Hialeah, Florida
Haiyakpo-hili (Seminole)
City of Hialeah
Palm Avenue in Hialeah
Palm Avenue in Hialeah
Flag of Hialeah, Florida
Official seal of Hialeah, Florida
Nickname(s): 
"The City of Progress"
Location in Miami-Dade County and the state of Florida
Location in Miami-Dade County and the state of Florida
U.S. Census Bureau map showing city limits prior to most recent annexation
U.S. Census Bureau map showing city limits prior to most recent annexation
Coordinates: 25°51′38″N 80°17′38″W / 25.86056°N 80.29389°W / 25.86056; -80.29389Coordinates: 25°51′38″N 80°17′38″W / 25.86056°N 80.29389°W / 25.86056; -80.29389
Country United States
State Florida
County Miami-Dade
IncorporationSeptember 10, 1925
Government
 • TypeCouncil-Mayor
 • MayorEsteban Bovo (R)[1]
 • Council PresidentCarl Zogby
 • CouncilmembersLuis Rodriguez,
Bryan Calvo,
Monica Perez,
Jesus Tundidor,
Jacqueline Garcia-Roves,
 • City ClerkMarbelys Fatjo
Area
 • City22.82 sq mi (59.09 km2)
 • Land21.58 sq mi (55.90 km2)
 • Water1.24 sq mi (3.20 km2)
Elevation
7 ft (2 m)
Population
 (2020)
 • City223,109
 • Density10,338.21/sq mi (3,991.52/km2)
 • Metro
6,166,488
Time zoneUTC−5 (EST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−4 (EDT)
ZIP codes
33002, 33010-33018
Area code(s)305, 786
FIPS code12-30000
GNIS feature ID0305059[3]
Websitewww.hialeahfl.gov

Hialeah (/ˌhəˈlə/ HY-ə-LEE) is a city in Miami-Dade County, Florida, United States. With a population of 223,109 as of the 2020 census, Hialeah is the sixth-largest city in Florida. It is a principal city of the Miami metropolitan area, which was home to an estimated 6,198,782 people at the 2018 census.[4] It is located west-northwest of Miami, and is one of a few places in the county—others being Homestead, Miami Beach, Surfside, Bal Harbour, Sunny Isles Beach, and Golden Beach—to have its own street grid numbered separately from the rest of the county (which is otherwise based on Miami Avenue at Flagler Street in downtown Miami, the county seat).

The city is notable for its high Hispanic proportion, which at 94.0%, is the second-highest proportion of Hispanic Americans out of any city in the United States outside of Puerto Rico.[5] Hialeah also has the highest percentage of Cuban and Cuban American residents of any city in the United States, at 73.37% of the population, making them a typical and prominent feature of the city's culture.

Hialeah also has one of the largest Spanish-speaking communities in the country. In 2016, 96.3% of residents reported speaking Spanish at home, and the language is an important part of daily life in the city.

Hialeah is served by the Miami Metrorail at Okeechobee, Hialeah, and Tri-Rail/Metrorail Transfer stations. The Okeechobee and Hialeah stations serve primarily as park-and-ride commuter stations to commuters and residents going into Downtown Miami, and Tri-Rail station to Miami International Airport and north to West Palm Beach.

History

See also: Timeline of Hialeah, Florida

The city's name is most commonly attributed to Muskogee origin, "Haiyakpo" (prairie) and "hili" (pretty) combining in "Hialeah" to mean "pretty prairie". Alternatively, the word is of Seminole origin meaning "Upland Prairie". The city is located upon a large prairie between Biscayne Bay and the Everglades.

This "high prairie" caught the eye of pioneer aviator Glenn Curtiss and Missouri cattleman James H. Bright in 1921.[6][7] Together, they developed not only the town of Hialeah but also Hialeah Park Race Track. In 1921, the first plat was drawn up, and the town was named.[8]

Downtown Hialeah in 1921
Downtown Hialeah in 1921
Group of tour buses sponsored by real estate developers in Hialeah in 1921
Group of tour buses sponsored by real estate developers in Hialeah in 1921

In the early "Roaring '20s", Hialeah produced significant entertainment contributions. Sporting included the Spanish sport of jai alai and greyhound racing, and media included silent movies like D.W. Griffith's The White Rose which was made at the Miami Movie Studios located in Hialeah. However, the 1926 Miami hurricane brought many of these activities to an end.[6][7]

