It has been suggested that this article be merged with List of current United States State Legislatures. (Discuss) Proposed since September 2023.
US state governments (governor and legislature) by party control
  Democratic control
  Republican control
  Split control

This is a list of United States state legislatures. Each state in the United States has a legislature as part of its form of civil government. Most of the fundamental details of the legislature are specified in the state constitution. With the exception of Nebraska, all state legislatures are bicameral bodies, composed of a lower house (Assembly, General Assembly, State Assembly, House of Delegates, or House of Representatives) and an upper house (Senate). The United States also has one federal district and five non-state territories with local legislative branches, which are listed below. Among the states, the Nebraska Legislature is the only state with a unicameral body. However, three other jurisdictions – the District of Columbia, Guam, and the U.S. Virgin Islands – also have unicameral bodies.

The exact names, dates, term lengths, term limits, electoral systems, electoral districts, and other details are determined by the individual states' laws.

Party summary

Party control of legislatures
Republican 28
Democratic 20
Split[nb 1] 2
Total 50
US state legislatures by party control
  Democratic control
  Republican control
  Split control

Note: A party with a numerical majority in a chamber may be forced to share power with other parties due to informal coalitions or may cede power outright because of divisions within its caucus.

Party control of state governments
Republican trifecta 23
Democratic trifecta 17
Democratic governor/Republican legislature 5
Republican governor/Democratic legislature 3
Democratic governor/Split legislature 1
Republican governor/Split legislature 1
Total 50

