Ocala, Florida
Top, left to right: Downtown Ocala, horse on a farm, Marion Hotel, Marion Theatre
Top, left to right: Downtown Ocala, horse on a farm, Marion Hotel, Marion Theatre
Official seal of Ocala, Florida
Nickname(s): 
"Horse Capital of the World"
"Brick City"[1][2]
Motto: 
"God Be With Us"
Map
Interactive map of Ocala
Coordinates: 29°11′16″N 82°7′50″W / 29.18778°N 82.13056°W / 29.18778; -82.13056
CountryUnited States
StateFlorida
CountyMarion
Founded1849
Incorporated (town)February 4, 1869
Incorporated (city)January 28, 1885
Government
 • TypeCouncil–Manager
 • MayorBen Marciano
 • CouncilmembersBarry Mansfield,
Kristen Dreyer,
Jay Musleh,
James Hilty, Sr., and
Ire J. Bethea, Sr.
 • City ManagerPeter Lee
 • City ClerkAngel B. Jacobs
 • City AttorneyWilliam E. Sexton
Area
 • City47.79 sq mi (122.42 km2)
 • Land47.78 sq mi (122.40 km2)
 • Water0.01 sq mi (0.01 km2)
Elevation69 ft (21 m)
Population
 • City63,591
 • Estimate 
(2022)[6]
65,478
 • RankUS: 586th
FL: 43rd
 • Density1,386.0/sq mi (535.0/km2)
 • Urban
182,647 (US: 202nd)
 • Urban density1,460.9/sq mi (564.0/km2)
 • Metro
396,415 (US: 138th)
 • Metro density249.6/sq mi (96.36/km2)
Time zoneUTC–5 (Eastern (EST))
 • Summer (DST)UTC–4 (EDT)
ZIP Codes
34470-34483
Area code352
FIPS code12-50750
GNIS feature ID0288030[4]
Sales tax7.0%[7]
Websiteocalafl.gov

Ocala (/ˈkælə/ oh-KAL) is a city in and the county seat of Marion County, Florida, United States.[8] Located in North Florida, the city's population was 63,591 as of the 2020 census,[5] making it the 43rd-most populated city in Florida. Ocala is the principal city of the Ocala metropolitan area, which had a population of 375,908 in 2020.

Home to over 400 thoroughbred farms and training centers, Ocala is considered the "Horse Capital of the World".[9][10] Notable attractions include the Ocala National Forest, Silver Springs State Park, Rainbow Springs State Park, the College of Central Florida, and the World Equestrian Center.

History

A reconstruction of Fort King

Ocala is named after Ocale (also Cale, Etocale, and other variants) a Timucua village and chiefdom recorded in the 16th century, the name of which is believed to mean "Big Hammock" in the Timucua language.[11] Another possible meaning of the name is "song or singer of admiration or glorification".[12] The Spaniard Hernando de Soto's expedition recorded Ocale in 1539 during his exploration through what is today the southeastern United States. The site of Ocale has not been found, but historians believe it was located in southwestern Marion County, near the Withlacoochee River.[13][14] References to Ocale, Olagale, and Etoquale occur in 16th and early 17th century sources, but do not specify a location.[13][15] A Spanish mission named San Luis de Eloquale was established by 1630. Milanich believes the mission was near the Withlacoochee River. Eloquale is not named in a 1655 list of missions, and Ocale (and its variants) disappears from history.[16]

In the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, Creek people and other Native Americans, and free and fugitive African Americans sought refuge in Florida. The Seminole people formed. After foreign colonial rule shifted between Spain and Great Britain and back again, in 1821 the United States acquired the territory of Florida. After warfare to the north, in 1827 the U.S. Army built Fort King near the present site of Ocala as a buffer between the Seminole, who had long occupied the area, and white settlers moving into the region. The fort was an important base during the Second Seminole War and later served in 1844 as the first courthouse for Marion County.[17]

The modern city of Ocala, which was established in 1849, developed around the fort site. Greater Ocala is known as the "Kingdom of the Sun".[18] Plantations and other agricultural development dependent on slave labor were prevalent in the region. Ocala was an important center of citrus production until the Great Freeze of 1894–1895.[19][20][21] During the Reconstruction era Ocala was represented by several African Americans in the Florida House of Representatives and on the local level.[22]

Downtown Ocala in 1883

Rail service reached Ocala in June 1881, encouraging economic development with greater access to markets for produce. Two years later, much of the Ocala downtown area was destroyed by fire on Thanksgiving Day, 1883. The city encouraged rebuilding with brick, granite and steel rather than lumber. By 1888, Ocala was known statewide as "The Brick City".[1][2]

