This is a list of political parties in the United States, both past and present. The list does not include independents.

Active parties

Major parties

Party Ideology Year
founded
Membership
[1]
Presidential vote[2] Senators
[3]
Representatives[4] Governors
[5]
State
legislators
[5]
Legislatures
[5]
Trifectas
[5]
Electoral Popular Voting Nonvoting
Democratic Disc.svg
Democratic Party Modern liberalism 1828 47,106,084
306 / 538
81,284,778
(51.27%)
48 / 100
[A]
221 / 435
4 / 6
26 / 55
3,266 / 7,383
17 / 49
14 / 49
Republican Disc.svg
Republican Party Conservatism 1854 35,041,482
232 / 538
74,224,501
(46.82%)
50 / 100
212 / 435
2 / 6
28 / 55
3,980 / 7,383
30 / 49
23 / 49

Third parties

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Represented in state legislatures

The following third parties have members in state legislatures affiliated with them.

Party Ballot access (2022) Ideology Year
founded
Membership (2021)[1] Presidential
vote (2020)
[2]
State
legislators
[5]
Libertarian Disc.svg
Libertarian Party See also the list of affiliates
AZ, CA, CO, DE, FL, HI, ID, IN, KS, LA, MD, MI, MS, MO, MT, NE, NV, NC, OH, OK, OR, SC, SD, TX, UT, VT, WV, WY + D.C.[6][7]
Libertarianism[8] 1971[9] 693,634 1,865,917 (1.18%)
1 / 7,383[10]
Vermont Progressive Party Vermont Progressivism[11]
Left[11]
1993 Unknown
9 / 7,383[12][13]
Independent Party of Oregon unofficial symbol.png
Independent Party of Oregon Oregon Centrism[14] 2007 124,048
1 / 7,383[15]

Represented in the legislature of the unincorporated territory of Puerto Rico

The following third parties are represented in the Puerto Rican Legislature.

Party Ideology Year
founded
President Gubernatorial vote[16] Senators[17] Representatives[17] Mayors[18]
Logo del Partido Nuevo Progresista.svg
New Progressive Party
Partido Nuevo Progresista
Puerto Rico statehood 1967[19] Thomas Rivera Schatz[20] 427,016 (33.24%)
10 / 27
21 / 51
37 / 78
Logo PPD.webp
Popular Democratic Party
Partido Popular Democrático
Pro-Commonwealth
Liberalism
Social liberalism
1938[21] Aníbal José Torres[22] 407,817 (31.75%)
12 / 27
26 / 51
41 / 78
Citizens
Citizens' Victory Movement
Movimiento Victoria Ciudadana
Anti-imperialism
Anti-neoliberalism
Progressivism
2019 Ana Irma Rivera Lassén 179,265 (13.95%)
2 / 27
2 / 51
0 / 78
Flag of the Puerto Rican Independence Party.svg
Puerto Rican Independence Party
Partido Independentista Puertorriqueño
Puerto Rico independence
Social democracy
1946[19] Rubén Berríos 175,402 (13.58%)
1 / 27
1 / 51
0 / 78
Project Dignity Symbol.png
Project Dignity
Proyecto Dignidad
Christian democracy
Anti-corruption
2019 César Váquez Muñiz 87,379 (6.80%)
1 / 27
1 / 51
0 / 78

Parties with ballot access for Congress, state legislatures, or territorial legislatures

The following third parties have ballot access in at least one state and are not represented in a national office, state legislature, or territorial legislature.[23]

