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Baker County
Baker County Courthouse in Macclenny
Baker County Courthouse in Macclenny
Official seal of Baker County
Map of Florida highlighting Baker County
Location within the U.S. state of Florida
Map of the United States highlighting Florida
Florida's location within the U.S.
Coordinates: 30°19′N 82°16′W / 30.32°N 82.27°W / 30.32; -82.27
Country United States
State Florida
FoundedFebruary 8, 1861
Named forJames McNair Baker
SeatMacclenny
Largest cityMacclenny
Area
 • Total588.97 sq mi (1,525.4 km2)
 • Land585.23 sq mi (1,515.7 km2)
 • Water3.74 sq mi (9.7 km2)
Population
 (2020)
 • Total28,259
 • Density48.29/sq mi (18.64/km2)
Time zoneUTC−5 (Eastern)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−4 (EDT)
Congressional district5th
Websitewww.bakercountyfl.org

Baker County is a county in the U.S. state of Florida. As of the 2020 census, the population was 28,259.[1] Its county seat is Macclenny.[2] The county was founded in 1861 and is named for James McNair Baker, a judge and Confederate Senator.

Baker County is included in the Jacksonville, FL Metropolitan Statistical Area.

In 1864, the Battle of Olustee, which was the only major American Civil War battle in Florida, was fought near Lake City in Baker County.

History

Baker County was founded in 1861. It was named for James McNair Baker (1821–1892), a judge and Confederate senator.[3] In 1864 the Battle of Olustee was fought near Lake City in Baker County. This was the only major American Civil War battle in Florida.[4]

Much of the area was originally covered with pine flatwoods and cypress swamps, as was Columbia County to the west. Parts of both counties are included in Osceola National Forest. A lumber industry developed here, with sawmills constructed along rivers and waterways, where lumber was brought out by water. Turpentine was also produced. These industries employed many African American laborers.

Geography

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 589 square miles (1,530 km2), of which 585 square miles (1,520 km2) is land and 3.7 square miles (9.6 km2) (0.6%) is water.[5] The extreme northern part of the county lies within the Okefenokee Swamp and its federally protected areas.

The St. Mary's River passes through Baker and numerous other counties. The St. Marys River is a remote blackwater river, rising in southeastern Georgia and flowing into northeastern Florida, where it forms the easternmost border between the two states.[6][7]

Adjacent counties

National protected areas

Major highways

Demographics

Historical population
Census Pop.
18701,325
18802,30373.8%
18903,33344.7%
19004,51635.5%
19104,8056.4%
19205,62217.0%
19306,27311.6%
19406,5103.8%
19506,313−3.0%
19607,36316.6%
19709,24225.5%
198015,28965.4%
199018,48620.9%
200022,25920.4%
201027,11521.8%
202028,2594.2%
U.S. Decennial Census[8]
1790–1960[9] 1900–1990[10]
1990–2000[11] 2010–2020[1]
Baker County racial composition as of 2020
(NH = Non-Hispanic)[a]
Race Pop 2010[14] Pop 2020[15] % 2010 % 2020
White (NH) 22,353 22,185 82.44% 78.51%
Black or African American (NH) 3,651 3,825 13.46% 13.54%
Native American or Alaska Native (NH) 72 109 0.27% 0.39%
Asian (NH) 129 157 0.48% 0.56%
Pacific Islander (NH) 5 14 0.02% 0.05%
Some Other Race (NH) 13 84 0.05% 0.3%
Mixed/Multi-Racial (NH) 372 912 1.37% 3.23%
Hispanic or Latino 520 973 1.92% 3.44%
Total 27,115 28,259

As of the 2020 United States census, there were 28,259 people, 8,828 households, and 6,448 families residing in the county.