In the years since its incorporation in 1925,[6] many historical events and people have been associated with Hialeah. The opening of the horse racing course at Hialeah Park Race Track in 1925 (which was nicknamed the "Grand Dame") received more coverage in the Miami media than any other sporting event in the history of Dade County up to that time and since then there have been countless horse racing histories played out at the world-famous 220-acre (0.89 km2) park.[6] It was considered one of the most grand thoroughbred horse racing parks with its majestic Mediterranean style architecture and was considered the Jewel of Hialeah at the time.[7][9]

The park's grandeur has attracted millions, included among them are names known around the world such as the Kennedy family, Harry Truman, General Omar Bradley, Winston Churchill, and J.P. Morgan. The Hialeah Park Race Track also holds the dual distinction of being an Audubon Bird Sanctuary due to its famous pink flamingos and being listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The famous aviator Amelia Earhart in 1937 said her final good-byes to the continental U.S. from Hialeah as she left on her ill-fated flight around the world in 1937.[6][7]

While Hialeah was once envisioned as a playground for the elite, Cuban exiles fleeing Fidel Castro's 1959 revolution, as well as World War II veterans and city planners, transformed the city into a working-class community. Hialeah historian Patricia Fernández-Kelly explained, "It became an affordable Eden." She further describes the city as "a place where different groups have left their imprint while trying to create a sample of what life should be like." Several waves of Cuban exiles, starting after the Cuban Revolution in 1959 and continuing through to the Freedom Flights from 1965 to 1973, the Mariel boatlift in 1980, and the Balseros or boat people of the late 1990s, created what at least one expert has considered the most economically successful immigrant enclave in U.S. history as Hialeah is the only American industrial city that continues to grow.[9]

From a population of 1,500 in 1925, Hialeah has grown faster than most of the 10 larger cities in the state of Florida since the 1960s and holds the rank of Florida's fifth-largest city, with more than 224,000 residents. The city is also one of the largest employers in Dade County.

In January 2009, Forbes magazine listed Hialeah as one of the most boring cities in the United States, citing the city's large population and anonymity in the national media.[10]

Geography

Hialeah is located at 25°51′38″N 80°17′38″W / 25.86056°N 80.29389°W / 25.86056; -80.29389 (25.860474, –80.293971).[11]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 19.7 square miles (51 km2). 19.2 square miles (50 km2) of it is land and 0.5 square miles (1.3 km2) of it (2.53%) is water.

Climate

According to the Köppen climate classification, Hialeah as a tropical monsoon climate (Am).

Climate data for Hialeah, Florida, 1991–2020 normals, extremes 1940–present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 89
(32)
96
(36)
98
(37)
96
(36)
99
(37)
99
(37)
100
(38)
99
(37)
97
(36)
97
(36)
92
(33)
90
(32)
100
(38)
Average high °F (°C) 75.7
(24.3)
77.7
(25.4)
79.8
(26.6)
83.2
(28.4)
86.1
(30.1)
88.4
(31.3)
89.9
(32.2)
90.1
(32.3)
88.5
(31.4)
85.6
(29.8)
80.9
(27.2)
77.6
(25.3)
83.6
(28.7)
Daily mean °F (°C) 67.4
(19.7)
69.8
(21.0)
72.1
(22.3)
75.9
(24.4)
79.1
(26.2)
82.0
(27.8)
83.3
(28.5)
83.5
(28.6)
82.1
(27.8)
79.2
(26.2)
73.9
(23.3)
70.2
(21.2)
76.6
(24.8)
Average low °F (°C) 59.1
(15.1)
61.9
(16.6)
64.5
(18.1)
68.5
(20.3)
72.2
(22.3)
75.5
(24.2)
76.7
(24.8)
76.9
(24.9)
75.8
(24.3)
72.8
(22.7)
66.8
(19.3)
62.9
(17.2)
69.5
(20.8)
Record low °F (°C) 28
(−2)
30
(−1)
32
(0)
38
(3)
44
(7)
52
(11)
62
(17)
57
(14)
55
(13)
45
(7)
37
(3)
29
(−2)
28
(−2)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 2.03
(52)
2.29
(58)
2.81
(71)
3.81
(97)
6.08
(154)
11.45
(291)
7.92
(201)
9.98
(253)
11.53
(293)
8.23
(209)
4.00
(102)
2.80
(71)
72.93
(1,852)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 7.5 6.5 6.5 7.2 10.4 17.6 17.6 18.5 18.7 14.2 8.5 7.9 141.1
Source: NOAA[12][13]

