The Grand Canyon State;[1]
The Copper State;[2]
The Valentine State[3]
Ditat Deus ('God enriches')
Anthem: "The Arizona March Song" and "Arizona"
Map of the United States with Arizona highlighted
Map of the United States with Arizona highlighted
CountryUnited States
Before statehoodArizona Territory
Admitted to the UnionFebruary 14, 1912; 112 years ago (1912-02-14) (48th)
(and largest city)
Largest county or equivalentMaricopa
Largest metro and urban areasPhoenix
 • GovernorKatie Hobbs (D)
 • Secretary of StateAdrian Fontes (D)
LegislatureArizona Legislature
 • Upper houseSenate
 • Lower houseHouse of Representatives
JudiciaryArizona Supreme Court
U.S. senatorsKyrsten Sinema (I)
Mark Kelly (D)
U.S. House delegation6 Republicans
3 Democrats (list)
 • Total113,998[4] sq mi (295,254 km2)
 • Rank6th
 • Length400 mi (645 km)
 • Width310 mi (500 km)
4,100 ft (1,250 m)
Highest elevation12,637 ft (3,852 m)
Lowest elevation72 ft (22 m)
 • Total7,151,502[7]
 • Rank14th
 • Density63/sq mi (24/km2)
  • Rank33rd
 • Median household income
 • Income rank
 • Official languageEnglish
 • Spoken languageAs of 2010
  • English 74.1%
  • Spanish 19.5%
  • Navajo 1.9%
  • Other 4.5%
Time zones
Most of stateUTC−07:00 (Mountain)
Navajo NationUTC−07:00 (Mountain)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−06:00 (MDT)
USPS abbreviation
ISO 3166 codeUS-AZ
Traditional abbreviationAriz.
Latitude31°20′ N to 37° N
Longitude109°03′ W to 114°49′ W
State symbols of Arizona
List of state symbols
SloganThe Grand Canyon State
Living insignia
AmphibianArizona tree frog
BirdCactus wren
ButterflyTwo-tailed swallowtail
FishApache trout
FlowerSaguaro cactus blossom
ReptileArizona ridge-nosed rattlesnake
TreePalo verde
Inanimate insignia
Color(s)Blue, old gold
FirearmColt Single Action Army revolver
FossilPetrified wood
RockPetrified wood
ShipUSS Arizona
State route marker
Route marker
State quarter
Arizona quarter dollar coin
Released in 2008
Lists of United States state symbols

Arizona (/ˌærɪˈznə/ ARR-ih-ZOH-nə; Navajo: Hoozdo Hahoodzo [hoː˥z̥to˩ ha˩hoː˩tso˩];[10] O'odham: Alĭ ṣonak [ˈaɭi̥ ˈʂɔnak])[11] is a landlocked state in the Southwestern region of the United States. Arizona is part of the Four Corners region with Utah to the north, Colorado to the northeast, and New Mexico to the east; its other neighboring states are Nevada to the northwest, California to the west and the Mexican states of Sonora and Baja California to the south and southwest. It is the 6th-largest and the 14th-most-populous of the 50 states. Its capital and largest city is Phoenix, which is the most populous state capital in the United States.

Arizona is the 48th state and last of the contiguous states to be admitted to the Union, achieving statehood on February 14, 1912. Historically part of the territory of Alta California and Nuevo México in New Spain, it became part of independent Mexico in 1821. After being defeated in the Mexican–American War, Mexico ceded much of this territory to the United States in 1848, where the area became part of the territory of New Mexico. The southernmost portion of the state was acquired in 1853 through the Gadsden Purchase.

Southern Arizona is known for its desert climate, with very hot summers and mild winters. Northern Arizona features forests of pine, Douglas fir, and spruce trees; the Colorado Plateau; mountain ranges (such as the San Francisco Mountains); as well as large, deep canyons, with much more moderate summer temperatures and significant winter snowfalls. There are ski resorts in the areas of Flagstaff, Sunrise, and Tucson. In addition to the internationally known Grand Canyon National Park, which is one of the world's seven natural wonders, there are several national forests, national parks, and national monuments.

Arizona is home to a diverse population. About one-quarter of the state[12][13] is made up of Indian reservations that serve as the home of 27 federally recognized Native American tribes, including the Navajo Nation, the largest in the state and the country, with more than 300,000 citizens. Since the 1980s, the proportion of Hispanics has grown significantly owing to migration from Mexico and Central America. A substantial portion of the population are followers of the Roman Catholic Church and the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Arizona's population and economy have grown dramatically since the 1950s because of inward migration, and the state is now a major hub of the Sun Belt. Cities such as Phoenix and Tucson have developed large, sprawling suburban areas. Many large companies, such as PetSmart and Circle K,[14] have headquarters in the state, and Arizona is home to major universities, including the University of Arizona, Arizona State University, and Northern Arizona University. The state is known for a history of conservative politicians such as Barry Goldwater and John McCain, though it has become a swing state since the 1990s.


The state's name appears to originate from an earlier Spanish name, Arizonac, derived from the O'odham name alĭ ṣonak, meaning 'small spring'. Initially this term was applied by Spanish colonists only to an area near the silver mining camp of Planchas de Plata, Sonora.[15][16][17][18] To the European settlers, the O'odham pronunciation sounded like Arissona.[19] The area is still known as alĭ ṣonak in the O'odham language.[11]

Another possible origin is the Basque phrase haritz ona 'the good oak', as there were numerous Basque sheepherders in the area.[20][21][22] A native-born Mexican of Basque ancestry established the ranchería (small rural settlement) of Arizona between 1734 and 1736 in the current Mexican state of Sonora. It became notable after a significant discovery of silver there around 1737.[23]

The misconception that the state's name purportedly originated from the Spanish term Árida Zona 'Arid Zone' is considered a case of folk etymology.[19]


Main article: History of Arizona

For a chronological guide, see Timeline of Arizona.

For thousands of years before the modern era, Arizona was home to many ancient Native American civilizations. Hohokam, Mogollon, and Ancestral Puebloan cultures were among those that flourished throughout the state. Many of their pueblos, cliffside dwellings, rock paintings and other prehistoric treasures have survived and attract thousands of tourists each year. [citation needed]

La conquista del Colorado, by Augusto Ferrer-Dalmau, depicts Francisco Vázquez de Coronado's 1540–1542 expedition. García López de Cárdenas can be seen overlooking the Grand Canyon.

In 1539, Marcos de Niza, a Spanish Franciscan, became the first European to contact Native Americans. He explored parts of the present state and made contact with native inhabitants, probably the Sobaipuri. The expedition of Spanish explorer Coronado entered the area in 1540–1542 during its search for Cíbola.[24] Few Spanish settlers migrated to Arizona. One of the first settlers in Arizona was José Romo de Vivar.[25]

Father Kino was the next European in the region. A member of the Society of Jesus ("Jesuits"), he led the development of a chain of missions in the region. He converted many of the Indians to Christianity in the Pimería Alta (now southern Arizona and northern Sonora) in the 1690s and early 18th century. Spain founded presidios ("fortified towns") at Tubac in 1752 and Tucson in 1775.[26]

When Mexico achieved its independence from the Kingdom of Spain and its Spanish Empire in 1821, what is now Arizona became part of its Territory of Nueva California, ("New California"), also known as Alta California ("Upper California").[27] Descendants of ethnic Spanish and mestizo settlers from the colonial years still lived in the area at the time of the arrival of later European-American migrants from the United States. [citation needed]

Mexico in 1824. Alta California is the northwesternmost state.

During the Mexican–American War (1847–1848), the U.S. Army occupied the national capital of Mexico City and pursued its claim to much of northern Mexico, including what later became Arizona Territory in 1863 and later the State of Arizona in 1912.[28] The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848) specified that, in addition to language and cultural rights of the existing inhabitants of former Mexican citizens being considered as inviolable, the sum of $15 million in compensation (equivalent to $528,230,769.23 in 2023) be paid to the Republic of Mexico.[29] In 1853, the U.S. acquired the land south below the Gila River from Mexico in the Gadsden Purchase along the southern border area as encompassing the best future southern route for a transcontinental railway.[30]

What is now the state of Arizona was administered by the United States government as part of the Territory of New Mexico from 1850 until the southern part of that region seceded from the Union to form the Territory of Arizona.[31] This newly established territory was formally organized by the federal government of the Confederate States on Saturday, January 18, 1862, when President Jefferson Davis approved and signed An Act to Organize the Territory of Arizona,[32] marking the first official use of the name "Territory of Arizona". The Southern territory supplied the Confederate government with men, horses, and equipment. Formed in 1862, Arizona scout companies served with the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. Arizona has the westernmost military engagement on record during the Civil War with the Battle of Picacho Pass (1862).[33]

Geronimo (far right) and his Apache warriors fought against both Mexican and American settlers.