State legislatures


State State
executive
Legislature name Lower house Upper house
Name Size[1] Party strength Term
(yrs.)
Name Size[1] Party strength Term
(yrs.)
 Alabama Governor Legislature House of Representatives 105 R 75–28, 2 vacant 4 Senate 35 R 27–8 4
 Alaska Governor Legislature House of Representatives 40 MC 23–16, 1 NCR[nb 2] 2 Senate 20 Coal. 17–0, 3 NCR[nb 3] 4
 Arizona Governor State Legislature House of Representatives 60 R 31–29 2 Senate 30 R 16–14 2
 Arkansas Governor General Assembly House of Representatives 100 R 82–18 2 Senate 35 R 29–6 4
 California Governor State Legislature[nb 4] State Assembly 80 D 62–18 2 State Senate 40 D 32–8 4
 Colorado Governor General Assembly House of Representatives 65 D 46–19 2 Senate 35 D 23–12 4
 Connecticut Governor General Assembly House of Representatives 151 D 98–53 2 State Senate 36 D 24–12 2
 Delaware Governor General Assembly House of Representatives 41 D 26–15 2 Senate 21 D 15–6 4
 Florida Governor Legislature House of Representatives 120 R 84–36 2 Senate 40 R 28–12 4
 Georgia Governor General Assembly House of Representatives 180 R 100–78, 2 vacant 2 State Senate 56 R 32–23, 1 vacant 2
 Hawaii Governor Legislature House of Representatives 51 D 45–6 2 Senate 25 D 23–2 4
 Idaho Governor Legislature House of Representatives 70 R 59–11 2 Senate 35 R 28–7 2
 Illinois Governor General Assembly House of Representatives 118 D 78–40 2 Senate 59 D 40–19 2 or 4
 Indiana Governor General Assembly House of Representatives 100 R 70–30 2 Senate 50 R 40–10 4
 Iowa Governor General Assembly House of Representatives 100 R 64–36 2 Senate 50 R 34–16 4
 Kansas Governor Legislature House of Representatives 125 R 85–40 2 Senate 40 R 28–11, 1 ind. 4
 Kentucky Governor General Assembly House of Representatives 100 R 78–20, 2 vacant 2 Senate 38 R 31–7 4
 Louisiana Governor Legislature[nb 5] House of Representatives 105 R 73–32 4 State Senate 39 R 28–11 4
 Maine Governor Legislature House of Representatives 151 D 80–68, 2 ind., 1 vacant[nb 6] 2 Senate 35 D 22–13 2
 Maryland Governor General Assembly House of Delegates 141 D 102–39 4 Senate 47 D 34–13 4
 Massachusetts Governor General Court House of Representatives 160 D 134–24, 1 ind., 1 vacant 2 Senate 40 D 36–4 2
 Michigan Governor Legislature House of Representatives 110 D 54–54, 2 vacant 2 Senate 38 D 20–18 4
 Minnesota Governor Legislature House of Representatives 134 DFL 70–64 2 Senate 67 DFL 34–33 2, 4, 4
 Mississippi Governor Legislature House of Representatives 122 R 79–41, 2 ind. 4 State Senate 52 R 36–16 4
 Missouri Governor General Assembly House of Representatives 163 R 111–51, 1 vacant 2 Senate 34 R 24–10 4
 Montana Governor Legislature House of Representatives 100 R 68–32 2 Senate 50 R 34–16 4
 Nebraska Governor Legislature (Unicameral) Legislature[nb 7] 49 R 32–16, 1 ind.[nb 8] 4
 Nevada Governor Legislature Assembly 42 D 26–14, 2 vacant 2 Senate 21 D 13–7, 1 vacant 4
 New Hampshire Governor General Court House of Representatives 400 R 200–195, 3 ind., 2 vacant 2 Senate 24 R 14–10 2
 New Jersey Governor Legislature General Assembly 80 D 52–28 2 Senate 40 D 25–15 2, 4, 4
 New Mexico Governor Legislature House of Representatives 70 D 45–25 2 Senate 42 D 27–15 4
 New York Governor State Legislature State Assembly 150 D 101–48, 1 vacant 2 State Senate 63 D 42–21 2
 North Carolina Governor General Assembly House of Representatives 120 R 72–48 2 Senate 50 R 30–20 2
 North Dakota Governor Legislative Assembly House of Representatives 94 R 82–12 4 Senate 47 R 43–4 4
 Ohio Governor General Assembly House of Representatives 99 R 67–32 2 Senate 33 R 26–7 4
 Oklahoma Governor Legislature House of Representatives 101 R 80–20, 1 vacant 2 Senate 48 R 40–8 4
 Oregon Governor Legislative Assembly House of Representatives 60 D 35–25 2 State Senate 30 D 17–12, 1 ind. 4
 Pennsylvania Governor General Assembly House of Representatives 203 D 101–101, 1 vacant 2 State Senate 50 R 28–22 4
 Rhode Island Governor General Assembly House of Representatives 75 D 65–9, 1 ind. 2 Senate 38 D 33–5 2
 South Carolina Governor General Assembly House of Representatives 124 R 88–35, 1 vacant 2 Senate 46 R 30–15, 1 ind. 4
 South Dakota Governor Legislature House of Representatives 70 R 63–7 2 Senate 35 R 31–4 2
 Tennessee Governor General Assembly House of Representatives 99 R 75–24 2 Senate 33 R 27–6 4
 Texas Governor Legislature House of Representatives 150 R 86–64 2 Senate 31 R 19–11, 1 vacant 4
 Utah Governor State Legislature[nb 9] House of Representatives 75 R 61–14 2 State Senate 29 R 23–6 4
 Vermont Governor General Assembly House of Representatives 150 MC 112–38[nb 10] 2 Senate 30 MC 23–7[nb 11] 2
 Virginia Governor General Assembly House of Delegates 100 D 51–49 2 Senate 40 D 21–19 4
 Washington Governor State Legislature[nb 12] House of Representatives 98 D 58–40 2 State Senate 49 D 29–20 4
 West Virginia Governor Legislature House of Delegates 100 R 89–11 2 Senate 34 R 31–3 4
 Wisconsin Governor State Legislature State Assembly 99 R 64–35 2 Senate 33 R 22–10, 1 vacant 4
 Wyoming Governor Legislature House of Representatives 62 R 57–5 2 Senate 31 R 29–2 4