Multi-state or territory
Party Ballot access[23] [24] Ideology Year
founded
Membership (2021)[1] Presidential vote (2020)[2]
Green Disc.svg
Green Party CA, CO, CT, DE, FL, HI, LA, ME, MD, MI, MN, MO, NC, OR, PA, SC, TX, WV + DC Environmentalism
Eco-socialism[25][26]
2001[27] 246,377 404,090 (0.255%)
Constitution Party CO, FL, HI, ID, MI, MO, NV, OR, SC, UT, WI, WY Paleoconservatism[28] 1992[29] 118,088 60,066 (0.038%)
Working Families Party Symbol.svg
Working Families Party CT, NM, NY, OR, SC Social democracy[30] 1998[31] 50,532 386,010 (0.243%)[B]
Alliance Party Symbol.png
Alliance Party CT, MN, SC Centrism[32] 2019[33] Unknown 88,238 (0.056%)
Reform Party FL, MS Radical centrism[34] 1995 6,665 5,966 (0.004%)[B]
Working Class Party MD, MI 2016 Unknown
Party for Socialism and Liberation in a circle.png
Party for Socialism and Liberation Florida Marxism–Leninism[35] 2004[29] 606 (FL) 85,488 (0.054%)
American Independent Party California Paleoconservatism[36] 1967 600,220 (CA) 60,160 (0.038%)[B]
Peace and Freedom Party California Socialism[37] 1967 94,016 51,037 (0.032%)[B]
Legal Marijuana Now Party MN, NE Marijuana legalization[38] 1998 Unknown 10,033 (0.006%)[B]
Unity Party of America Symbol.png
Unity Party CO, FL Centrism[39] 2004 1,657 (CO) 6,647 (0.004%)
Natural Law Party Michigan Transcendental Meditation[40] 1992 6,657 (NJ) 2,986 (0.002%)[B]
Approval Voting Party Colorado Electoral reform[41] 2016 1,149 (CO) 409 (0.0003%)
Justice Party Mississippi Progressivism[42] 2011 Unknown
People's Party (2017) Florida 2017 Unknown
Single state or territory
Party Ballot access[23] Ideology Year
founded
Membership (2021)[1] Presidential vote (2020)[2]
Conservative Party of New York State New York Conservatism[43] 1962 147,606 295,657 (0.186%)[B]
LP New Mexico logo.png
Libertarian Party of New Mexico[7] New Mexico[7] Libertarianism[8] 1972[44] 12,798 12,585 (0.008%)
Oregon Progressive Party Oregon Progressivism[45] 2007 2,292 5,404 (0.003%)
Green Mountain Peace and Justice Party Vermont Democratic socialism[46] 1970 Unknown 166 (0.0001%)[B]
Alaskan Independence Party Alaska Alaskan nationalism[47] 1978[48] 17,213
Independent Party of Delaware logo.svg
Independent Party of Delaware Delaware 2000 9,844[49]
United Utah Party text logo.png
United Utah Party Utah Centrism[50] 2017 1,690
Ecology Party of Florida Florida 2008[51] 125[51]
Independent Party of Florida Florida 1993 Unknown
Aloha ʻĀina Party Hawaii Hawaiian sovereignty[52] 2015 Unknown
Grassroots—Legalize Cannabis Party Minnesota Marijuana legalization[53] 2014 Unknown
Labour Party USA Logo.png
Labor Party South Carolina Social democracy 1996 Unknown
United Citizens Party South Carolina 1969 Unknown
Independent Citizens Movement U.S. Virgin Islands 1968 Unknown
Sovereign Union Movement
Movimiento Unión Soberanista
Puerto Rico 2010 Unknown

Active parties without ballot access

The following parties have been active in the past 4 years, but as of December 2021 did not have official ballot access in any state.[23]

Multi-state or territory
Party Ideology Year
founded
Membership[1] Presidential vote (2020)[2] Year lost access Seeking access
ASP Square.png
American Solidarity Party Christian democracy[54] 2011[54] Unknown 38,614 (0.024%)
Forward Party star.png
Forward Party Human-centered capitalism
Radical centrism
Populism
2022 Unknown N/A In Minnesota
Socialist Workers Party Communism
Castroism
1938 298 (DE/KY) 6,791 (0.004%)
Prohibition Party logo.svg
Prohibition Party Temperance
Christian democracy
Social conservatism
1869 36[55] 4,856 (0.003%)
Socialist Equality Party (United States) logo.svg
Socialist Equality Party Trotskyism