The Federal government declared a new U.S. Arizona Territory, consisting of the western half of earlier New Mexico Territory, in Washington, D.C., on February 24, 1863.[34] These new boundaries would later form the basis of the state. The first territorial capital, Prescott, was founded in 1864 following a gold rush to central Arizona.[35] The capital was later moved to Tucson, back to Prescott, and then to its final location in Phoenix in a series of controversial moves as different regions of the territory gained and lost political influence with the growth and development of the territory.[36]

Although names including "Gadsonia", "Pimeria", "Montezuma" and "Arizuma" had been considered for the territory,[37] when 16th President Abraham Lincoln signed the final bill, it read "Arizona", and that name was adopted. (Montezuma was not derived from the Aztec emperor, but was the sacred name of a divine hero to the Pima people of the Gila River Valley. It was probably considered – and rejected – for its sentimental value before Congress settled on the name "Arizona".) [citation needed]

Brigham Young, leader of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in Salt Lake City in Utah, sent Mormons to Arizona in the mid- to late 19th century. They founded Mesa, Snowflake, Heber, Safford, and other towns. They also settled in the Phoenix Valley (or "Valley of the Sun"), Tempe, Prescott, and other areas. The Mormons settled what became northern Arizona and northern New Mexico. At the time these areas were in a part of the former New Mexico Territory.

During the nineteenth century, a series of gold and silver rushes occurred in the territory, the best known being the 1870s stampede to the silver bonanzas of Tombstone, Arizona, in southeast Arizona, also known for its legendary outlaws and lawmen.[38] By the late 1880s, copper production eclipsed the precious metals with the rise of copper camps like Bisbee, Arizona, and Jerome, Arizona.[39][40] The boom and bust economy of mining also left hundreds of ghost towns across the territory, but copper mining continued to prosper with the territory producing more copper than any other state by 1907, which earned Arizona the nickname "the Copper State" at the time of statehood.[41][42] During the first years of statehood the industry experienced growing pains and labor disputes with the Bisbee Deportation of 1917 the result of a copper miners' strike.[43]

Children of Depression-era migrant workers, Pinal County, 1937

20th century to present

During the Mexican Revolution from 1910 to 1920, several battles were fought in the Mexican towns just across the border from Arizona settlements. Throughout the revolution, many Arizonans enlisted in one of the several armies fighting in Mexico. Only two significant engagements took place on U.S. soil between U.S. and Mexican forces: Pancho Villa's 1916 Columbus Raid in New Mexico and the Battle of Ambos Nogales in 1918 in Arizona.

After Mexican federal troops fired on U.S. soldiers, the American garrison launched an assault into Nogales, Mexico. The Mexicans eventually surrendered after both sides sustained heavy casualties. A few months earlier, just west of Nogales, an Indian War battle had occurred, considered the last engagement in the American Indian Wars, which lasted from 1775 to 1918. U.S. soldiers stationed on the border confronted Yaqui Indians who were using Arizona as a base to raid the nearby Mexican settlements, as part of their wars against Mexico. [citation needed]

Arizona became a U.S. state on February 14, 1912, coinciding with Valentine's Day. Arizona was the 48th state admitted to the U.S. and the last of the contiguous states to be admitted.[44]

Eleanor Roosevelt at the Gila River relocation center, April 23, 1943

Cotton farming and copper mining, two of Arizona's most important statewide industries, suffered heavily during the Great Depression.[45] But during the 1920s and even the 1930s, tourism began to develop as the important Arizonan industry it is today. Dude ranches, such as the K L Bar and Remuda in Wickenburg, along with the Flying V and Tanque Verde in Tucson, gave tourists the chance to take part in the flavor and activities of the "Old West". Several upscale hotels and resorts opened during this period, some of which are still top tourist draws. They include the Arizona Biltmore Hotel in central Phoenix (opened 1929) and the Wigwam Resort on the west side of the Phoenix area (opened 1936).[46][47]

Arizona was the site of German prisoner of war camps during World War II and Japanese American internment camps.[48] Because of wartime fears of a Japanese invasion of the U.S. West Coast (which in fact materialized in the Aleutian Islands Campaign in June 1942), from 1942 to 1945, persons of Japanese descent were forced to reside in internment camps built in the interior of the country. Many lost their homes and businesses. The camps were abolished after World War II.[49]

The Phoenix-area German P.O.W. site was purchased after the war by the Maytag family (of major home appliance fame). It was developed as the site of the Phoenix Zoo. A Japanese-American internment camp was on Mount Lemmon, just outside the state's southeastern city of Tucson. Another POW camp was near the Gila River in eastern Yuma County. Arizona was also home to the Phoenix Indian School, one of several federal Indian boarding schools designed to assimilate Native American children into mainstream European-American culture. Children were often enrolled in these schools against the wishes of their parents and families. Attempts to suppress native identities included forcing the children to cut their hair, to take and use English names, to speak only English, and to practice Christianity rather than their native religions.[50]

Numerous Native Americans from Arizona fought for the United States during World War II. Their experiences resulted in a rising activism in the postwar years to achieve better treatment and civil rights after their return to the state. After Maricopa County did not allow them to register to vote, in 1948 veteran Frank Harrison and Harry Austin, of the Mojave-Apache Tribe at Fort McDowell Indian Reservation, brought a legal suit, Harrison and Austin v. Laveen, to challenge this exclusion. The Arizona Supreme Court ruled in their favor.[51]

Arizona's population grew tremendously with residential and business development after World War II, aided by the widespread use of air conditioning, which made the intensely hot summers more comfortable. According to the Arizona Blue Book (published by the Arizona Secretary of State's office each year), the state population in 1910 was 294,353. By 1970, it was 1,752,122. The percentage growth each decade averaged about 20% in the earlier decades, and about 60% each decade thereafter. [citation needed]

In the 1960s, retirement communities were developed. These age-restricted subdivisions catered exclusively to the needs of senior citizens and attracted many retirees who wanted to escape the harsh winters of the Midwest and the Northeast. Sun City, established by developer Del Webb and opened in 1960, was one of the first such communities. Green Valley, south of Tucson, was another such community, designed as a retirement subdivision for Arizona's teachers. Many senior citizens from across the United States and Canada come to Arizona each winter and stay only during the winter months; they are referred to as snowbirds. [citation needed]

In March 2000, Arizona was the site of the first legally binding election ever held over the internet to nominate a candidate for public office.[52] In the 2000 Arizona Democratic Primary, under worldwide attention, Al Gore defeated Bill Bradley. Voter turnout in this state primary increased more than 500% over the 1996 primary.

In the 21st century, Arizona has frequently garnered national attention for its efforts to quell illegal immigration into the state. In 2004, voters passed Proposition 200, requiring proof of citizenship to register to vote. The Supreme Court of the United States struck this restriction down in 2013.[53] In 2010, Arizona enacted SB 1070 which required all immigrants to carry immigration papers at all times, but the Supreme Court also invalidated parts of this law in Arizona v. United States in 2012.[54]

On January 8, 2011, a gunman shot congresswoman Gabby Giffords and 18 others at a gathering in Tucson. Giffords was critically wounded. The incident sparked national attention regarding incendiary political rhetoric.[55]

Three ships named USS Arizona have been christened in honor of the state, although only USS Arizona (BB-39) was so named after statehood was achieved.


Main article: Geography of Arizona

Köppen climate types of Arizona
The Grand Canyon

Arizona is in the Southwestern United States as one of the Four Corners states. Arizona is the sixth largest state by area, ranked after New Mexico and before Nevada. Of the state's 113,998 square miles (295,000 km2), approximately 15% is privately owned. The remaining area is public forest and parkland, state trust land and Native American reservations. There are 24 National Park Service maintained sites in Arizona, including the three national parks of Grand Canyon National Park, Saguaro National Park, and the Petrified Forest National Park.[56]

Arizona is well known for its desert Basin and Range region in the state's southern portions, which is rich in a landscape of xerophyte plants such as the cactus. This region's topography was shaped by prehistoric volcanism, followed by the cooling-off and related subsidence. Its climate has exceptionally hot summers and mild winters. The state is less well known for its pine-covered north-central portion of the high country of the Colorado Plateau (see Arizona Mountains forests).