In December 1890, the Farmers' Alliance and Industrial Union, a forerunner of the Populist Party, held its national convention in Ocala. At the convention, the Alliance adopted a platform that would become known as the "Ocala Demands". This platform included abolition of national banks, promoting low-interest government loans, free and unlimited coinage of silver, reclamation of excess railroad lands by the government, a graduated income tax, and direct election of United States senators. Most of the "Ocala Demands" were to become part of the Populist Party platform. [citation needed]

Fort King Street c. 1920

In the last decades of the twentieth century, the greater Ocala area had one of the highest growth rates in the country for a city its size.[citation needed]

Ocala Historic District

Many historic homes are preserved in Ocala's large residential Historic District, designated in 1984. East Fort King Street features many excellent examples of Victorian architecture. Ocala structures listed on the National Register of Historic Places include the Coca-Cola Building, the E. C. Smith House, East Hall, the Marion Hotel, Mount Zion A.M.E. Church, the Ritz Historic Inn, and Union Train Station.

The original Fort King site was designated as a National Historic Landmark in 2004.

Geography

A portion of the Silver River located in Silver Springs State Park

Ocala is located at 29°11′16″N 82°07′50″W / 29.187704°N 82.130613°W / 29.187704; -82.130613.[23]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 47.79 square miles (123.8 km2), all land. The surrounding farms are famous for their thoroughbred horses, in terrain similar to Kentucky bluegrass. Ocala is also known for nearby Silver Springs, site of one of the largest artesian spring formations in the world and Silver Springs Nature Theme Park, one of the earliest tourist attractions in Florida.

The 110-mile (180 km) long Ocklawaha River passes 10 miles (16 km) east of Ocala, flowing north from Central Florida until it joins the St. Johns River near Palatka.

Marion County is also home to the Ocala National Forest which was established in 1908 and is now the second largest national forest in the state. The Florida Trail, also known as the Florida National Scenic Trail, cuts through Ocala National Forest.[24] Silver Springs State Park was formed as Silver River State Park in 1987, out of land the state purchased around the Silver Springs attraction to spare it from development. The state took over Silver Springs itself in 1993 and incorporated it into the park in 2013.[25]

Climate

Ocala has a humid subtropical climate (Cfa), with hot, humid summers and mild winters.

Climate data for Ocala, Florida, 1991–2020 normals, extremes 1893–present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 88
(31)
90
(32)
97
(36)
98
(37)
102
(39)
105
(41)
104
(40)
103
(39)
101
(38)
98
(37)
94
(34)
90
(32)
105
(41)
Mean maximum °F (°C) 81.9
(27.7)
84.0
(28.9)
87.3
(30.7)
90.8
(32.7)
95.1
(35.1)
96.8
(36.0)
96.6
(35.9)
95.8
(35.4)
94.2
(34.6)
90.8
(32.7)
86.3
(30.2)
82.3
(27.9)
98.0
(36.7)
Mean daily maximum °F (°C) 70.6
(21.4)
73.7
(23.2)
78.6
(25.9)
83.9
(28.8)
88.9
(31.6)
91.0
(32.8)
92.0
(33.3)
91.6
(33.1)
89.5
(31.9)
84.3
(29.1)
77.2
(25.1)
72.2
(22.3)
82.8
(28.2)
Daily mean °F (°C) 58.1
(14.5)
61.0
(16.1)
65.3
(18.5)
70.7
(21.5)
76.4
(24.7)
80.7
(27.1)
82.1
(27.8)
82.0
(27.8)
79.9
(26.6)
73.5
(23.1)
65.4
(18.6)
60.3
(15.7)
71.3
(21.8)
Mean daily minimum °F (°C) 45.6
(7.6)
48.4
(9.1)
52.1
(11.2)
57.4
(14.1)
63.9
(17.7)
70.4
(21.3)
72.2
(22.3)
72.5
(22.5)
70.3
(21.3)
62.7
(17.1)
53.5
(11.9)
48.3
(9.1)
59.8
(15.4)
Mean minimum °F (°C) 27.1
(−2.7)
29.3
(−1.5)
33.5
(0.8)
42.7
(5.9)
52.8
(11.6)
64.5
(18.1)
68.6
(20.3)
68.4
(20.2)
61.9
(16.6)
46.4
(8.0)
35.8
(2.1)
30.4
(−0.9)
24.7
(−4.1)
Record low °F (°C) 11
(−12)
12
(−11)
23
(−5)
30
(−1)
44
(7)
48
(9)
58
(14)
60
(16)
52
(11)
32
(0)
22
(−6)
15
(−9)
11
(−12)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 3.38
(86)
2.94
(75)
3.68
(93)
2.22
(56)
3.53
(90)
7.41
(188)
6.94
(176)
7.07
(180)
6.49
(165)
3.21
(82)
2.09
(53)
2.68
(68)
51.64
(1,312)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 8.6 7.7 7.2 6.3 6.9 15.6 16.8 18.0 13.1 8.2 6.1 6.9 121.4
Source: NOAA[26][27]