Communism

Revolutionary socialism

1966 Unknown 351 (0.0002%)
Socialist Party USA Socialism
Anti-capitalism
Eco-socialism
Socialist feminism
1973[29] 8,215 (ME/MA/NJ) [C]
CPUSA.svg
Communist Party USA Communism
Marxism-Leninism
Bill of Rights socialism
1919
Socialist Alternative (USA) logo.svg
Socialist Alternative Marxism

Revolutionary socialism
Trotskyism

1986 Unknown [C]
American pirate party.svg
United States Pirate Party Pirate politics

Civil libertarianism

Direct democracy

2006 3,000
Workers World Party Communism

Marxism-Leninism

Anti-Imperialism

1959 Unknown
Freedom Socialist Party logo (visible).png
Freedom Socialist Party Trotskyism

Revolutionary socialism
Socialist feminism

1966 Unknown
American Freedom Party American nationalism

Paleoconservatism
Right-wing populism
White nationalism

Anti-immigration

2009[56] Unknown
Socialist Action logo (black).jpg
Socialist Action Trotskyism[57] 1983 Unknown
Transhumanist Party Libertarian transhumanism
Extropianism
Technogaianism
2014 Unknown
Single state or territory
Party State Ideology Year
founded
Membership[1] Presidential vote (2020)[2] Year lost access Seeking access
Libertarian Disc.svg
Libertarian Association of Massachusetts[7] Massachusetts Libertarianism[8] 1972 19,097 47,013 (0.030%) 2020[58] Regained in 2022, recognition pending[59]
Green Party of Alaska Alaska Green politics[60] 1990 Unknown 3,284 (0.002%) As of May 2022[61]
California National Party logo.svg
California National Party California Californian nationalism[62] 2015 413
Independence Party of New York New York Centrism[63] 1991 483,870 22,656 (0.0143%)[64][65]
Liberal Party of New York New York Liberalism[66] 1944 Unknown
Moderate Party of Rhode Island Rhode Island Centrism[67] 2007 Unknown
Green Party of Rhode Island Rhode Island Green politics[68] 1992 Unknown
Independent Greens of Virginia Virginia 2005 Unknown
Washington Progressive Party Washington Progressivism[69] 2002 Unknown
Progressive Dane logo.png
Progressive Dane Wisconsin Progressivism[70] 1992 Unknown
Keystone Party of Pennsylvania Pennsylvania Syncretic politics[71] 2022 Unknown Never had Based on voter registration
A Connecticut Party Connecticut Center-Right[72] 2021 Unknown Never had

Historical parties

The following parties are no longer functioning.