Like other states of the Southwest United States, Arizona is marked by high mountains, the Colorado plateau, and mesas. Despite the state's aridity, 27% of Arizona is forest,[57] a percentage comparable to modern-day Romania or Greece.[58] The world's largest stand of ponderosa pine trees is in Arizona.[59]

The Mogollon Rim (/ ˌmoʊ gəˈyoʊn /), a 1,998-foot (609 m) escarpment, cuts across the state's central section and marks the southwestern edge of the Colorado Plateau. In 2002, this was an area of the Rodeo–Chediski Fire, the worst fire in state history until 2011.

Located in northern Arizona, the Grand Canyon is a colorful, deep, steep-sided gorge, carved by the Colorado River. The canyon is one of the Seven Natural Wonders of the World and is largely contained in the Grand Canyon National Park – one of the first national parks in the United States. President Theodore Roosevelt was a major proponent of designating the Grand Canyon area as a National Park, often visiting to hunt mountain lion and enjoy the scenery. The canyon was created by the Colorado River cutting a channel over millions of years, and is about 277 miles (446 km) long, ranges in width from 4 to 18 miles (6 to 29 km) and attains a depth of more than 1 mile (1.6 km). Nearly two billion years of the Earth's history have been exposed as the Colorado River and its tributaries cut through layer after layer of sediment as the Colorado Plateau uplifted.

Arizona is home to one of the most well-preserved meteorite impact sites in the world. Created around 50,000 years ago, the Barringer Meteorite Crater (better known simply as "Meteor Crater") is a gigantic hole in the middle of the high plains of the Colorado Plateau, about 25 miles (40 km) west of Winslow.[60] A rim of smashed and jumbled boulders, some of them the size of small houses, rises 150 feet (46 m) above the level of the surrounding plain. The crater itself is nearly a mile (1.6 kilometers) wide and 570 feet (170 m) deep.

Arizona is one of two U.S. states, along with Hawaii, that does not observe Daylight Saving Time, though the large Navajo Nation in the state's northeastern region does.

Adjacent states


Further information: Climate change in Arizona

Due to its large area and variations in elevation, the state has a wide variety of localized climate conditions. In the lower elevations the climate is primarily desert, with mild winters and extremely hot summers. Typically, from late fall to early spring, the weather is mild, averaging a minimum of 60 °F (16 °C). November through February are the coldest months, with temperatures typically ranging from 40 to 75 °F (4 to 24 °C), with occasional frosts.[61]

About midway through February, the temperatures start to rise, with warm days, and cool, breezy nights. The summer months of June through September bring a dry heat from 90 to 120 °F (32 to 49 °C), with occasional high temperatures exceeding 125 °F (52 °C) having been observed in the desert area.[61] Arizona's all-time record high is 128 °F (53 °C) recorded at Lake Havasu City on June 29, 1994, and July 5, 2007; the all-time record low of −40 °F (−40 °C) was recorded at Hawley Lake on January 7, 1971.[62]

Due to the primarily dry climate, large diurnal temperature variations occur in less-developed areas of the desert above 2,500 ft (760 m). The swings can be as large as 83 °F (46 °C) in the summer months. In the state's urban centers, the effects of local warming result in much higher measured night-time lows than in the recent past.

Arizona has an average annual rainfall of 12.7 in (323 mm),[63] which comes during two rainy seasons, with cold fronts coming from the Pacific Ocean during the winter and a monsoon in the summer.[64] The monsoon season occurs toward the end of summer. In July or August, the dewpoint rises dramatically for a brief period. During this time, the air contains large amounts of water vapor. Dewpoints as high as 81 °F (27 °C)[65] have been recorded during the Phoenix monsoon season. This hot moisture brings lightning, thunderstorms, wind, and torrential, if usually brief, downpours. These downpours often cause flash floods, which can turn deadly. In an attempt to deter drivers from crossing flooding streams, the Arizona Legislature enacted the Stupid Motorist Law. It is rare for tornadoes or hurricanes to occur in Arizona.

Arizona's northern third is a plateau at significantly higher altitudes than the lower desert, and has an appreciably cooler climate, with cold winters and mild summers, though the climate remains semiarid to arid. Extremely cold temperatures are not unknown; cold air systems from the northern states and Canada occasionally push into the state, bringing temperatures below 0 °F (−18 °C) to the state's northern parts.[66]

Indicative of the variation in climate, Arizona is the state which has both the metropolitan area with the most days over 100 °F (38 °C) (Phoenix), and the metropolitan area in the lower 48 states with the most days with a low temperature below freezing (Flagstaff).[67]

Average daily maximum and minimum temperatures for selected cities in Arizona[68]
Location July (°F) July (°C) December (°F) December (°C)
Phoenix 106/83 41/28 66/45 19/7
Tucson 100/74 38/23 65/39 18/4
Yuma 107/82 42/28 68/46 20/8
Flagstaff 81/51 27/11 42/17 6/−8
Prescott 89/60 32/16 51/23 11/−5
Kingman 98/66 37/19 56/32 13/0

Cities and towns

See also: List of places in Arizona, List of cities and towns in Arizona, and List of Arizona counties

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View of suburban development in Scottsdale, 2006

Phoenix, in Maricopa County, is Arizona's capital and largest city. Other prominent cities in the Phoenix metro area include Mesa (Arizona's third largest city), Chandler (Arizona's fourth largest city), Glendale, Peoria, Buckeye, Sun City, Sun City West, Fountain Hills, Surprise, Gilbert, El Mirage, Avondale, Tempe, Tolleson and Scottsdale, with a total metropolitan population of just over 4.7 million.[69] The average high temperature in July, 106 °F (41 °C), is one of the highest of any metropolitan area in the United States, offset by an average January high temperature of 67 °F (19 °C), the basis of its winter appeal.

Tucson, with a metro population of just over one million, is the state's second-largest city. Located in Pima County, approximately 110 miles (180 km) southeast of Phoenix, it was incorporated in 1877, making it the oldest incorporated city in Arizona. It is home to the University of Arizona. Major incorporated suburbs of Tucson include Oro Valley and Marana northwest of the city, Sahuarita south of the city, and South Tucson in an enclave south of downtown. It has an average July temperature of 100 °F (38 °C) and winter temperatures averaging 65 °F (18 °C). Saguaro National Park, just west of the city in the Tucson Mountains, is the site of the world's largest collection of Saguaro cacti.

The Prescott metropolitan area includes the cities of Prescott, Cottonwood, Camp Verde and many other towns in the 8,123 square miles (21,000 km2) of Yavapai County area. With 212,635 residents, this cluster of towns is the state's third largest metropolitan area. The city of Prescott (population 41,528) lies approximately 100 miles (160 km) northwest of the Phoenix metropolitan area. Situated in pine tree forests at an elevation of about 5,500 feet (1,700 m), Prescott enjoys a much cooler climate than Phoenix, with average summer highs around 88 °F (31 °C) and winter temperatures averaging 50 °F (10 °C).

Yuma is the center of the fourth-largest metropolitan area in Arizona. Located in Yuma County, it is near the borders of California and Mexico. It is one of the hottest cities in the United States, with an average July high of 107 °F (42 °C). For comparison, the same month's average in Death Valley is 115 °F (46 °C). The city features sunny days about 90% of the year. The Yuma Metropolitan Statistical Area has a population of 160,000. Yuma attracts many winter visitors from all over the United States.

Flagstaff, in Coconino County, is the largest city in northern Arizona, and is at an elevation of nearly 7,000 feet (2,100 m). With its large Ponderosa pine forests, snowy winter weather and picturesque mountains, it is a stark contrast to the desert regions typically associated with Arizona. It is sited at the base of the San Francisco Peaks, the highest mountain range in the state of Arizona, which contains Humphreys Peak, the highest point in Arizona at 12,633 feet (3,851 m). Flagstaff has a strong tourism sector, due to its proximity to numerous tourist attractions including: Grand Canyon National Park, Sedona, and Oak Creek Canyon. Historic U.S. Route 66 is the main east–west street in the town. The Flagstaff metropolitan area is home to 134,421 residents and the main campus of Northern Arizona University.