Demographics

Historical population
CensusPop.Note
1850243
1870600
188080333.8%
18902,904261.6%
19003,38016.4%
19104,37029.3%
19204,91412.4%
19307,28148.2%
19408,98623.4%
195011,74130.7%
196013,59815.8%
197022,58366.1%
198037,17064.6%
199042,04513.1%
200045,9439.3%
201056,31522.6%
202063,59112.9%
2022 (est.)65,478[6]3.0%
U.S. Decennial Census[28]
2020 Census[5]

Ocala first appeared in the 1850 U.S. Census, with a total recorded population of 243.[29] Ocala did not report separately in 1860.[30]

2010 and 2020 census

Ocala racial composition
(Hispanics excluded from racial categories)
(NH = Non-Hispanic)
Race Pop 2010[31] Pop 2020[32] % 2010 % 2020
White (NH) 35,623 35,478 63.26% 55.79%
Black or African American (NH) 11,497 11,909 20.42% 18.73%
Native American or Alaska Native (NH) 117 104 0.21% 0.16%
Asian (NH) 1,455 2,436 2.58% 3.83%
Pacific Islander or Native Hawaiian (NH) 9 17 0.02% 0.03%
Some other race (NH) 118 255 0.21% 0.40%
Two or more races/Multiracial (NH) 910 2,499 1.62% 3.93%
Hispanic or Latino (any race) 6,586 10,893 11.69% 17.13%
Total 56,315 63,591 100.00% 100.00%

As of the 2020 census, there were 63,591 people, 23,893 households, and 13,239 families residing in the city.[33]

As of the 2010 census, there were 56,315 people, 21,722 households, and 12,945 families residing in the city.[34]

2000 census

As of the 2000 census, there were 45,943 people, 18,646 households, and 11,280 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,189.2 inhabitants per square mile (459.2/km2). There were 20,501 housing units at an average density of 530.7 per square mile (204.9/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 72.9% White, 22.1% African American, 0.4% Native American, 1.2% Asian, <0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.8% from other races, and 1.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.7% of the population.

In 2000, there were 18,646 households. 40.9% were married couples living together, 15.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 39.5% were non-families. 33.0% of all households were made up of individuals, and 15.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 2.91.

In 2000, in the city the population was spread out, with 23.2% under the age of 18, 9.3% from 18 to 24, 26.2% from 25 to 44, 20.9% from 45 to 64, and 20.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.5 males.

Economy

The median income for a household in the city was $30,888, and the median income for a family was $38,190. Males had a median income of $29,739 versus $24,367 for females. The per capita income for the city was $18,021. About 13.2% of families and 18.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28.6% of those under age 18 and 9.8% of those age 65 or over.

Ocala is the headquarters of Emergency One, a worldwide designer and manufacturer of fire rescue vehicles.

Top employers

According to the City's 2022 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report,[35] the largest employers in the city are:

# Employer Type of Business # of Employees Percentage
1 Marion County Public Schools Education 7,000 4.70%
2 Ocala Health Health Care 2,712 1.82%
3 AdventHealth Ocala Health Care 2,648 1.78%
4 State of Florida Government 2,600 1.74%
5 Walmart (5 locations) Retail 2,583 1.73%
6 Lockheed Martin Aerospace 1,600 1.07%
7 FedEx E-Commerce 1,500 1.01%
8 Publix Retail Grocery 1,488 1.00%
9 Marion County Board of Commissioners Government 1,368 0.92%
10 E-One, Inc. Utility 1,200 0.81%
Total employers 24,699 16.57%

Culture

Gypsy Gold Farm, Ocala

Horses have a prominent role in Ocala's cultural makeup.[36] The first thoroughbred horse farm in Florida was developed in Marion County in 1943 by Carl G. Rose. Other farms were developed, making Ocala the center of a horse-breeding area. Local horses have won individual races of the Triple Crown series; in 1978, Affirmed, who was bred and trained in Marion County, won all three races, boosting interest in the industry there.