Held national office or elected to Congress

Party Years in national office Other names Ideology Mergers/Splits Created Disbanded
Federalist Party 1789–1825 Classical conservatism[73] 1789 1824
Anti-Administration party 1789–1792 Anti-Federalism[74] Merged into: Democratic-Republican Party in 1792 1789 1792
Democratic-Republican Party 1792–1825 Republican Party, Democratic Party Jeffersonianism[75] Split into: Democratic Party and National Republican Party 1792 1825
National Republican Party 1825–1837 Anti-Jacksonian Party Classical conservatism[76] Merged into: Whig Party 1825 1837
Anti-Masonic Party 1829–1839 Anti-Masonry[77] Merged into: Whig Party 1828 1838
Nullifier Party 1831–1839 Nullification[78] 1828 1839
Whig Party 1837–1857 Traditionalist conservatism[79] 1833 1854
Law and Order Party of Rhode Island 1843–1845 Charterites Anti-Dorr Rebellion[80] Merged into: Whig Party 1840 1848
Liberty Party 1845–1849 Abolitionism[81] Merged into: Free Soil Party and Republican Party 1840 1848
American Party (1844) 1845–1860 Know Nothings Nativism[82] Merged into: Constitutional Union Party (South) and Republican Party (North) 1844 1860
Free Soil Party 1849–1857 Abolitionism[83] Merged into: Republican Party 1848 1855
Unionist Party 1851–1853 American unionism[84] Merged into: National Union Party 1852 1861
Opposition Party (Northern) 1855–1857 Abolitionism[85] Merged into: Republican Party 1854 1858
Opposition Party (Southern) 1859–1860 Pro-slavery[86] Merged into: Constitutional Union Party 1858 1860
Constitutional Union Party 1860 Unionist Party Southern unionism[87] Merged into: Unconditional Union Party 1860 1860
Unconditional Union Party 1860–1866 Unionist Party American unionism[88] Merged into:National Union Party 1861 1866
Liberal Republican Party 1871–1875 Classical liberalism[89] Merged into: Republican Party and Democratic Party 1871 1875
Anti-Monopoly Party 1873–1881 Progressivism[90] Merged into: People's Party (1892) 1874 1886
Greenback Party 1879–1889 Currency reform[91] Merged into: People's Party (1892) 1874 1884
Readjuster Party 1881–1889 Left-wing populism[92] 1870 1885
Labor Party 1887–1891
People's Party (1892) 1892–1903 Populist Party Populism[93] Merged into: Democratic Party 1892 1908
Silver Party 1893–1902 Bimetalism[94] Merged into: Democratic Party 1892 1902
Silver Republican Party 1897–1900 Bimetalism[95] Merged into: Republican Party 1896 1900
Socialist Party of America 1911–1913
1915-1919
1921-1929
Democratic socialism[96] Splinter parties: Nonpartisan League (1915)
National Party (1917)
Communist Party USA (1919)
Proletarian Party of America (1920)
American Labor Party (1936)
Social Democratic Federation (1936)
Final Split: (1972-1973) Socialist Party USA, Social Democrats, USA, and Democratic Socialist Organizing Committee
1901 1972
Progressive Party (1912) 1913–1919 Bull Moose Party Progressivism[97] Merged into: Republican Party 1912 1920
Farmer–Labor Party 1919–1921
1923-1945
Social democracy[98] 1920 1936
Wisconsin Progressive Party 1935–1946 1934 1946
American Labor Party (1936) 1939–1951 Social democracy[99] 1936 1956

