74.4
(23.6)
84.2
(29.0)
Daily mean °F (°C) 62.2
(16.8)
65.1
(18.4)
69.1
(20.6)
73.8
(23.2)
79.3
(26.3)
83.0
(28.3)
84.1
(28.9)
84.1
(28.9)
82.5
(28.1)
77.1
(25.1)
69.8
(21.0)
64.6
(18.1)
74.6
(23.7)
Average low °F (°C) 51.9
(11.1)
54.6
(12.6)
58.5
(14.7)
63.1
(17.3)
69.0
(20.6)
73.8
(23.2)
75.4
(24.1)
75.6
(24.2)
74.1
(23.4)
68.0
(20.0)
60.0
(15.6)
54.8
(12.7)
64.9
(18.3)
Mean minimum °F (°C) 34.0
(1.1)
37.7
(3.2)
42.5
(5.8)
51.6
(10.9)
60.2
(15.7)
68.7
(20.4)
70.8
(21.6)
71.8
(22.1)
68.5
(20.3)
55.2
(12.9)
44.8
(7.1)
39.1
(3.9)
32.0
(0.0)
Record low °F (°C) 19
(−7)
25
(−4)
23
(−5)
32
(0)
46
(8)
50
(10)
59
(15)
62
(17)
59
(15)
41
(5)
26
(−3)
19
(−7)
19
(−7)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 2.49
(63)
2.44
(62)
3.04
(77)
2.50
(64)
2.67
(68)
7.36
(187)
7.44
(189)
6.52
(166)
5.31
(135)
2.22
(56)
1.45
(37)
2.68
(68)
46.12
(1,171)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 8.7 7.5 7.5 6.0 8.4 16.2 17.6 18.7 14.3 7.8 7.0 8.3 128.0
Source: NOAA[29][30]

Demographics

Historical population
CensusPop.Note
19201,597
19307,130346.5%
19406,199−13.1%
19508,60538.8%
196016,27789.2%
197016,136−0.9%
198021,11930.9%
199024,72517.1%
200026,4877.1%
201033,87427.9%
202049,21945.3%
U.S. Decennial Census[31]

2010 and 2020 census

Winter Haven racial composition
(Hispanics excluded from racial categories)
(NH = Non-Hispanic)
Race Pop 2010[32] Pop 2020[33] % 2010 % 2020
White (NH) 19,674 22,443 58.08% 45.60%
Black or African American (NH) 9,149 12,097 27.01% 24.58%
Native American or Alaska Native (NH) 65 112 0.19% 0.23%
Asian (NH) 667 1,218 1.97% 2.47%
Pacific Islander or Native Hawaiian (NH) 28 12 0.08% 0.02%
Some other race (NH) 61 292 0.18% 0.59%
Two or more races/Multiracial (NH) 493 1,515 1.46% 3.08%
Hispanic or Latino (any race) 3,737 11,530 11.03% 23.43%
Total 33,874 49,219 100.00% 100.00%

As of the 2020 United States census, there were 49,219 people, 15,423 households, and 10,260 families residing in the city.[34]

As of the 2010 United States census, there were 33,874 people, 14,025 households, and 8,762 families residing in the city.[35]

2000 census

As of 2000, there were 11,833 households, out of which 21.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.1% were married couples living together, 12.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 41.4% were non-families. 36.0% of all households were made up of individuals, and 18.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.17 and the average family size was 2.81.

In 2000, in the city the population was spread out, with 20.9% under the age of 18, 6.8% from 18 to 24, 23.5% from 25 to 44, 21.4% from 45 to 64, and 27.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44 years. For every 100 females, there were 85.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 81.2 males.

In 2000, the median income for a household in the city was $31,884, and the median income for a family was $39,657. Males had a median income of $30,943 versus $21,812 for females. The per capita income for the city was $20,383. About 10.5% of families and 15.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.2% of those under age 18 and 7.9% of those age 65 or over.