As of the census[16] of 2000, there were 22,259 people, 7,043 households, and 5,599 families residing in the county. The population density was 38 inhabitants per square mile (15/km2). There were 7,592 housing units at an average density of 13 per square mile (5/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 84.04% White, 13.92% Black or African American, 0.38% Native American, 0.40% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.25% from other races, and 0.98% from two or more races. 1.88% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 34.5% were of American, 9.9% Irish, 8.6% English and 6.6% German ancestry according to Census 2000. Those claiming "American" ancestry are of predominantly English ancestry but most people in Baker County who are Anglo-European tend to identify simply as American.[17][18][19][20] 97.2% spoke English and 2.5% Spanish as their first language.

There were 7,043 households, out of which 41.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.70% were married couples living together, 13.10% had a female householder with no husband present, and 20.50% were non-families. 17.10% of all households were made up of individuals, and 6.90% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.86 and the average family size was 3.20.

In the county, the population was spread out, with 27.50% under the age of 18, 9.90% from 18 to 24, 30.70% from 25 to 44, 22.70% from 45 to 64, and 9.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 119.79 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 112.40 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $40,035, and the median income for a family was $43,503. Males had a median income of $30,240 versus $21,279 for females. The per capita income for the county was $15,164. About 11.40% of families and 14.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.20% of those under age 18 and 8.60% of those age 65 or over.

Education

The Baker County School District serves public school students in the county.

The main library serving Baker County is the Emily Taber Public Library. The building used to be the Old Baker County Courthouse, built in 1908. The library director is April Teel.[21]

Government

Law enforcement

The Baker County Sheriff's Office is headquartered in Macclenny, Florida. Sheriff Scotty Rhoden was first elected in 2016.[22]

Politics

Voter registration

As of September 1, 2020, Baker County has a Republican majority, with a Democratic minority.[23]

Name Number of voters %
Democratic 4,446 27.2%
Republican 9,910 60.7%
Others 1,963 12.1%
Total 16,319

Statewide elections

United States presidential election results for Baker County, Florida[24]
Year Republican Democratic Third party
No.  % No.  % No.  %
2020 11,911 84.58% 2,037 14.47% 134 0.95%
2016 10,294 81.02% 2,112 16.62% 299 2.35%
2012 8,975 78.80% 2,311 20.29% 104 0.91%
2008 8,672 78.22% 2,327 20.99% 88 0.79%
2004 7,738 77.73% 2,180 21.90% 37 0.37%
2000 5,611 68.80% 2,392 29.33% 152 1.86%
1996 3,686 55.54% 2,273 34.25% 678 10.22%
1992 3,418 50.59% 1,976 29.25% 1,362 20.16%
1988 3,418 71.49% 1,355 28.34% 8 0.17%
1984 3,485 71.62% 1,381 28.38% 0 0.00%
1980 2,283 45.88% 2,611 52.47% 82 1.65%
1976 1,058 25.22% 2,985 71.16% 152 3.62%
1972 1,943 83.64% 379 16.32% 1 0.04%
1968 294 10.72% 487 17.75% 1,962 71.53%
1964 1,121 49.65% 1,137 50.35% 0 0.00%
1960 398 21.32% 1,469 78.68% 0 0.00%
1956 366 20.23% 1,443 79.77% 0 0.00%
1952 419 22.04% 1,482 77.96% 0 0.00%
1948 112 9.52% 849 72.19% 215 18.28%
1944 127 10.05% 1,137 89.95% 0 0.00%
1940 114 7.78% 1,352 92.22% 0 0.00%
1936 116 6.94% 1,555 93.06% 0 0.00%
1932 87 6.37% 1,278 93.63% 0 0.00%
1928 676 72.38% 242 25.91% 16 1.71%
1924 124 32.72% 215 56.73% 40 10.55%
1920 115 22.64% 346 68.11% 47 9.25%
1916 52 9.25% 439 78.11% 71 12.63%
1912 37 11.18% 168 50.76% 126 38.07%
1908 104 30.95% 152 45.24% 80 23.81%
1904 120 35.40% 207 61.06% 12 3.54%