Multi-State political parties

Party Other names Ideology Mergers/Splits Created Disbanded
American Republican Party (1843) Nativism[100] Merged into: American Party (1844) 1843 1854
Democratic-Republican Party (1844) Texas annexation[101] Merged into: Democratic Party 1844 1844
Southern Rights Party 1850s? 1850s?
National Union Party Unionist Party American unionism[102] Merged into: Republican Party 1864 1868
Radical Democracy Party Abolitionism[103] Merged into: Republican Party 1864 1864
Socialist Labor Party of America Workingmen's Party of the United States De Leonism[104] 1876 2011
National Democratic Party Gold Democrats Gold standard[105] Merged into: Democratic Party 1896 1900
Social Democracy of America Utopian socialism[106] Merged into: Social Democratic Party 1897 1900
United Christian Party 1897 1928
Social Democratic Party Democratic socialism[107] Merged into: Socialist Party of America 1898 1901
Independence Party Independence League Progressivism[108] 1906 1914
Single Tax Party Land Value Tax Party, Commonwealth Land Party Georgism[109] 1910 1920s
National Woman's Party 1913 1930
Nonpartisan League Agrarianism[110] Splits from: Socialist Party of America
Merged into: North Dakota Democratic–Nonpartisan League Party
1915 1956
National Party Splits from: Socialist Party of America 1917 1910s
Labor Party of the United States Social democracy[111] Merged into: Farmer–Labor Party 1919 1920
Proletarian Party of America Communism[112] Splits from: Socialist Party of America 1920 1971
Workers Party of America Communist Party USA Marxism–Leninism 1921 1929
American Party (1924) Nativism[113] 1924 1924
Progressive Party (1924) Progressivism[114] Merged into: Wisconsin Progressive Party 1924 1924
Communist League of America Trotskyism[115] Split from: Communist Party USA 1928 1934
American Labor Party (1932) De Leonism[116] Split from: Industrial Union Party 1932 1935
Industrial Union Party Split from: Socialist Labor Party of America 1932 1950
American Workers Party Trotskyism[117] Merged into: Workers Party of the United States 1933 1934
Workers Party of the United States Trotskyism[118] Merged into: Socialist Party of America 1934 1938
Union Party Distributism[119] 1936 1936
America First Party (1943) Isolationism[120] 1944 1947
American Vegetarian Party 1947 1967
States' Rights Democratic Party Dixiecrats Segregationism[121] Split from: Democratic Party 1948 1948
Progressive Party (1948) Progressivism[122] Split from: Democratic Party 1948 1955
Constitution Party (1952) Christian Nationalist Party Paleoconservatism[123] 1952 1970s
National States' Rights Party Neo-fascism 1958 1987
American Party (1969) Paleoconservatism[124] 1969 2008
Raza Unida Party Chicanismo[125] 1970 2012
People's Party (1971) Democratic socialism[126] 1971 1976
U.S. Labor Party LaRouchism[127] 1975 1979
Citizens Party Progressivism[128] 1979 1984
New Alliance Party Left-wing populism[129] 1979 1992
Populist Party (1984) White nationalism[130] 1984 1994
Grassroots Party Marijuana legalization 1986 2012
Greens/Green Party USA Green Committees of Correspondence Ecopolitics[131] 1991 2019
Labor Party Social democracy[132] 1996 2007
Southern Party Southern nationalism[133] 1999 2003
Boston Tea Party Libertarianism[134] 2006 2012
Independence Party of America Centrism[135] 2007 2013
Modern Whig Party Conservative liberalism[136] Merged into: Alliance Party[137] 2008[137] 2019[137]
U.S. Marijuana Party 2002 2016?
Rent Is Too Damn High Party 2005 2015
Serve America Movement Big tent[138] Merged into: Forward Party[139] 2017 2022

Single state political parties

The following parties were active in a single state only

Party State Other names Ideology Mergers/Splits Created Disbanded
Toleration Party Connecticut American Party Secularism[140] Merged into: Democratic Party 1816 1828
Working Men's Party New York Owenism[141] Merged into: Locofoco faction of the Democratic Party 1829 1831
Anti-Mormon Party Illinois 1841 1844
Independent Anti-Mormon Party of Oneida County Idaho 1870s 1880s
People's Party Utah Mormonism[142] 1870 1891
Liberal Party Utah Anti-clericalism[143] 1870 1893
Independent Reform Party Illinois 1874 1874
Independent Party Florida 1884 1884
Home Rule Party of Hawaii Hawaii Hawaiian nationalism[144] Merged into: Republican Party 1900 1912
American Party (1904) Utah 1904 1911
American Party (1914) New York Split from: Democratic Party 1914 1916
Minnesota Farmer–Labor Party Minnesota Populism[145] Merged into: Minnesota Democratic–Farmer–Labor Party 1918 1944
Progressive Democratic Party South Carolina Progressivism[146] Split from: Democratic Party 1944 1948
Women's Equality Party New York Feminism[147] 2014 2018
Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party Mississippi Desegregation[148] Merged into: Democratic Party 1964 1964
Labor–Farm Party of Wisconsin Wisconsin Left-wing populism[149] 1982 1987
Illinois Solidarity Party Illinois Anti-LaRouchism[150] Split from: Democratic Party 1986 2007
Republican Moderate Party of Alaska Alaska Centrism[151] 1986 2011
A Connecticut Party Connecticut Liberalism[152] Split from: Republican Party 1990 1998
New Jersey Conservative Party New Jersey Conservatism[153] 1992 2009
Independent Grassroots Party Minnesota Marijuana legalization Split from: Grassroots Party 1996 1998
Marijuana Reform Party New York Marijuana legalization[154] 1998 2002
Independence Party of Florida Florida 1999 2017
Personal Choice Party Utah Libertarianism[155] 2004 2006
American Party of Florida Florida 2006 2011
Florida Whig Party Florida Fiscal Conservatism[156] 2006 2012
Connecticut for Lieberman Connecticut Centrism[157] Split from: Democratic Party 2006 2013
Taxpayers Party of New York New York Conservatism[158] 2010 2011
Freedom Party of New York New York Progressivism[159] 2010 2011
United Independent Party Massachusetts Liberalism[160] 2014 2017
Bread and Roses Party Maryland 2018 2021
Libertarian Party of Virginia Virginia Libertarianism[8] 1974 2022[7]
Tea Party of Nevada Nevada Tea Party movement Split from: Republican Party 2010 2010