Lake Havasu City, in Mohave County, known as "Arizona's playground", was developed on the Colorado River and is named after Lake Havasu. Lake Havasu City has a population of about 57,000 people. It is famous for huge spring break parties, sunsets and the London Bridge, relocated from London, England. Lake Havasu City was founded by real estate developer Robert P. McCulloch in 1963.[70] It has two colleges, Mohave Community College and ASU Colleges in Lake Havasu City.[71]

Largest cities or towns in Arizona
Rank Name County Pop. Rank Name County Pop.
1 Phoenix Maricopa 1,624,569 11 Goodyear Maricopa 101,733 Mesa
2 Tucson Pima 543,242 12 Buckeye Maricopa 101,315
3 Mesa Maricopa 509,475 13 Yuma Yuma 97,093
4 Chandler Maricopa 279,458 14 Avondale Maricopa 90,564
5 Gilbert Maricopa 273,136 15 Flagstaff Coconino 76,989
6 Glendale Maricopa 249,630 16 Queen Creek Maricopa / Pinal 66,346
7 Scottsdale Maricopa 242,753 17 Maricopa Pinal 62,720
8 Peoria Maricopa 194,917 18 Lake Havasu City Mohave 58,284
9 Tempe Maricopa 184,118 19 Casa Grande Pinal 57,699
10 Surprise Maricopa 149,191 20 Marana Pima 54,895


Main article: Demographics of Arizona

Historical population
2023 (est.)7,431,3443.9%
Sources: 1910–2020[73]
Note that early censuses
may not include
Native Americans in Arizona


The United States Census Bureau records Arizona's population as 7,151,502 in the 2020 census,[7] a 12% increase since the 2010 United States census.[73]

Arizona remained sparsely settled for most of the 19th century.[75] The 1860 census reported the population of "Arizona County" to be 6,482, of whom 4,040 were listed as "Indians", 21 as "free colored", and 2,421 as "white".[76][77] Arizona's continued population growth has put an enormous stress on the state's water supply.[78] As of 2011, 61% of Arizona's children under age one belonged to racial groups of color.[79]

The population of metropolitan Phoenix increased by 45% from 1991 through 2001, helping to make Arizona the second fastest-growing state in the U.S. in the 1990s (the fastest was Nevada).[80]

According to the 2010 United States census, Arizona had a population of 6,392,017. In 2010, illegal immigrants constituted an estimated 8% of the population. This was the second highest percentage of any state in the U.S.[81][b]

Metropolitan Phoenix (4.7 million) and Tucson (1.0 million) are home to about five-sixths of Arizona's people (as of the 2010 census). Metro Phoenix alone accounts for two-thirds of the state's population.

According to HUD's 2022 Annual Homeless Assessment Report, there were an estimated 13,553 homeless people living in Arizona.[82][83]

As of 2018, the top countries of origin for Arizona's immigrant population were Mexico, Canada, India, the Philippines and China.[84]

Race and ethnicity

See also: Hispanics and Latinos in Arizona and Indigenous peoples of Arizona

Ethnic composition as of the 2020 census
Race and ethnicity[85] Alone Total
White (non-Hispanic) 53.4% 53.4
56.8% 56.8
Hispanic or Latino[c] 30.7% 30.7
African American (non-Hispanic) 4.4% 4.4
5.5% 5.5
Native American (non-Hispanic) 3.7% 3.7
4.9% 4.9
Asian 3.5% 3.5
4.5% 4.5
Pacific Islander 0.2% 0.2
0.4% 0.4
Other 0.4% 0.4
1.2% 1.2
Historical racial demographics
Racial composition 1970[86] 1980[87] 1990[87] 2000[87] 2010[88] 2020[89]
White (non-Hispanic) 73.3% 74.5% 71.7% 63.8% 57.8% 53.4%
Native (NH) 5.4% 5.4% 5.2% 4.6% 4% 3.7%
Black (NH) 3% 2.7% 2.9% 2.9% 4.1% 4.4%
Asian (NH 0.5% 0.8% 1.4% 1.7% 2.8% 3.6%
Native Hawaiian and
other Pacific Islander
0.1% 0.2% 0.2%
Other race (NH) 0.5% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.4%
Two or more races (NH) 1.5% 3.4% 3.7%
Hispanic or Latino 17.3% 16.2% 18.8% 25.3% 29.6% 30.7%

Arizona's largest ancestry groups, as of 2022, were:[90][91][92][93]

  1. Mexican (27.7%)
  2. German (12%)
  3. English (9.8%)
  4. Irish (8.5%)
  5. African (6.4%)
  6. Navajo (2.2%)


Top 10 non-English languages spoken in Arizona
Language Percentage of population
(as of 2010)[94]
Spanish 21%
Navajo 2%
German <1%
Chinese (including Mandarin) <1%
Tagalog <1%
Vietnamese <1%
Other North American indigenous languages (especially indigenous languages of Arizona) <1%
French <1%
Arabic <1%
Apache <1%
Korean <1%
A Navajo man on horseback in Monument Valley

As of 2010, 73% (4,215,749) of Arizona residents age five and older spoke only English at home, while 21% (1,202,638) spoke Spanish, 2% (85,602) Navajo, <1% (22,592) German, <1% (22,426) Chinese (which includes Mandarin), <1% (19,015) Tagalog, <1% (17,603) Vietnamese, <1% (15,707) Other North American Indigenous Languages (especially indigenous languages of Arizona), and French was spoken as a main language by <1% (15,062) of the population over the age of five. In total, 27% (1,567,548) of Arizona's population age five and older spoke a mother language other than English.[94]

Arizona is home to the largest number of speakers of Native American languages in the 48 contiguous states, as more than 85,000 individuals reported speaking Navajo,[95] and 10,403 people reported Apache, as a language spoken at home in 2005.[95] Arizona's Apache County has the highest concentration of speakers of Native American Indian languages in the United States.[96]


The Spanish mission of San Xavier del Bac, founded in 1700

Religious self-identification, per Public Religion Research Institute's 2022 American Values Survey[97]

  Protestantism (32%)
  Catholicism (24%)
  Mormonism (6%)
  Unaffiliated (31%)
  Judaism (2%)
  New Age (1%)
  Other (3%)

The 2010 U.S. Religion Census: Religious Congregations & Membership Study by ARDA reported that the three largest denominational groups in Arizona were the Catholic Church, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints and non-denominational Evangelical Protestants. The Catholic Church had the highest number of adherents in Arizona (at 930,001), followed by the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints with 392,918 members reported and then non-denominational Evangelical Protestant churches, reporting 281,105 adherents. The religious body with the largest number of congregations is The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (with 811 congregations) followed by the Southern Baptist Convention (with 323 congregations).[98] This census accounted for about 2.4 million of Arizona's 6.4 million residents in 2010.

According to the study, the fifteen largest denominations by number of adherents in 2010 and 2000 were:[99][100]

Religion 2010 population 2000 population
Unclaimed[101][102] 4,012,089
Catholic Church 930,001 974,884
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints 410,263 251,974
Non-denominational Christianity 281,105 63,885[d]
Southern Baptist Convention 126,830 138,516
Assemblies of God 123,713 82,802
United Methodist Church 54,977 53,232
Christian Churches and Churches of Christ 48,386 33,162
Evangelical Lutheran Church in America 42,944 69,393
Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod 26,322 24,977
Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) 26,078 33,554
Episcopal Church (United States) 24,853 31,104
Seventh-day Adventist Church 20,924 11,513
Church of the Nazarene 16,991 18,143
Lutheran Congregations in Mission for Christ 14,350 0
Churches of Christ 14,151 14,471

Hinduism became the largest non-Christian religion (when combining all denominations) in 2010 with more than 32,000 adherents, followed by Judaism with more than 20,000 and Buddhism with more than 19,000.[99][103][104]

By the publication of the Public Religion Research Institute's 2020 study, 68% of the population identified as Christian.[105] At the Pew Research Center's 2014 study, 67% of Arizona was Christian.[106] Among the irreligious population from 2014 to 2020 per both studies, they have decreased from 27% of the population to 24% of self-identified irreligious or agnostic Arizonans. Additionally, a third separate study by the Association of Religion Data Archives in 2020 determined Christianity as the dominant religion in the state, with Catholics numbering 1,522,410 adherents and non-denominational Christians increasing to 402,842 Arizonan Christians.[107]


See also: Economy of Arizona and Arizona locations by per capita income

Arizona's Meteor Crater is a tourist attraction.