Previous gubernatorial elections results
Year Republican Democratic Third parties
2018 82.37% 8,687 16.69% 1,760 0.94% 99
2014 70.54% 5,956 24.87% 2,100 4.59% 388
2010 62.34% 4,940 34.46% 2,731 3.20% 253
2006 69.39% 4,335 27.82% 1,738 2.79% 174
2002 69.22% 4,515 30.06% 1,961 0.72% 47
1998 71.14% 3,268 28.86% 1,326
1994 68.52% 3,600 31.48% 1,654

Industry

Baker County is home to a Walmart distribution center,[25][26] several small manufacturing businesses, and Acreage Holdings, a cannabis cultivation facility. There are also several local,[27] regional, state (the Baker Correctional Institution),[28] and federal[29] prisons in the western part of the county, bordering several more such facilities[30] in Columbia County.

Communities

City

Town

Unincorporated communities

[31]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Note: the US Census treats Hispanic/Latino as an ethnic category. This table excludes Latinos from the racial categories and assigns them to a separate category. Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.[12][13]

References

  1. ^ a b "QuickFacts: Baker County, Florida". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved September 9, 2021.
  2. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  3. ^ Publications of the Florida Historical Society. Florida Historical Society. 1908. p. 30.
  4. ^ "American Battlefield Protection Program Battle Summary". National Park Service. Retrieved February 18, 2017.
  5. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. February 12, 2011. Retrieved April 23, 2011.
  6. ^ "Florida's Water". floridaswater.com. Archived from the original on March 16, 2015. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
  7. ^ "Baker County Geography". stmaryriverbaker.weebly.com. Thomas. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
  8. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 12, 2014.
  9. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved June 12, 2014.
  10. ^ "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 12, 2014.
  11. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 12, 2014.
  12. ^ http://www.census.gov[not specific enough to verify]
  13. ^ "About the Hispanic Population and its Origin". www.census.gov. Retrieved May 18, 2022.
  14. ^ "Explore Census Data". data.census.gov. Retrieved May 27, 2022.
  15. ^ "Explore Census Data". data.census.gov. Retrieved May 27, 2022.
  16. ^ "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 14, 2011.
  17. ^ Sharing the Dream: White Males in a Multicultural America By Dominic J. Pulera.
  18. ^ Reynolds Farley, 'The New Census Question about Ancestry: What Did It Tell Us?', Demography, Vol. 28, No. 3 (August 1991), pp. 414, 421.
  19. ^ Stanley Lieberson and Lawrence Santi, 'The Use of Nativity Data to Estimate Ethnic Characteristics and Patterns', Social Science Research, Vol. 14, No. 1 (1985), pp. 44-6.
  20. ^ Stanley Lieberson and Mary C. Waters, 'Ethnic Groups in Flux: The Changing Ethnic Responses of American Whites', Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 487, No. 79 (September 1986), pp. 82-86.
  21. ^ "Emily Taber Public Library (Baker County) | New River Public Library Cooperative". March 4, 2016. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved March 27, 2018.
  22. ^ "Rhoden wins race". Jacksonville.com. Retrieved February 28, 2017.
  23. ^ "Baker County Supervisor of Elections > Voter Information > Statistic Reports".
  24. ^ Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org.
  25. ^ "Neighbors irked by Walmart DC, Who knew?". Baker County Press. April 2012. Retrieved March 10, 2021.
  26. ^ "Wal-Mart D.C. #6099 - Macclenny, FL". Retrieved March 10, 2021.
  27. ^ "Corrections Department". Baker County Sheriff's Office. Retrieved March 10, 2021.
  28. ^ "Baker Re-Entry Center". Florida Department of Corrections. Retrieved March 10, 2021.
  29. ^ "Baker County Facility". U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement. Retrieved March 10, 2021.
  30. ^ "Columbia Correctional Institution". Florida Department of Corrections. Retrieved March 10, 2021.
  31. ^ "Google Maps". Google Maps.

Government links/Constitutional offices

Special districts

Judicial branch

Community Web Pages

Federal

Museum and Library Resources

Coordinates: 30°19′N 82°16′W / 30.32°N 82.27°W / 30.32; -82.27