Political parties in the unincorporated territories

The following parties were active in a single territory only

Party Territory Other names Ideology Mergers/Splits Created Disbanded
Puerto Rican Nationalist Party Puerto Rico Puerto Rican nationalism[161] 1922 1965
Puerto Rican Socialist Party Puerto Rico Puerto Rican nationalism[162] 1959 1993
Covenant Party Northern Mariana Islands Populism Merged into: Republican Party 2001 2013[163]
Working People's Party Puerto Rico Partido del Pueblo Trabajador 2010 2016
Popular Party Guam Commercial Party Merged into: Democratic Party 1949 1964

Non-electoral organizations

Active

These organizations generally do not nominate candidates for election, but some of them have in the past; they otherwise function similarly to political parties.

Political party Year founded Former names Ideology Mergers/Splits International affiliations
African People's Socialist Party 1972 Merger of: Junta of Militant Organizations
Black Rights Fighters
Black Study Group
Uhuru Movement
American Party of Labor 2008 International Conference of Marxist–Leninist Parties and Organizations (Unity & Struggle)
Black Riders Liberation Party 1996[164]
Charter Committee 1924
Christian Liberty Party 2000
Citizens Party of the United States 2004
Committees of Correspondence for Democracy and Socialism 1991
Communist Party USA (Provisional) unknown Communism
Democratic Socialists of America 1982 Democratic socialism Merger of: Democratic Socialist Organizing Committee + New American Movement Formerly Socialist International, not a member as of August 2017.
Freedom Road Socialist Organization 1985 International Communist Seminar
National Socialist Movement 1974 World Union of National Socialists
New Afrikan Black Panther Party 2005
New Black Panther Party 1989
National Justice Party 2020 White nationalism
News and Letters Committees[citation needed] 1955
New York State Right to Life 1970
Progressive Labor Party 1961 Progressive Labor Movement
Revolutionary Black Panther Party 1992
Revolutionary Communist Party, USA 1975 Revolutionary Union
Social Democrats, USA 1972
Solidarity 1986
Spartacist League[citation needed] 1966 International Communist League (Fourth Internationalist)
World Socialist Party of the United States 1916 Socialist Party of the United States
Socialist Educational Society
Workers' Socialist Party
Socialism Split from: Socialist Party of America World Socialist Movement

Historical

These historical organizations did not officially nominate candidates for election, but may have endorsed or supported campaigns; they otherwise functioned similarly to political parties.