Arizona's total gross state product in 2023 was $508 billion.[108] The composition of the state's economy is moderately diverse, although health care, transportation and the government remain the largest sectors.[109]

Arizona's per capita income was $61,652 in 2023, ranking 33rd in the U.S.[110] The state's 2023 median household income was $74,568, ranking 19th in the country and just below the U.S. national mean.[111]

Early in its history, Arizona's economy relied on the "five C's": copper (see Copper mining in Arizona), cotton, cattle, citrus, and climate (tourism). Copper is still extensively mined from many expansive open-pit and underground mines, accounting for two-thirds of the nation's output.


The state government is Arizona's largest employer, while Banner Health is the state's largest private employer, with more than 39,000 employees (2016). As of August 2020, the state's unemployment rate was 5.9%.[113]

The largest employment sectors in Arizona are (August 2020, Nonfarm Employment):[113]

Sector Employees
Trade, transportation, and utilities 553,300
Education and health services 459,400
Government 430,400
Professional and business services 419,200
Leisure and hospitality 269,400
Financial activities 231,900
Manufacturing 170,900
Construction 169,900
Other services 95,600
Information 46,100
Mining and logging 13,300

Largest employers

According to The Arizona Republic, the largest private employers in the state as of 2019 were:[114]

Rank Company Employees Industry
1 Banner Health 44,718 Healthcare
2 Walmart Stores, Inc. 34,071 Discount retailer
3 Kroger Co. 20,530 Grocery stores
4 Wells Fargo & Co. 16,161 Financial services
5 Albertsons Inc. 14,500 Grocery stores, retail drugstores
6 McDonald's Corp. 13,000 Food service
7 CVS Health 12,100 Healthcare
8 Raytheon Co. 12,000 Defense
9 HonorHealth 11,919 Healthcare
10 Dignity Health 10,562 Healthcare
11 Intel Corp. 10,400 Semiconductor manufacturing
12 Home Depot Inc. 10,200 Retail home improvement
13 (tie) JP Morgan Chase & Co. 10,000 Financial services
American Airlines 10,000 Airline
15 Tenet Healthcare 9,483 Healthcare
16 Bank of America Corp. 9,200 Financial services
17 Freeport-McMoRan Copper & Gold Inc. 8,759 Mining
18 Bashas' Supermarkets 8,519 Grocery stores
19 8,500 Online Shopping
20 Target Corp. 8,400 Discount retailer
21 Honeywell International Inc. 7,792 Aerospace manufacturing
22 Circle K Corp. 7,478 Convenience stores
23 Mayo Foundation 7,436 Healthcare
24 State Farm 7,200 Insurance
25 UnitedHealthcare 7,194 Healthcare


Romaine, Yuma

Multiple crops are grown in Arizona, including lettuce, spinach, cantaloupe, broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage, and watermelon.[115]

Federal crop insurance is available for grape (Vitis vinifera and other Vitis spp.) here.[116] Together with California's crop it falls under special provisions of the relevant crop insurance statutes.[116] Insect pests and diseases are covered, excluding Phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae) or failure to correctly apply insect control or apply disease control.[116]

The whitefly Bemisia tabaci B was introduced through the poinsettia trade in the 1980s, displacing the previous A biotype.[117] In 2004 the Q biotype (from the Mediterranean) was first found here, also on poinsettia.[117]

The Colorado Potato Beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) is either native or an early introduction here.[118] Unusually, the population here commonly feeds on Silverleaf Nightshade (Solanum elaeagnifolium), which is usually a less attractive host for this beetle.[118] The CPB is an occasional pest of tomato.[118]


Main article: Transportation in Arizona

Entering Arizona on I-10 from New Mexico


Interstate highways

I-8 | I-10 | Future I-11 | I-15 | I-17 | I-19 | I-40

U.S. routes

US 60 | US 64 | Historic US 66 | US 70 | Historic US 80 | US 89 | US 89A | US 91 | US 93 | US 95 | US 160 | US 163 | US 180 | US 191

Main Interstate routes include I-17, and I-19 traveling north–south, I-8, I-10, and I-40, traveling east–west, and a short stretch of I-15 traveling northeast–southwest through the extreme northwestern corner of the state. In addition, the various urban areas are served by complex networks of state routes and highways, such as the Loop 101, which is part of Phoenix's vast freeway system.[119]

Public transportation, Amtrak, and intercity bus

See also: List of passenger train stations in Arizona

The Phoenix and Tucson metropolitan areas are served by public bus transit systems. Yuma and Flagstaff also have public bus systems. Greyhound Lines serves Phoenix, Tucson, Flagstaff, Yuma, and several smaller communities statewide.

A light rail system, called Valley Metro Rail, was completed in December 2008; it connects Central Phoenix with the nearby cities of Mesa and Tempe.[120]

In Tucson, the Sun Link streetcar system travels through the downtown area, connecting the main University of Arizona campus with Mercado San Agustin on the western edge of downtown Tucson. Sun Link, loosely based on the Portland Streetcar, launched in July 2014.[121]

Amtrak Southwest Chief route serves the northern part of the state, stopping at Winslow, Flagstaff, Williams and Kingman. The Texas Eagle and Sunset Limited routes serve South-Central Arizona, stopping at Tucson, Maricopa, Yuma and Benson. Phoenix lost Amtrak service in 1996 with the rerouting of the Sunset Limited, and now an Amtrak bus runs between Phoenix and the station in Maricopa. As of 2021, Amtrak has proposed to restore rail service between Phoenix and Tucson.[122]

Law and government

Main article: Government of Arizona

See also: Arizona Constitution, United States congressional delegations from Arizona, List of Arizona Governors, Political party strength in Arizona, and Arizona Revised Statutes

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Capitol complex

The original Arizona State Capitol in Phoenix

The capital of Arizona is Phoenix. The original Capitol building, with its distinctive copper dome, was dedicated in 1901 (construction was completed for $136,000 in 1900) when the area was a territory. Phoenix became the official state capital with Arizona's admission to the union in 1912.[123]

The House of Representatives and Senate buildings were dedicated in 1960, and an Executive Office Building was dedicated in 1974 (the ninth floor of this building is where the Office of the Governor is located). The original Capitol building was converted into a museum.

The Capitol complex is fronted and highlighted by the richly landscaped Wesley Bolin Memorial Plaza, named after Wesley Bolin, a governor who died in office in the 1970s. The site also includes many monuments and memorials, including the anchor and signal mast from the USS Arizona (one of the U.S. Navy ships sunk in Pearl Harbor) and a granite version of the Ten Commandments.

State legislative branch

The Arizona Legislature is bicameral and consists of a thirty-member Senate and a 60-member House of Representatives. Each of the thirty legislative districts has one senator and two representatives. Legislators are elected for two-year terms.[124]

Each Legislature covers a two-year period. The first session following the general election is known as the first regular session, and the session convening in the second year is known as the second regular session. Each regular session begins on the second Monday in January and adjourns sine die (terminates for the year) no later than Saturday of the week in which the 100th day from the beginning of the regular session falls. The President of the Senate and Speaker of the House, by rule, may extend the session up to seven additional days. Thereafter, the session can be extended only by a majority vote of members present of each house.

The majority party is the Republican Party, which has held power in both houses since 1993. The Democratic Party picked up several legislative seats in recent elections, bringing both chambers one seat away from being equally divided as of 2021.[125]

Arizona state senators and representatives are elected for two-year terms and are limited to four consecutive terms in a chamber, though there is no limit on the total number of terms. When a lawmaker is term-limited from office, it is common for him or her to run for election in the other chamber.

State executive branch

State of Arizona
elected officials
Governor Katie Hobbs (D)
Secretary of State Adrian Fontes (D)
Attorney General Kris Mayes (D)
State Treasurer Kimberly Yee (R)
Superintendent of Public Instruction Tom Horne (R)
State Mine Inspector Paul Marsh (R)
Corporation Commissioner
Speaker of the House

Ben Toma (R)

President of the Senate

Warren Petersen (R)

Arizona's executive branch is headed by a governor, who is elected to a four-year term. The governor may serve any number of terms, though no more than two in a row. Arizona is one of the few states that has no governor's mansion. During their term, the governors reside within their private residence, with executive offices housed in the executive tower at the state capitol. The governor of Arizona is Katie Hobbs (D).