Surrounding areas

Demographics

Historical population
Census Pop.
19302,600
19403,95852.2%
195019,676397.1%
196066,972240.4%
1970102,45253.0%
1980145,25441.8%
1990188,00429.4%
2000226,41920.4%
2010224,669−0.8%
2020223,109−0.7%
U.S. Decennial Census[14]

2020 census

Hialeah racial composition
(Hispanics excluded from racial categories)
(NH = Non-Hispanic)[15]
Race Number Percentage
White (NH) 9,684 4.34%
Black or African American (NH) 1,380 0.62%
Native American or Alaska Native (NH) 68 0.03%
Asian (NH) 877 0.39%
Pacific Islander (NH) 12 0.01%
Some Other Race (NH) 534 0.24%
Mixed/Multi-Racial (NH) 770 0.35%
Hispanic or Latino 209,784 94.03%
Total 223,109

As of the 2020 United States census, there were 223,109 people, 75,989 households, and 54,646 families residing in the city.

2010 census

Hialeah Demographics
2010 Census Hialeah Miami-Dade County Florida
Total population 224,669 2,496,435 18,801,310
Population, percent change, 2000 to 2010 –0.8% +10.8% +17.6%
Population density 10,474.2/sq mi 1,315.5/sq mi 350.6/sq mi
White or Caucasian 92.6% 73.8% 75.0%
(Non-Hispanic White or Caucasian) 4.2% 15.4% 57.9%
Black or African-American 2.7% 18.9% 16.0%
Hispanic or Latino (of any race) 94.7% 65.0% 22.5%
Asian 0.4% 1.5% 2.4%
Native American or Native Alaskan 0.1% 0.2% 0.4%
Pacific Islander or Native Hawaiian 0.0% 0.0% 0.1%
Two or more races (Multiracial) 1.6% 2.4% 2.5%
Some other race 2.6% 3.2% 3.6%

Hialeah is the tenth-largest city in the United States among cities with a population density of more than 10,000 people per square mile.

As of 2010, there were 74,067 households, with 3.9% being vacant. As of 2000, 36.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.4% were married couples living together, 17.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 18.7% were non-families. 14.7% of all households were made up of individuals, and 7.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.15 and the average family size was 3.39.

In 2015 through 2016 the population in Hialeah grew from 234,714 to 235,626, a 0.39% increase. The median household income grew from $29,249 to $29,817, a 1.94% increase.

In 2000, the age distribution of the population showed 23.0% under the age of 18, 8.2% from 18 to 24, 29.4% from 25 to 44, 22.9% from 45 to 64, and 16.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43.5 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.6 males.

In 2000, the median income for a household in the city was $29,492, and the median income for a family was $31,621. Males had a median income of $23,133 versus $17,886 for females. The per capita income for the city was $12,402. About 16.0% of families and 18.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.2% of those under age 18 and 22.4% of those age 65 or over.

As of 2010, Hialeah had the highest percentage of Cuban and Cuban American residents in the United States, with 73.37% of the populace.[16] It had the forty-third highest percentage of Colombian and Colombian American residents in the US, at 3.16% of the city's population,[17] and the eighty-fifth highest percentage of Dominican and Dominican American residents in the US, at 1.81% of its population.[18] It also had the thirty-eighth highest percentage of Hondurans and Honduran American in the US, at 1.15%,[19] while it had the eighth highest percentage of Nicaraguans and Nicaraguan American, at 4.07% of all residents.[20]

Hialeah ranks #2 (nearby Hialeah Gardens ranks as #1) in the list of cities in the United States where Spanish is most spoken. As of 2000, 92.14% of the population spoke Spanish at home, while those who spoke only English made up 7.37% of the population. All other languages spoken were below 1% of the population.[21]

Economy

Sears entrance to Westland Mall
Sears entrance to Westland Mall

The city of Hialeah is a significant commercial center in Miami-Dade County. The city is host to national retailers such as Starbucks, Target, Best Buy, Walmart, Lowe's, and The Home Depot, as well as homegrown businesses such as Navarro and Sedano's.[22]

Hialeah is also home to vibrant community of mom-and-pop stores.[23] These shops have successfully competed against national name brand retailers, outfitters, and franchises.[23] In order to remain competitive national businesses have altered their traditional business strategy to meet the demands of the local community. Publix supermarkets opened a Publix Sabor along one of the city's main streets which caters to Latin American and Hispanic clientele.[24][25] While most of the manufacturing and cloth industries that made Hialeah an industrial city in the 1970s–1980s have disappeared, new electronics and technology businesses have reinvigorated the local economy.[26]

Westland Mall contains over 100 stores and several restaurants. Macy's with a Starbucks in it, IHOP, and J. C. Penney are the main anchor stores located at the mall, while restaurants include Fuddruckers, IHOP, Los Ranchos Steakhouse, Chili's, Manchu Wok, Cuban Guys, Edy's.