Party Other names Ideology Mergers/Splits Created Disbanded
National Renaissance Party Neo-Nazism 1949 1981
American Nazi Party World Union of Free Enterprise National Socialists, National Socialist White People's Party, New Order (Successor Organization) Neo-Nazism Split into: National Socialist Party of America, National Alliance, National Socialist Movement, and New Order. 1959 1983
Patriot Party Socialism[165] Split from: Young Patriots Organization 1960 1980
Black Panther Party Black nationalism[166] 1966 1982
Youth International Party Yippies Anarcho-socialism[167] 1967 1967
Marxist–Leninist Party, USA Marxism–Leninism[168] 1967 1993
Red Guard Party Maoism 1969 1973
Communist Workers Party Maoism[169] 1969 1985
National Socialist Party of America Neo-Nazism Split from: American Nazi Party 1970 1981
National Alliance Neo-Nazism Split from: American Nazi Party 1974 2013
New Union Party De Leonism[170] 1974 2005
International Socialist Organization Trotskyism[171] 1977 2019
White Patriot Party Carolina Knights of the Ku Klux Klan,
Confederate Knights of the Ku Klux Klan
White supremacy 1980 1987
New Party Progressivism[172] 1992 1998
Traditionalist Worker Party Neo-Nazism[173] 2013 2018