Governor Jan Brewer assumed office in 2009 after Janet Napolitano had her nomination by Barack Obama for Secretary of Homeland Security confirmed by the Senate.[126] Arizona has had four female governors and a fifth currently serving, more than any other state.

Other elected executive officials include the Secretary of State, State Treasurer, State Attorney General, Superintendent of Public Instruction, State Mine Inspector, and a five-member Corporation Commission. All elected officials hold a term of four years, and are limited to two consecutive terms (except the office of the State Mine Inspector, which is limited to four terms).[127]

Arizona is one of five states that do not have a lieutenant governor. The elected secretary of state is first in line to succeed the governor in the event of death, disability, resignation, or removal from office. If appointed, the Secretary of State is not eligible and the next governor is selected from the next eligible official in the line of succession, including the attorney general, state treasurer, and superintendent of public instruction. Since 1977, four secretaries of state and one attorney general have succeeded to the state's governorship.

On November 8, 2022, Arizona voters approved a state constitutional amendment (Proposition 131) that created the position and office of the lieutenant governor beginning with the 2026 elections. The position will be elected on a joint ticket with the governor. The lieutenant governor ascends to the governorship if the incumbent governor dies, resigns, or is removed (via impeachment conviction) from office. The proposition, through a law pre-passed by the state legislature, also tasks the governor with assigning a job to her or his running mate, such as chief of staff, the director of the state Department of Administration, or "any position" to which the governor can appoint someone by law.[128]

State judicial branch

The Arizona Supreme Court is the highest court in Arizona, consisting of a chief justice, a vice chief justice, and five associate justices. Justices are appointed by the governor from a list recommended by a bipartisan commission and must be sustained in office by election after the first two years following their appointment. Subsequent sustaining elections occur every six years. The supreme court has appellate jurisdiction in death penalty cases, but nearly all other appellate cases go through the Arizona Court of Appeals first. The court has original jurisdiction in a few other circumstances, as outlined in the state constitution. The court meets in the Arizona Supreme Court Building at the capitol complex (at the southern end of Wesley Bolin Plaza).

The Arizona Court of Appeals, subdivided into two divisions, is the intermediate court in the state. Division One is based in Phoenix, consists of nineteen judges, and has jurisdiction in the Western and Northern regions of the state, along with the greater Phoenix area. Division Two is based in Tucson, consists of nine judges, and has jurisdiction over the Southern regions of the state, including the Tucson area. Judges are selected in a method similar to the one used for state supreme court justices.

Each county of Arizona has a superior court, the size and organization of which are varied and generally depend on the size of the particular county.


Art Deco doors of the Cochise County Courthouse in Bisbee

Arizona is divided into 15 counties, ranging in size from 1,238 square miles (3,210 km2) to 18,661 square miles (48,330 km2).

Arizona counties
County name County seat Founded 2020 population[129] Percent of total Area (sq mi) Percent of total
Apache St. Johns February 24, 1879 66,021 0.9% 11,218 9.8%
Cochise Bisbee February 1, 1881 125,447 1.8% 6,219 5.5%
Coconino Flagstaff February 18, 1891 145,101 2.0% 18,661 16.4%
Gila Globe February 8, 1881 53,272 0.7% 4,796 4.2%
Graham Safford March 10, 1881 38,533 0.5% 4,641 4.1%
Greenlee Clifton March 10, 1909 9,563 0.1% 1,848 1.6%
La Paz Parker January 1, 1983 16,557 0.2% 4,513 4.0%
Maricopa Phoenix February 14, 1871 4,420,568 61.8% 9,224 8.1%
Mohave Kingman November 9, 1864 213,267 3.0% 13,470 11.8%
Navajo Holbrook March 21, 1895 106,717 1.5% 9,959 8.7%
Pima Tucson November 9, 1864 1,043,433 14.6% 9,189 8.1%
Pinal Florence February 1, 1875 425,264 6.0% 5,374 4.7%
Santa Cruz Nogales March 15, 1899 47,669 0.7% 1,238 1.1%
Yavapai Prescott November 9, 1864 236,209 3.3% 8,128 7.1%
Yuma Yuma November 9, 1864 203,881 2.9% 5,519 4.8%
Totals: 15 7,151,502 113,997

Federal representation

Arizona's two United States Senators are Kyrsten Sinema (I) and Mark Kelly (D).

Arizona's United States Representatives are David Schweikert (R-1), Eli Crane (R-2), Ruben Gallego (D-3), Greg Stanton (D-4), Andy Biggs (R-5), Juan Ciscomani (R-6), Raul Grijalva (D-7), Debbie Lesko (R-8), and Paul Gosar (R-9). Arizona gained a ninth seat in the House of Representatives due to redistricting based on the 2010 United States census.

Political culture

See also: Elections in Arizona, Political party strength in Arizona, and United States presidential elections in Arizona

Voter registration as of April 1, 2024[130]
Party Number of voters Percentage
Republican 1,434,982 35.36%
Other 1,369,644 33.75%
Democratic 1,192,205 29.37%
Libertarian 31,164 0.77%
No Labels 27,529 0.68%
Total 4,058,320 100.00%
Party registration by Arizona county (January 2023)
  Democrat ≥ 30%
  Democrat ≥ 40%
  Democrat ≥ 50%
  Republican ≥ 30%
  Republican ≥ 40%
  Republican ≥ 50%
  Unaffiliated ≥ 30%

From statehood through the late 1940s, Arizona was primarily dominated by the Democratic Party. During this time, the Democratic candidate for the presidency carried the state each election, the only exceptions being the elections of 1920, 1924 and 1928 – all three were national Republican landslides.

In 1924, Congress had passed a law granting citizenship and suffrage to all Native Americans, some of whom had previously been excluded as members of tribes on reservations. Legal interpretations of Arizona's constitution prohibited Native Americans living on reservations from voting, classifying them as being under "guardianship".[51] This interpretation was overturned as being incorrect and unconstitutional in 1948 by the Arizona Supreme Court, following a lawsuit by World War II Indian veterans Frank Harrison and Harry Austin, both of the Fort McDowell Yavapai Nation. The landmark case is Harrison and Austin v. Laveen. After the men were refused the opportunity to register in Maricopa County, they filed lawsuit against the registrar. The National Congress of American Indians, the Department of Justice, the Department of the Interior, and the American Civil Liberties Union all filed amicus curiae (friends of the court) briefs in the case. The State Supreme Court established the rights of Native Americans to vote in the state; at the time, they comprised about 11% of the population.[51] That year, a similar provision was overturned in New Mexico when challenged by another Indian veteran in court. These were the only two states that had continued to prohibit Native Americans from voting.[131][51]

Arizona voted Republican in every presidential election from 1952 to 1992, with Richard Nixon and Ronald Reagan winning the state by particularly large margins. During this forty-year span, it was the only state not to be carried by a Democrat at least once.