Telemundo, the second largest Spanish-language TV network in the United States, was headquartered at 2340 West 8th Avenue in Hialeah until 2018.[27][28]

Recreation

In March 2009, it was announced that a $40–$90 million restoration project was set to begin within the year on the Hialeah Park Race Track.[29] On May 7, 2009 the Florida legislature agreed to a deal with the Seminole Tribe of Florida that allowed Hialeah Park to operate slot machines and run Quarter Horse races.[30] The historic racetrack reopened on November 28, 2009 but only for Quarter Horse races. The park installed slot machines in January 2010 as part of a deal to allow for two calendar seasons of racing. The races went on all the way until February 2, 2010.[31] Only a portion of the park has been restored, and an additional $30 million will be needed to complete this first phase of the project. The full transformation is expected to cost $1 billion since the plan includes a complete redevelopment of the surrounding area including the construction of an entertainment complex to include a hotel, restaurants, casinos, stores and a theater. In June 2010 concerns were raised over the preservation of Hialeah Park's historical status, as the planned development threatens to hurt Hialeah Park's status as a National Historic Landmark.

"Hialeah Park, Fla., the world's greatest race course, Miami Jockey Club"
"Hialeah Park, Fla., the world's greatest race course, Miami Jockey Club"

The City of Hialeah is home to three tennis centers, five public swimming pools and aquatic centers, and more than 14 public parks totaling more than 100 acres (0.40 km2) combined. Milander Park features a municipal auditorium and a 10,000 seat football stadium.[6][32]

Amelia Earhart Park also serves the Hialeah community.[33] Located just south of the Opa Locka Airport, the park consists of 515 acres, including a five-acre Bark Park for dogs. It offers a variety of amenities, programs and activities including mountain biking, soccer, Tom Sawyer's Play Island and Bill Graham Farm Village. It also houses the new Miami Watersports Complex, which offers cable and boat wakeboarding, waterskiing, wake surfing, kneeboarding and paddleboarding.

Government and infrastructure

The University of Florida College of Dentistry operates the Hialeah Dental Clinic. It opened in 1997 to serve Hispanic populations in South Florida.[34]

Politics

Hialeah is located within Florida's 25th Congressional District. It is currently represented in the House of Representatives by Mario Díaz-Balart, a Republican.[35] A 2005 study by the nonpartisan Bay Area Center for Voting Research (BACVR) ranked Hialeah, Florida as the fourth most conservative city in the United States.[36] The current mayor of Hialeah is Carlos Hernández.[37]

Due to the heavy presence of the Cuban American community Hialeah traditionally, as of 2020, leaned towards Republican politics.[38] In the 2016 United States presidential election in Florida each of the two major candidates received about half of the vote. For the 2020 United States presidential election in Florida about two thirds of residents of Hialeah voted for Trump.[39] Sabrina Rodriguez of Politico wrote "a vote for Trump has become about more than just him, or even the Republican Party. It’s about patriotism."[40]

List of mayors of Hialeah, Florida
Dates Mayor Notes
1925–1930 John Peter Grethen Died in office[41]
1930–1933 Robert W. Marshall Acting Mayor due to vacancy[42]
1933–1935 Grover Cleveland (Doc) Sparks Namesake of Sparks Park[43]
1935–1937 Dr. Leon H. O'Quinn [44][45]
1937–1943 Carl Ault 3 consecutive terms,[46] twice unopposed[47]
1943–1945 Henry Milander Namesake of Milander Park[48]
1945–1947 Carl Ault Returned for one term
1947–1975 Henry Milander Re-elected 8 times;[49] died in office[50][51]
1975–1981 Dale G. Bennett [52]
1981–1991 Raúl L. Martínez Convicted of extortion and racketeering[53]
1991–1993 Julio J. Martinez Acting mayor[54]
1993–2005 Raúl L. Martínez
2005–2011 Julio Robaina [55]
2011–2021 Carlos Hernández Acting Mayor after Robaina resigned;[56] later elected as Mayor
2021– Esteban Bovo [57]

Education

Public primary and secondary schools

Miami-Dade County Public Schools serves Hialeah.[58]