Ocala is one of only five cities (four in the US and one in France) permitted under Chamber of Commerce guidelines to use the title, "Horse Capital of the World",[37] based on annual revenue produced by the horse industry. 44,000 jobs are sustained by breeding, training, and related support of the equine industry, which generates over $2.2 billion in annual revenue. Postime Farms and Ocala serve as host to one of the largest horse shows in the country: H.I.T.S or "Horses in the Sun", a Dressage/Jumper event lasting about two months. It generates some 6 to 7 million dollars for the local Marion County economy each year. The show features classes for over 100 different breeds, including Tennessee Walker, Paso Fino, Morgan horse, Saddlebred, Draft horse and the American Quarter Horse. Other equine events in the area include mounted shooting by the Florida Outlaws, as well as endurance rides, barrel races, extreme cowboy events, jumper shows, trick shows, parades, draft pulls, rodeo events and more. In 2022, Ocala was the site of the inaugural point-to-point Florida Steeplechase at the Florida Horse Park.[38]

Government and politics

Ocala is governed by a five-member board of councillors and a mayor, all of which are elected on a nonpartisan basis. It has a council-manager form of government, relying on a manager hired by the city. The mayor sets policy but has few powers other than vetoing legislation passed by the council and tending to some duties involving the police department. The current mayor is Ben Marciano.[39] The city manager handles most administrative and financial matters.[40]

A number of county offices are housed at the McPherson Governmental Complex.[41]

As of 2020, Republicans outnumber Democrats in Marion County, 112,000 to 80,000.[42] In the 2008 presidential election, John McCain carried both the city and the county, the latter by a landslide, although Florida as a whole voted for Democrat Barack Obama by a narrow margin.[43]

Education

Eighth Street Elementary School, located within the Ocala Historic District

The public schools in Ocala are run by the Marion County School Board. There are 30 elementary, ten middle and ten public high schools in Marion County, which include the following schools in Ocala:

Elementary schools

Middle schools

High schools

Private schools

Colleges and universities

Ocala is home to the College of Central Florida, a member of the Florida College System, accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges. CF offers bachelor's degrees in Business and Organizational Management, Early Childhood Education, and Nursing, as well as associate degrees and certificates. The college offers specialty programs in equine studies, agribusiness, and logistics and supply chain management.[50] It also has one of 21 campuses of Rasmussen College, a Higher Learning Commission regionally accredited post secondary institution.[51][52] Webster University offers on-site, regionally accredited graduate degree programs in business and counseling at their Ocala Metropolitan Campus.[53]

Libraries

Three of the eight libraries in the Marion County Public Library System are located in Ocala.[54] Those three libraries are:

Transportation

Major roads

Eastbound SR 40 as it approaches US 27-301-441 in Ocala.

Several major highways pass through Ocala, including Interstate 75, U.S. Highway 27, U.S. Route 301, and U.S. Highway 441. Ocala was on the western leg of the historic Dixie Highway.

See also: List of county roads in Marion County, Florida

Airport, bus, and others

Ocala International Airport provides general aviation services to the community. Ocala Suntran provides bus service throughout select parts of the city. One of the major hubs for Suntran is the former Ocala Union Station, which served Amtrak trains until November 2004. Amtrak serves Ocala by bus connection to Jacksonville and Lakeland.

Ocala is also served by Greyhound Bus Lines. Marion Transit is the complementary ADA paratransit service for SunTran the fixed route in the City of Ocala. Marion Transit was established in 1976 and operates paratransit buses providing public transportation throughout Marion County for the Transportation Disadvantaged population.

Healthcare

Hospitals in Ocala include: AdventHealth Ocala, HCA Florida Ocala Hospital and HCA Florida West Marion Hospital.[55]

Notable people

Elizabeth Ashley in 1972
Haven Denney in 2019
Joey Gilmore in 2015

Notable musical groups

Sister cities

See also: List of sister cities in Florida

Ocala has two sister cities:

See also

References

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  60. ^ "San Rossore Officially Sister City To Ocala". Thoroughbred Times. Archived from the original on August 19, 2012. Retrieved July 16, 2007. "This event is just the beginning of a nice relationship between the city of Ocala and the city of Pisa and San Rossore," Fontanelli said in Italian during the ceremony.