United States presidential election results for Arizona[132]
Year Republican Democratic Third party
No.  % No.  % No.  %
2020 1,661,686 48.91% 1,672,143 49.22% 63,559 1.87%
2016 1,252,401 48.08% 1,161,167 44.58% 191,089 7.34%
2012 1,233,654 53.48% 1,025,232 44.45% 47,673 2.07%
2008 1,230,111 53.39% 1,034,707 44.91% 39,020 1.69%
2004 1,104,294 54.77% 893,524 44.32% 18,284 0.91%
2000 781,652 50.95% 685,341 44.67% 67,120 4.38%
1996 622,073 44.29% 653,288 46.52% 129,044 9.19%
1992 572,086 38.47% 543,050 36.52% 371,870 25.01%
1988 702,541 59.95% 454,029 38.74% 15,303 1.31%
1984 681,416 66.42% 333,854 32.54% 10,627 1.04%
1980 529,688 60.61% 246,843 28.24% 97,414 11.15%
1976 418,642 56.37% 295,602 39.80% 28,475 3.83%
1972 402,812 61.64% 198,540 30.38% 52,153 7.98%
1968 266,721 54.78% 170,514 35.02% 49,701 10.21%
1964 242,535 50.45% 237,753 49.45% 482 0.10%
1960 221,241 55.52% 176,781 44.36% 469 0.12%
1956 176,990 60.99% 112,880 38.90% 303 0.10%
1952 152,042 58.35% 108,528 41.65% 0 0.00%
1948 77,597 43.82% 95,251 53.79% 4,217 2.38%
1944 56,287 40.90% 80,926 58.80% 421 0.31%
1940 54,030 36.01% 95,267 63.49% 742 0.49%
1936 33,433 26.93% 86,722 69.85% 4,008 3.23%
1932 36,104 30.53% 79,264 67.03% 2,883 2.44%
1928 52,533 57.57% 38,537 42.23% 184 0.20%
1924 30,516 41.26% 26,235 35.47% 17,210 23.27%
1920 37,016 55.61% 29,546 44.39% 0 0.00%
1916 20,524 35.37% 33,170 57.17% 4,327 7.46%
1912 3,021 12.74% 10,324 43.52% 10,377 43.74%

Democrat Lyndon Johnson, in 1964, lost the state by fewer than 5,000 votes to Arizona Senator and native Barry Goldwater. (This was the most closely contested state in what was otherwise a landslide victory for Johnson that year.) Democrat Bill Clinton ended this streak in 1996, when he won Arizona by a little over two percentage points (Clinton had previously come within less than two percent of winning Arizona's electoral votes in 1992). From 2000 until 2016, the majority of the state continued to support Republican presidential candidates by solid margins. In the 2020 United States presidential election, Joe Biden again broke the streak by becoming the first Democratic presidential candidate to win Arizona since 1996.[133]

Since the mid 20th century, the Republican Party has also dominated Arizona politics in general. The fast-growing Phoenix and Tucson suburbs became reliably Republican areas from the 1950s onward. During this time, many "Pinto Democrats", or conservative Democrats from rural areas, became increasingly willing to support Republicans at the state and national level. While the state normally supports Republicans at the federal level, Democrats are often competitive in statewide elections. Two of the last six governors have been Democrats.

On March 4, 2008, Senator John McCain effectively clinched the Republican nomination for 2008, becoming the first major party presidential nominee from the state since Barry Goldwater in 1964.

Arizona politics is dominated by a longstanding rivalry between its two largest counties, Maricopa and Pima – home to Phoenix and Tucson, respectively. The two counties have almost 75 percent of the state's population and cast almost 80 percent of the state's vote. They also elect a substantial majority of the state legislature.

Maricopa County is home to almost 60 percent of the state's population, and most of the state's elected officials live there. Before Joe Biden won Maricopa County in 2020, it had voted Republican in every presidential election since 1952. This includes the 1964 run of native son Barry Goldwater; he would not have carried his home state without his 20,000-vote margin in Maricopa County. Similarly, McCain won Arizona by eight percentage points in 2008, aided by his 130,000-vote margin in Maricopa County.

In contrast, Pima County, home to Tucson, and most of southern Arizona have historically voted more Democratic. While Tucson's suburbs lean Republican, they hold to a somewhat more moderate brand of Republicanism than is common in the Phoenix area.

Arizona teacher's strike and rally on April 26, 2018

Arizona rejected a same-sex marriage ban in a referendum as part of the 2006 elections. Arizona was the first state in the nation to do so. Same-sex marriage was not recognized in Arizona, but this amendment would have denied any legal or financial benefits to unmarried homosexual or heterosexual couples.[134] In 2008, Arizona voters passed Proposition 102, an amendment to the state constitution to define marriage as a union of one man and one woman. It passed by a more narrow majority than similar votes in a number of other states.[135]

In 2010, Arizona adopted SB 1070, called the "toughest immigration law" in the United States. A fierce debate erupted between supporters and detractors of SB 1070.[136] The United States Supreme Court struck down portions of the Arizona law, which required all immigrants to carry immigration papers at all times, in Arizona v. United States.[137]

The West Virginia teachers' strike in 2018 inspired teachers in other states, including Arizona, to take similar action.[138]

Arizona retains the death penalty. There is currently a gubernatorial hold on executions. Authorized methods of execution include the gas chamber.[139]

Same-sex marriage and civil unions

In 2006, Arizona became the first state in the United States to reject a proposition, Prop 107, that would have banned same-sex marriage and civil unions.[140] However, in 2008, Arizona voters approved of Prop 102, a constitutional amendment that prohibited same-sex marriage but not other unions.[141] Prior to same-sex marriage being legal, the City of Bisbee became the first jurisdiction in Arizona to approve of civil unions.[142] The state's Attorney General at the time, Tom Horne, threatened to sue, but rescinded the threat once Bisbee amended the ordinance; Bisbee approved of civil unions in 2013.[143] The municipalities of Clarkdale, Cottonwood, Jerome, Sedona, and Tucson also passed civil unions.[144]

A November 2011 Public Policy Polling survey found 44% of Arizona voters supported the legalization of same-sex marriage, while 45% opposed it and 12% were not sure. A separate question on the same survey found 72% of respondents supported legal recognition of same-sex couples, with 40% supporting same-sex marriage, 32% supporting civil unions, 27% opposing all legal recognition and 1% not sure. Arizona Proposition 102, known by its supporters as the Marriage Protection Amendment, appeared as a legislatively referred constitutional amendment on the November 4, 2008 ballot in Arizona, where it was approved: 56–43%. It amended the Arizona Constitution to define marriage as between one man and one woman.[145]

On October 17, 2014, Arizona Attorney General Tom Horne announced his office would no longer object to same-sex marriage, in response to a U.S. District Court Ruling on Arizona Proposition 102. On that day, each county's Clerk of the Superior Court began to issue same-sex marriage licenses, and Arizona became the 31st state to legalize same-sex marriage.[146]

The 2023 American Values Atlas by Public Religion Research Institute found that an overwhelming majority of residents support same-sex marriage.[147]


Elementary and secondary education

Public schools in Arizona are separated into about 220 local school districts which operate independently, but are governed in most cases by elected county school superintendents; these are in turn overseen by the Arizona State Board of Education and the Arizona Department of Education. A state Superintendent of Public Instruction (elected in partisan elections every even-numbered year when there is not a presidential election, for a four-year term). In 2005, a School District Redistricting Commission was established with the goal of combining and consolidating many of these districts.[148]

Higher education

The University of Arizona (the Mall) in Tucson
Arizona State University (a biodesign building) in Tempe
Northern Arizona University (The Skydome) in Flagstaff

Arizona is served by three public universities: The University of Arizona, Arizona State University, and Northern Arizona University. These schools are governed by the Arizona Board of Regents.

Private higher education in Arizona is dominated by a large number of for-profit and "chain" (multi-site) universities.[149]

Embry–Riddle Aeronautical University, Prescott and Prescott College are Arizona's only non-profit four-year private colleges.[150]

Arizona has a wide network of two-year vocational schools and community colleges. These colleges were governed historically by a separate statewide board of directors but, in 2002, the state legislature transferred almost all oversight authority to individual community college districts.[151] The Maricopa County Community College District includes 11 community colleges throughout Maricopa County and is one of the largest in the nation.

Public universities in Arizona

Private colleges and universities in Arizona

For a more comprehensive list, see List of colleges and universities in Arizona.

Community colleges

For a more comprehensive list, see List of community colleges in Arizona.

Art and culture

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Visual arts and museums

See also: List of museums in Arizona

Phoenix Art Museum, on the historic Central Avenue Corridor in Phoenix, is the Southwest's largest collection of visual art from across the world. The museum displays international exhibitions alongside the museum's collection of more than 18,000 works of American, Asian, European, Latin American, Western American, modern and contemporary art, and fashion design. With a community education mandate since 1951, Phoenix Art Museum holds a year-round program of festivals, live performances, independent art films and educational programs. The museum also has PhxArtKids, an interactive space for children; photography exhibitions through the museum's partnership with the Center for Creative Photography; the landscaped Sculpture Garden and dining at Arcadia Farms.[153]

Arizona is a recognized center of Native American art, with a number of galleries showcasing historical and contemporary works. The Heard Museum, also in Phoenix, is a major repository of Native American art. Some of the signature exhibits include a full Navajo hogan, the Mareen Allen Nichols Collection containing 260 pieces of contemporary jewelry, the Barry Goldwater Collection of 437 historic Hopi kachina dolls, and an exhibit on the 19th-century boarding school experiences of Native Americans. The Heard Museum has about 250,000 visitors a year.