Two high schools serving the Hialeah community, Mater Academy Charter High School and Miami Lakes Tech, were named as "Silver" award winners in U.S. News & World Report's "Best High Schools 2008 Search".[59]

Institution Type Grades Enrollment Nickname/mascot Colors
Amelia Earhart Elementary School Elementary K–5 473 Airplanes    
Ben Sheppard Elementary School Magnet K–5 963 Silver Hawks    
[1]Bob Graham Education Center K–8 Center K–8 1696 Bobcats    
City of Hialeah Educational Academy Charter 9–12 450 Bulldogs    
Earnest R. Graham K–8 Academy K–8 Center K–8 1455
Flamingo Elementary School Elementary K–5 950
Henry H. Filer Middle School Middle 6–8 1093 Panthers      
Hialeah Elementary School Elementary K–5 647 Tigers  
Hialeah Middle School Middle 6–8 872 Broncos    
Hialeah High School Senior High 9–12 2874 Thoroughbreds    
Hialeah-Miami Lakes High School Senior High 9–12 1668 Trojans    
iPrep Academy @ Hialeah-Miami Lakes Magnet 9–12 100 Trojans    
James H. Bright/J.W. Johnson Elementary School Elementary K–5 690 Alligators    
John G. DuPuis Elementary School Elementary K–5 637 Dolphins    
José Martí MAST 6-12 Academy Magnet 6–12 568 Silver Knights      
M.A. Milam K-8 Center K–8 Center K–8 976 Colts    
Mae M. Walters Elementary School Elementary K–5 625 Eagles    
Meadowlane Elementary School Elementary K–5 985 Tigers    
North Hialeah Elementary School Elementary K–5 573 Eagles    
North Twin Lakes Elementary School Elementary K–5 554
Palm Lakes Elementary School Elementary K–5 747 Dolphins    
Palm Springs Elementary School Elementary K–5 701 Florida Panthers    
Palm Springs Middle School Middle 6–8 1233 Pacers      
South Hialeah Elementary School Elementary K–5 1107 Sharks    
Twin Lakes Elementary School Elementary K–5 565 Eagles    
Westland Hialeah High School Magnet 9–12 2137 Wildcats      
Youth Co-Op Preparatory Charter School Charter K–8 Tigers Navy Blue, Orange, White
Youth Co-Op Preparatory High School Charter 9–10 Titans Sky Blue, Orange, White

Private schools

Hialeah-Miami Lakes High
Hialeah-Miami Lakes High
José Martí MAST 6-12 Academy
José Martí MAST 6-12 Academy

Post-secondary

Public colleges

Private colleges and universities

Public library

Hialeah's public library was founded in 1924, one year prior to the incorporation of the city.[65] While over the years the county-wide Miami-Dade Public Library System has taken over the libraries of most of the cities in the county, Hialeah public libraries function independently from the county-wide system.[66][67] The first branch was a donation by the Hialeah Women's Club. It was actually located in the house of one of the Hialeah Women's Club's home. The home of Ms. J Sommers Garwood. The club was founded by Ms. Lua Adams Curtiss, who was the late mother of the famous aviator, Glen Curtiss.[68] The club asked for donations to get the library started and was fortunate enough to receive enough to get the system started. The latest branch, John F. Kennedy Library is now the main library for Hialeah and is easily recognizable for its grand murals.[69] In 2017, the branch set out to renovate the entire library and they added new furniture, the art murals, polished terrazzo floors, and new sculptures.[70] The library hosts a print collection, digital resources, and a Hialeah History Collection which collects, preserves and provides access to information about the City of Hialeah's history.[71]

Transportation

A projection from 1922 that reads "A projection of the town of Hialeah at the Curtiss-Bright Ranch: Gateway to the Everglades, the first town west of Miami, Florida"
A projection from 1922 that reads "A projection of the town of Hialeah at the Curtiss-Bright Ranch: Gateway to the Everglades, the first town west of Miami, Florida"
Intersection of Palm Avenue and County Road (now Okeechobee Road / U.S. 27) in 1921
Intersection of Palm Avenue and County Road (now Okeechobee Road / U.S. 27) in 1921
Tri-Rail and Metrorail Transfer Station
Tri-Rail and Metrorail Transfer Station

Further information: Transportation in South Florida

In 2013, Hialeah was named a top five city with the worst drivers by Slate and Allstate.[72][73]