Federal district and territorial legislatures

Federal district
or territory
Governor Name Lower house Upper house
Name Size[1] Party strength Term
(years)
Name Size[1] Party strength Term
(years)
 American Samoa Governor Fono House of Representatives 20 NP 20[nb 13] 2 Senate 18 NP 18 4
 District of Columbia Mayor Council (Unicameral) Council 13 D 11–0, 2 ind. 4
 Guam Governor Legislature (Unicameral) Legislature 15 D 9–6 2
 Northern Mariana Islands Governor Commonwealth Legislature House of Representatives 20 Coal. 16–4[nb 14] 2 Senate 9 Coal. 5–4[nb 15] 4
 Puerto Rico Governor Legislative Assembly House of Representatives 51 26 PPD, 21 PNP, 2 MVC, 1 PIP, 1 PD[nb 16] 4 Senate 27 12 PPD, 10 PNP, 2 MVC, 1 PIP, 1 PD, 1 ind.[nb 16] 4
 United States Virgin Islands Governor Legislature (Unicameral) Legislature 15 D 11–0, 4 ind. 2

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "Split" in the sense that each of the two chambers are controlled by a different party (e.g., a Democratic Senate and Republican House) or one chamber is evenly split between parties and thus "hung". The Nebraska Legislature is nonpartisan, and although the majority of members are registered members of the Republican Party, Nebraska's lack of formal party structure within its rules means that no single political party controls the Nebraska Legislature to the extent that political parties often control legislative bodies in other US states. However, for the general purposes of this information, understanding the Nebraska Legislature to be Republican-controlled is a merited oversimplification.
  2. ^ The majority in the Alaska House of Representatives is held by a coalition of 20 Republicans, 2 Democrats and 1 Independent. The minority consists of 11 Democrats, 4 Independents and 1 Republican. There is also 1 Republican part of neither group.
  3. ^ The majority in the Alaska Senate is held by a coalition of 9 Democrats and 8 Republicans. There are 3 Republicans outside the caucus.
  4. ^ The Constitution of California names it the "California Legislature", but the legislature brands itself as the "California State Legislature".
  5. ^ The Constitution of Louisiana vests legislative authority in "a legislature, consisting of a Senate and a House of Representatives," and refers to it as "the legislature" throughout, without officially designating a term for the two houses together. However, the two bodies do use the term "Louisiana State Legislature" in official references to itself.
  6. ^ There are 3 additional non-voting seats allocated to sovereign tribal nations within Maine. Since 2018, only one seat (belonging to the Passamaquoddy) is filled; the tribal representative is a Democrat but is not counted in this total.
  7. ^ When Nebraska switched to a unicameral legislature in 1937, the lower house was abolished. All current Nebraskan legislators are referred to as "Senators", as the pre-1937 senate was the retained house.
  8. ^ Nebraska's legislature is de jure nonpartisan but senators' political affiliations are publicly known and voting often happens along party lines; the de facto composition is given here.
  9. ^ The Constitution of Utah names it the "Legislature of the State of Utah", but the legislature brands itself as the "Utah State Legislature".
  10. ^ The majority in the Vermont House of Representatives is held by a coalition of 104 Democrats, 5 Vermont Progressives and 3 independents. The minority consists of 37 Republicans and 1 Libertarian.
  11. ^ The majority in the Vermont Senate is held by a coalition of 22 Democrats and 1 Vermont Progressive. 7 Republicans make up the minority.
  12. ^ The Constitution of Washington names it "the legislature of the state of Washington", but the legislature brands itself as the "Washington State Legislature".
  13. ^ The American Samoa House of Representatives also includes one nonpartisan non-voting delegate representing Swains Island.
  14. ^ The majority in the Northern Mariana Islands House of Representatives is held by a coalition of 4 Democrats and 12 independents. The minority consists of 3 Republicans and 1 Independent.
  15. ^ The majority in the Northern Mariana Islands Senate is held by a coalition of 3 independents and 2 Democrats. The minority consists of 4 Republicans.
  16. ^ a b The parties of Puerto Rico are separate from the Republican and Democratic parties.

References

  1. ^ a b c d The Book of the States (53 ed.). The Council of State Governments. January 7, 2022. Retrieved July 10, 2022.