Sports

Kayaks at Lake Silver

Three-time Olympic gold medal swimmer, Rowdy Gaines, and Olympic gold medal sprinter, Kenneth Brokenburr[36] both grew up in Winter Haven. Four-time NBA all-star and Olympic gold medalist guard, Otis Birdsong, also grew up in Winter Haven.[37] Welterweight boxing champion, Andre Berto, is another famous athlete who grew up in Winter Haven.

Winter Haven has many successful sports programs, both recreational and competitive, serving the youth in the community. Winter Haven High School has won several state and district championships in various sports, including Girls Varsity Basketball State Championship in 2005, 2007, 2016, and 2017.

With so many lakes, Winter Haven is a location for fresh water fishing. The two sports for which Winter Haven is best known are water skiing and baseball.

Water skiing history

Winter Haven has played a major role in the development and growth of water skiing as a sport. Dick Pope Sr. used water skiing as a way to promote his Cypress Gardens theme park starting in the 1930s, and water ski shows soon became a staple of entertainment at the park. He was also the first person to complete a jump on water skis, jumping over a wooden ramp in 1928, for a distance of 25 feet.[38] He pioneered a number of other water skiing tricks, including the water ski human pyramid, as part of an effort to develop his shows at Cypress Gardens. His son, Dick Pope Jr. popularized barefoot water skiing, bringing early pioneers such as Don Thomson to Cypress gardens to develop novel acts such as tumble turns, backwards barefooting, front to back and beach starts to please the theme park crowds.

Winter Haven is connected to 10 members of the Water Ski Hall of Fame, more than any other city in the world. These include Dick Pope Sr., Dick Pope Jr., and Ricky McCormick. George A. "Banana George" Blair, who still holds several water ski world records, was first introduced to the sport while visiting Winter Haven in the 1950s. Winter Haven has many lakes, including its famous chain of lakes, that are perfect for water skiing. Today, several successful ski schools, for both water skiing and barefoot skiing, make their home there. Every day, all year round, water skiers can be seen practicing their sport on the lakes around town.

Spring training baseball

Winter Haven was a Major League Baseball Spring Training site for many years, first at Denison Field and later at Chain of Lakes Park. Great baseball players who played spring training baseball in Winter Haven included Jimmie Foxx, Lou Gehrig, Willie Mays, Roberto Clemente, Johnny Bench, and Hank Aaron.

In 1928, the Philadelphia Phillies were the first Major League Baseball team to call Winter Haven their spring-home.[39] The Phillies played at Denison Field, which featured a large, covered wooden grandstand.[39] The Phillies played spring training games there until 1938. In 1940, the New York Giants did one season there.[39] After baseball left Denison, the field was donated to the city for the benefit of youth athletics. The stadium was rebuilt in 1947 with a larger grandstand and in use today for college and high school football, soccer, track and field, and other events.

In 1966, the Boston Red Sox and spring training baseball returned to Winter Haven. The Red Sox played in the newly built Chain of Lakes Park, a state of the art facility at that time.[39] For 26 years, the Red Sox called Winter Haven their spring-home. When the Red Sox left to Fort Myers, Florida in 1992, the city of Winter Haven sought a new Major League Baseball team. Later that year, Hurricane Andrew devastated Homestead, Florida, including the spring training facilities of the Cleveland Indians, and the Indians moved to Winter Haven.[40] In 2008, after failed negotiations with the city to renovate Chain of Lakes Park, the Indians moved into a brand new stadium in Goodyear, Arizona[40] after 16 springs at Chain of Lakes Park.

In December 2020, Winter Haven and Polk County agreed to demolish the stadium and replace it with baseball diamonds and general-purpose athletic fields.[41]

Education

Public and private schools

Public schools in Winter Haven are operated by Polk County Public Schools.