See also

Notes

Notes
  1. ^ Additionally, the two independent Senators both caucus with the Democratic Party.[3]
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Votes counted in a fusion ticket.
  3. ^ a b Nominated a candidate associated with a different party.
Footnotes
  1. ^ a b c d e f Winger, Richard. "March 2021 Ballot Access News Print Edition". Ballot Access News. Retrieved August 26, 2022.
  2. ^ a b c d e f "2020 Presidential General Election Results". Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections.
  3. ^ a b "U.S. Senate: Party Division". United States Senate. Archived from the original on April 12, 2019. Retrieved May 12, 2019.
  4. ^ "Party Breakdown". House Press Gallery. House Press Gallery. November 29, 2018. Archived from the original on March 14, 2019. Retrieved May 12, 2019.
  5. ^ a b c d e "State Partisan Composition". National Conference of State Legislatures. April 1, 2019. Archived from the original on February 18, 2019. Retrieved May 12, 2019.
  6. ^ Johnston, Bob (November 9, 2020). "Ballot Access Update". Libertarian Party. Retrieved August 26, 2022.
  7. ^ a b c d e Doherty, Brian (September 15, 2022). "Libertarian Party Faces State Rebellions". Reason. Retrieved September 24, 2022.
  8. ^ a b c d Segal, Cheryl (May 27, 2016). "5 things the Libertarian Party stands for". The Hill. Archived from the original on August 16, 2018. Retrieved May 13, 2019.
  9. ^ Martin, Douglas (November 22, 2010). "David Nolan, 66, Is Dead; Started Libertarian Party". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 13, 2019. Retrieved May 13, 2019.
  10. ^ Aspegren, Elinor (November 5, 2020). "Not a Republican, not a Democrat: Wyoming's Marshall Burt wins Libertarian Party's first statehouse seat since 2002". USA Today. Retrieved January 18, 2022.
  11. ^ a b Elliott-Negri, Luke (August 2, 2016). "Lessons From Vermont". Jacobin. Retrieved June 12, 2022.
  12. ^ "Vermont House of Representatives elections, 2020". Ballotpedia. December 26, 2021.
  13. ^ "Vermont State Senate elections, 2020". Ballotpedia. December 26, 2021.
  14. ^ "INDEPENDENT PARTY'S 2009 LEGISLATIVE AGENDA | Independent Party of Oregon". August 19, 2009. Archived from the original on August 19, 2009. Retrieved September 12, 2020.
  15. ^ "Senator Brian Boquist has left GOP, is now a member of the Independent Party of Oregon". Oregon Catalyst. January 15, 2021.
  16. ^ "Puerto Rico gubernatorial election, 2020". Ballotpedia. Retrieved December 28, 2021.
  17. ^ a b "Puerto Rico Legislative Assembly". Ballotpedia. Retrieved December 28, 2021.
  18. ^ "List of current mayors of Puerto Rico". Ballotpedia. Retrieved December 28, 2021.
  19. ^ a b Ramos, Tatiana Mena (October 13, 2020). "Which Political Parties are Competing for the Governorship of Puerto Rico?". BELatina. Retrieved December 29, 2021.
  20. ^ Fieser, Ezra (July 30, 2019). "Puerto Rico Ruling Party Head Gets Key Backing to Be Governor". Bloomberg. Retrieved December 28, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  21. ^ "Political Parties of Puerto Rico, Founded 1898 through 1945* | US House of Representatives: History, Art & Archives". history.house.gov. Retrieved December 29, 2021.
  22. ^ "José Luis Dalmau asks Raúl Grijalva for more time to submit amendments to Nydia Velázquez's Status Bill". El Nuevo Día. November 13, 2021. Retrieved December 28, 2021.
  23. ^ a b c d "List of political parties in the United States". ballotpedia.org. Retrieved May 28, 2022.
  24. ^ "State Board Recognizes Green Party as NC Political Party".
  25. ^ "Howie Hawkins will probably be the Green Party's 2020 nominee". The Economist. March 26, 2020. Retrieved August 20, 2020.
  26. ^ Blake, Evan (May 29, 2020). "Howie Hawkins and the Green Party: Capitalist politics in the guise of "ecosocialism"". World Socialist Website. Retrieved August 20, 2020.
  27. ^ "Green Party Founding". www.c-span.org. C-SPAN. July 30, 2001. Archived from the original on May 16, 2017. Retrieved May 13, 2019.
  28. ^ Kleefeld, Eric (July 26, 2010). "Tancredo's New Home In The Constitution Party: A Religious, Paleoconservative Group Without Much Electoral Success". Talking Points Memo. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved April 17, 2015.
  29. ^ a b c Feinauer, J.J. (January 16, 2014). "Want to support a third party? Here are your options". Deseret News. Archived from the original on May 13, 2019. Retrieved May 13, 2019.
  30. ^ Meyerson, Harold (November 11, 2014). "Meet the Working Families Party, Whose Ballot Line is in Play in New York". Prospect. Retrieved November 30, 2016.
  31. ^ "Ballot Access News -- June 1, 2006". www.ballot-access.org. Retrieved December 29, 2021.
  32. ^ Winger, Richard (May 6, 2019). "Minnesota Independence Party Becomes State Affiliate of the Alliance Party | Ballot Access News". Ballot Access News. Retrieved December 17, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  33. ^ "How We Formed". Alliance Party. Retrieved December 29, 2021.
  34. ^ Lind, Michael (December 3, 1995). "The Radical Center or the Moderate Middle?". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved September 12, 2020.
  35. ^ "No separate destiny for US workers apart from the workers of the world". International Communist Press. October 1, 2018. Archived from the original on February 16, 2019. Retrieved February 8, 2019.
  36. ^ "Would-be independents joining the American Independent Party could blame California's voter registration card". Los Angeles Times. April 19, 2016. Retrieved September 25, 2020.
  37. ^ Wojcik, Nik (October 26, 2016). "Peace and Freedom Party candidate talks socialism". Golden Gate XPress. Retrieved August 20, 2020.
  38. ^ "Unity Party Reaches Minor-Party Status in Colorado". Westword. Retrieved October 6, 2019.
  39. ^ Thomas, Jeff (February 6, 1996). "Natural Law Party advocates meditation as way to peace". Colorado Springs Gazette - Telegraph. p. B.2.
  40. ^ Luning, Ernst (October 2, 2019). "Colorado's Approval Voting Party achieves minor party status". Colorado Politics. Archived from the original on August 20, 2020. Retrieved September 18, 2020.
  41. ^ "Presidential Hopefuls Meet in Third Party Debate". PBS NewsHour Extra.
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Further reading