Rail

Hialeah is served by Miami-Dade Transit along major thoroughfares by Metrobus, and by the Miami Metrorail, Tri-Rail, and Amtrak at:

Metrorail:

Tri-Rail:

Amtrak:

Road

"All Ways Lead to Hialeah" was one of the city's first slogans. At the time, Glenn Curtiss and James Bright could not have imagined the important link in the transportation chain provided by Hialeah's location. Sitting in the heart of northwest Dade, Hialeah has access to several major thoroughfares, linked by:

Notable people

Alex Ávila
Alex Ávila

See also

References

  1. ^ "Biography of the Mayor". Hialeahfl.gov. Archived from the original on March 10, 2012. Retrieved August 4, 2012.
  2. ^ "2020 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved October 31, 2021.
  3. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  4. ^ "U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts: Miami-Dade County, Florida; Broward County, Florida; Palm Beach County, Florida". www.census.gov.
  5. ^ "P2: HISPANIC OR LATINO, AND NOT HISPANIC OR LATINO BY RACE". 2020 Census. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 10 October 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  6. ^ a b c d e f "History of Hialeah". City of Hialeah, Florida. Archived from the original on 2014-07-13. Retrieved August 5, 2012.
  7. ^ a b c d "Hialeah History at Hello Hialeah". Hellohialeah.com. Archived from the original on July 22, 2012. Retrieved August 5, 2012.
  8. ^ Federal Writers’ Project 1941, p. 180.
  9. ^ a b "Hialeah Historian". Princeton.edu. March 27, 2002. Retrieved August 5, 2012.
  10. ^ Zumbrun, Joshua. "In Pictures: America's 10 Most Boring Cities". Forbes.
  11. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
  12. ^ "NOWData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved May 9, 2021.
  13. ^ "Summary of Monthly Normals 1991-2020". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved May 9, 2021.
  14. ^ "Decennial Census of Population and Housing by Decades". US Census Bureau.
  15. ^ "Explore Census Data". data.census.gov. Retrieved 2022-02-08.
  16. ^ "Ancestry Map of Cuban Communities". Epodunk.com. Retrieved October 30, 2007.
  17. ^ "Ancestry Map of Colombian Communities". Epodunk.com. Archived from the original on October 11, 2007. Retrieved October 30, 2007.
  18. ^ "Ancestry Map of Dominican Communities". Epodunk.com. Archived from the original on October 17, 2010. Retrieved October 30, 2007.
  19. ^ "Ancestry Map of Honduran Communities". Epodunk.com. Archived from the original on October 17, 2010. Retrieved October 30, 2007.
  20. ^ "Ancestry Map of Nicaraguan Communities". Epodunk.com. Archived from the original on October 17, 2010. Retrieved October 30, 2007.
  21. ^ "MLA Data Center Results of Hialeah, Fla". Modern Language Association. Retrieved October 30, 2007.
  22. ^ www.hialeahchamber.org https://web.archive.org/web/20110507035614/http://www.hialeahchamber.org/English/Default.aspx. Archived from the original on May 7, 2011. ((cite web)): Missing or empty |title= (help)
  23. ^ a b Cusack, Liam (December 2012). "The South Florida Cooperator". Retrieved May 4, 2015.
  24. ^ Keller, Amy (October 1, 2007). "Publix's New Flavor". Florida Trend. Retrieved May 4, 2015.
  25. ^ Griffin, Justine (July 10, 2012). "First Publix Sabor in Palm Beach County opens in Lake Worth". Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved May 4, 2015.
  26. ^ "Energy Saving Device, "The Guardian," Provides Green Solution To Energy Bills". Prweb.com. Retrieved August 4, 2012.
  27. ^ "Legal corporate". Telemundo. Archived from the original on 2009-03-01. Retrieved February 3, 2009.
  28. ^ "Hispanic Viewers Hooked on the New American Idol: Barack Obama". HispanicBusiness.com. January 29, 2009. Archived from the original on March 5, 2009. Retrieved August 4, 2012.
  29. ^ Freer, Jim (April 16, 2009). "Owner: Legislation Key to 'New' Hialeah". BloodHorse.com. Retrieved August 28, 2013.
  30. ^ "Hialeah Park and Race Track". The Miami Urbex. Blogspot. June 8, 2013. Retrieved August 28, 2013.
  31. ^ "The rebirth of Hialeah Park: Racing returns Nov. 28". Sun Sentinel. All Voices. September 17, 2009. Archived from the original on December 3, 2013. Retrieved August 28, 2013.
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