Colleges and universities

Notable people

Media

See also: Media in Tampa Bay

Winter Haven is part of the Tampa/St. Pete television market, the 13th largest in the country and part of the local Lakeland/Winter Haven radio market, which is the 94th largest in the country.[43][44]

Since 1911, the Winter Haven News Chief has served the community as the local newspaper. The News Chief also published the Polk County Shopper and ran the site polkonline.com. In 2008, News Chief was taken over by the Lakeland Ledger and operations were merged into that paper's Winter Haven branch.[45]

Transportation

Highways

Major routes through, to, and from Winter Haven include:

The streets of downtown Winter Haven are arranged in a grid plan. 1st Street (SR 549) is the north–south axis, with two sets of numbered streets running parallel – one to the east (e.g. 7th St. NE/SE), and one to the west (e.g. 6th St. NW/SW). Central Avenue (SR 542) is the west–east axis, with two sets of lettered avenues similarly running parallel on either side.

Public transit

Local commuter bus service is provided by Winter Haven Area Transit[46] and the Citrus Connection.[47]

Air transport

Winter Haven's Gilbert Airport and the adjacent Jack Browns Seaplane Base are located 3 miles (4.8 km) northwest of the central business district.

Winter Haven Amtrak Station

Intercity rail

Winter Haven has an Amtrak train station served by the Silver Star and Silver Meteor.