Sedona, Jerome, and Tubac are known as budding artist colonies, and small arts scenes exist in the larger cities and near the state universities.[154]


See also: List of films shot in Arizona

View of Monument Valley from John Ford's Point

Several major Hollywood films, such as Billy Jack, U Turn, Waiting to Exhale, Just One of the Guys, Can't Buy Me Love, Bill & Ted's Excellent Adventure, The Scorpion King, The Banger Sisters, Used Cars, and Raising Arizona have been made there (as have many Westerns). The 1993 science fiction movie Fire in the Sky, based on a reported alien abduction in the town of Snowflake, was set in Snowflake. It was filmed in the Oregon towns of Oakland, Roseburg, and Sutherlin.

The 1974 film Alice Doesn't Live Here Anymore, for which Ellen Burstyn won the Academy Award for Best Actress, and also starring Kris Kristofferson, was set in Tucson. The climax of the 1977 Clint Eastwood film The Gauntlet takes place in downtown Phoenix. The final segments of the 1984 film Starman take place at Meteor Crater outside Winslow. The Jeff Foxworthy comedy documentary movie Blue Collar Comedy Tour was filmed almost entirely at the Dodge Theatre. Some of Alfred Hitchcock's classic film Psycho was shot in Phoenix, the ostensible home town of the main character.

Some of the television shows filmed or set in Arizona include The New Dick Van Dyke Show, Medium, Alice, The First 48, Insomniac with Dave Attell, Cops, and America's Most Wanted. The TV sitcom Alice, which was based on the movie was set in Phoenix. Twilight had passages set in Phoenix at the beginning and the end of the film.


Main article: Music of Arizona

Arizona is prominently featured in the lyrics of many Country and Western songs, such as Jamie O'Neal's hit ballad "There Is No Arizona". George Strait's "Oceanfront Property" uses "ocean front property in Arizona" as a metaphor for a sucker proposition. The line "see you down in Arizona Bay" is used in a Tool song in reference to the possibility (expressed as a hope by comedian Bill Hicks) that Southern California will one day fall into the ocean. Glen Campbell, a notable resident, popularized the song "By The Time I Get To Phoenix".

Standin' on the Corner Park and mural in Winslow, Arizona

"Arizona" was the title of a popular song recorded by Mark Lindsay. Arizona is mentioned by the hit song "Take It Easy", written by Jackson Browne and Glenn Frey and performed by the Eagles. Arizona is also mentioned in the Beatles' song "Get Back", credited to John Lennon and Paul McCartney; McCartney sings: "JoJo left his home in Tucson, Arizona, for some California grass." "Carefree Highway", released in 1974 by Gordon Lightfoot, takes its name from Arizona State Route 74 north of Phoenix.[155]

Arizona's budding music scene is helped by emerging bands, as well as some well-known artists. The Gin Blossoms, Chronic Future, Roger Clyne and the Peacemakers, Jimmy Eat World, Caroline's Spine, and others began their careers in Arizona. Also, a number of punk and rock bands got their start in Arizona, including JFA, The Feederz, Sun City Girls, The Meat Puppets, The Maine, The Summer Set, and more recently Authority Zero and Digital Summer.

Arizona also has many singers and other musicians. Singer, songwriter and guitarist Michelle Branch is from Sedona. Chester Bennington, the former lead vocalist of Linkin Park, and mash-up artist DJ Z-Trip are both from Phoenix. One of Arizona's better known musicians is shock rocker Alice Cooper, who helped define the genre. Maynard James Keenan, the lead singer of the bands Tool, A Perfect Circle, and Puscifer, calls the town of Cornville home.

Other notable singers include country singers Dierks Bentley and Marty Robbins, folk singer Katie Lee, Fleetwood Mac's Stevie Nicks, CeCe Peniston, Rex Allen, 2007 American Idol winner Jordin Sparks, and Linda Ronstadt.

Arizona is also known for its heavy metal scene, which is centered in and around Phoenix. In the early to mid-1990s, it included bands such as Job for a Cowboy, Knights of the Abyss, Greeley Estates, Eyes Set To Kill, blessthefall, The Word Alive, The Dead Rabbitts, and Abigail Williams. The band Soulfly calls Phoenix home and Megadeth lived in Phoenix for about a decade. Beginning in and around 2009, Phoenix began to host a burgeoning desert rock and sludge metal underground, (ala' Kyuss in 1990s California) led by bands like Wolves of Winter, Asimov, and Dead Canyon.

American composer Elliott Carter composed his first String Quartet (1950–51) while on sabbatical (from New York) in Arizona. The quartet won a Pulitzer Prize and other awards and is now a staple of the string quartet repertoire.[citation needed]


Main article: Sports in Arizona

Club Sport League Championships
Arizona Cardinals American football National Football League 2 (1925, 1947)
Arizona Diamondbacks Baseball Major League Baseball 1 (2001)
Phoenix Suns Basketball National Basketball Association 0
Phoenix Mercury Basketball Women's National Basketball Association 3 (2007, 2009, 2014)
Phoenix Rising FC Soccer USL Championship 1 (2023)
Tucson Roadrunners Ice hockey American Hockey League 0
Arizona Rattlers Indoor football Indoor Football League 6 (1994, 1997, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2017)
State Farm Stadium in Glendale

Four Super Bowls have been held in Arizona, including Super Bowl LVII which was held at State Farm Stadium on February 12, 2023.[156]

Due to its numerous golf courses, Arizona is home to several stops on the PGA Tour, most notably the Phoenix Open, held at the TPC of Scottsdale, and the WGC-Accenture Match Play Championship at the Ritz-Carlton Golf Club in Marana.[157]

Auto racing is another sport known in the state. Phoenix Raceway in Avondale is home to NASCAR race weekends twice a year. Firebird International Raceway near Chandler is home to drag racing and other motorsport events.[158]

College sports

College sports are also prevalent in Arizona. The Arizona State Sun Devils and the Arizona Wildcats belong to the Pac-12 Conference while the Northern Arizona Lumberjacks compete in the Big Sky Conference and the Grand Canyon Antelopes compete in the Western Athletic Conference. The rivalry between Arizona State Sun Devils and the Arizona Wildcats predates Arizona's statehood, and is the oldest rivalry in the NCAA.[159] The Territorial Cup, first awarded in 1889 and certified as the oldest trophy in college football,[160] is awarded to the winner of the annual football game between the two schools.

Arizona also hosts several college football bowl games. The Fiesta Bowl, originally held at Sun Devil Stadium, is now held at State Farm Stadium in Glendale. The Fiesta Bowl is part of the new College Football Playoff (CFP). University of Phoenix Stadium was also home to the 2007 and 2011 BCS National Championship Games.

A spring training game between the Cubs and White Sox at HoHoKam Park

State Farm Stadium hosted the Final Four of the NCAA Division I men's basketball tournament in 2017 and is scheduled to host it again in 2024.[161]


Arizona is a popular location for Major League Baseball spring training, as it is the site of the Cactus League. Spring training was first started in Arizona in 1947, when Brewers owner Veeck sold them in 1945 but went on to purchase the Cleveland Indians in 1946. He decided to train the Cleveland Indians in Tucson and convinced the New York Giants to give Phoenix a try. Thus, the Cactus League was born.[162]

On March 9, 1995, Arizona was awarded a franchise to begin to play for the 1998 season. A $130 million franchise fee was paid to Major League Baseball and on January 16, 1997, the Diamondbacks were officially voted into the National League.

Since their debut, the Diamondbacks have won five National League West titles, two National League Championship pennants, and the 2001 World Series.[163][164]

Notable people

For a more comprehensive list, see List of people from Arizona.

See also


  1. ^ a b Elevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of 1988.
  2. ^ second to Nevada with 9% in 2010
  3. ^ Persons of Hispanic or Latino origin are not distinguished between total and partial ancestry.
  4. ^ In 2000, this designation was broken into two groups: Independent, Non-Charismatic Churches (34,130 adherents) and Independent, Charismatic Churches (29,755 adherents)


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Further reading

Preceded byNew Mexico List of U.S. states by date of admission to the Union Admitted on February 14, 1912 (48th) Succeeded byAlaska

35°N 112°W / 35°N 112°W / 35; -112 (State of Arizona)