Places of interest

Attractions

Entrance to Legoland Florida

Healthcare

Sister city

See also

References

  1. ^ "City of Winter Haven, Florida". City of Winter Haven, Florida. Archived from the original on August 19, 2012. Retrieved September 2, 2012.
  2. ^ "Guide to Polk, Winter Haven". The Ledger. Archived from the original on July 25, 2010. Retrieved September 17, 2010.
  3. ^ "2020 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved December 2, 2021.
  4. ^ "List of 2020 Census Urban Areas". census.gov. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 7, 2023.
  5. ^ a b U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Winter Haven, Florida
  6. ^ "Revised Delineations of Metropolitan Statistical Areas, Micropolitan Statistical Areas, and Guidance on the Uses of the Delineations of These Areas" (PDF). Executive Office of the President. July 21, 2023. p. 66. Retrieved July 21, 2023.
  7. ^ "History of Polk County". Polk County Historical Association.
  8. ^ a b c d "The Naming of Lakes in Polk County", Joe Spann, Polk County Historical Library, Bartow, 2007, http://www.polk.wateratlas.usf.edu/upload/documents/Naming%20of%20Polk%20Lakes.pdf
  9. ^ The Naming of Lakes in Polk County, "Lake Hamilton", Joe Spann, Polk County Historical Library, Bartow, 2007, http://www.polk.wateratlas.usf.edu/upload/documents/Naming%20of%20Polk%20Lakes.pdf
  10. ^ Maier, Art (February 5, 1961). "Winter Haven founded by citrus". Lakeland Ledger. pp. 10D. Retrieved October 28, 2015.
  11. ^ a b c "History-Winter Haven CoC". Winter Haven Chamber of Commerce. Archived from the original on August 22, 2010. Retrieved September 20, 2010.
  12. ^ a b "Publix History". Publix Super Markets, Inc. Archived from the original on December 1, 2012. Retrieved November 29, 2012.
  13. ^ "Store Location". Twitter. Retrieved February 5, 2014.
  14. ^ Rowe, Trent (December 18, 2009). "The Insider: St. Matt's Is Moving". The Ledger. Retrieved February 5, 2014.
  15. ^ "Florida Citrus Hall of Fame :: Inductee Name". floridacitrushalloffame.com. Archived from the original on February 22, 2014. Retrieved June 17, 2016.
  16. ^ "Cypress Gardens Soon To Be Legoland Florida". www.wftv.com. January 21, 2010. Archived from the original on March 26, 2010. Retrieved December 18, 2012.
  17. ^ "Travel News, Tips & Deals - ABC News". Abcnews.go.com. December 13, 2012. Retrieved December 18, 2012.
  18. ^ "Winter Haven Hospital". winterhavenhospital.org. Retrieved June 17, 2016.
  19. ^ "Welcome to LANDINGSWINTERHAVEN.COM". www.landingswinterhaven.com. Archived from the original on June 8, 2013. Retrieved June 17, 2016.
  20. ^ "Landings Settlement Talks: City of Secrecy". TheLedger.com. April 28, 2013. Archived from the original on April 4, 2016. Retrieved June 17, 2016.
  21. ^ "Historic Pughsville Neighborhood". Waymarking. Retrieved December 28, 2017.
  22. ^ "Remembering Pughsville: Annual event brings history to life". News Chief. May 24, 2017. Retrieved December 28, 2017.
  23. ^ "Florida's Geological History". University of Florida. Retrieved October 14, 2010.
  24. ^ a b Designs, Outdoor Website. "Winter Haven Chain of Lakes Bass Fishing Guides". www.bassonline.com. Retrieved June 17, 2016.
  25. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 26, 2013. Retrieved May 5, 2013.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  26. ^ a b "Natural Resources - City of Winter Haven". City of Winter Haven.
  27. ^ a b "Winter Haven - The Chain of Lakes City - Access Facilities" (PDF). www.mywinterhaven.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 26, 2013. Retrieved June 16, 2016.
  28. ^ "Chain of Lakes Locks System Finally Ready for Use". TheLedger.com. Retrieved June 17, 2016.
  29. ^ "NOWData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved May 23, 2021.
  30. ^ "Summary of Monthly Normals 1991-2020". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved May 23, 2021.
  31. ^ "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
  32. ^ "P2 HISPANIC OR LATINO, AND NOT HISPANIC OR LATINO BY RACE - 2010: DEC Redistricting Data (PL 94-171) - Winter Haven city, Florida". United States Census Bureau.
  33. ^ "P2 HISPANIC OR LATINO, AND NOT HISPANIC OR LATINO BY RACE - 2020: DEC Redistricting Data (PL 94-171) - Winter Haven city, Florida". United States Census Bureau.
  34. ^ "S1101 HOUSEHOLDS AND FAMILIES - 2020: Winter Haven city, Florida". United States Census Bureau.
  35. ^ "S1101 HOUSEHOLDS AND FAMILIES - 2010: Winter Haven city, Florida". United States Census Bureau.
  36. ^ "Kenny Brokenburr Bio, Stats, and Results". Olympics at Sports-Reference.com. Archived from the original on April 18, 2020. Retrieved June 17, 2016.
  37. ^ "Otis Birdsong". Basketball-Reference.com. Retrieved June 17, 2016.
  38. ^ Pope, Dick Sr. (1958). Water Skiing. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. p. 52.
  39. ^ a b c d "Remembering Winter Haven's spring-training heritage". Ballpark Digest. July 17, 2011. Retrieved June 17, 2016.
  40. ^ a b "The Economics of Baseball's Spring Training". www.governing.com. Retrieved June 17, 2016.
  41. ^ Baker, Charles A. III (December 23, 2020). "Chain of Lakes Park expansion would include demolition of former Spring Training stadium". Winter Haven Sun. Retrieved August 27, 2023.
  42. ^ Archived October 21, 2017, at the Wayback Machine
  43. ^ "Top Nielsen Markets". TV By the Numbers. Archived from the original on April 1, 2012. Retrieved October 19, 2010.
  44. ^ "Arbitron Markets". Arbitron. Retrieved October 19, 2010.
  45. ^ Kennedy, Kyle (March 5, 2008). "Ledger Acquires The News Chief In Winter Haven". The Lakeland Ledger. Retrieved June 21, 2017.
  46. ^ "Polk County Board of County Commissioners". www.polk-county.net. Archived from the original on September 19, 2008. Retrieved June 17, 2016.
  47. ^ "Citrus Connection". Archived from the original on December 15, 2014. Retrieved December 10, 2014.