Michigan State Senate
Michigan State Legislature
Coat of arms or logo
Type
Type
Term limits
3 terms (12 years)
History
FoundedJanuary 26, 1837
Preceded byMichigan Territorial Council
New session started
January 11, 2023
Leadership
Garlin Gilchrist (D)
since January 1, 2019
President pro tempore
Jeremy Moss (D)
since January 11, 2023
Winnie Brinks (D)
since January 1, 2023
Minority Leader
Aric Nesbitt (R)
since January 11, 2023
Structure
Seats38 voting members
Political groups
Majority
  •   Democratic (20)

Minority

Length of term
4 years
AuthorityArticle IV, Michigan Constitution
Salary$71,685 salary/year + $10,800 per diem/year
Elections
Last election
November 8, 2022
(38 seats)
Next election
November 3, 2026
(38 seats)
RedistrictingMichigan Independent Citizens Redistricting Commission
Motto
In God We Trust
Meeting place
State Senate Chamber
Michigan State Capitol
Lansing, Michigan
Website
Michigan State Senate

The Michigan Senate is the upper house of the Michigan Legislature. Along with the Michigan House of Representatives, it composes the state legislature, which has powers, roles and duties defined by Article IV of the Michigan Constitution, adopted in 1963.[1] The primary purpose of the Legislature is to enact new laws and amend or repeal existing laws.

The Michigan Senate is composed of 38 members, each elected from a single-member district with a population of between approximately 212,400 to 263,500 residents.[2] Legislative districts are drawn on the basis of population figures, provided by the federal decennial census. In January 2023, Democrats took the majority with 20 seats to Republicans' 18 seats. The Senate chamber is located in the State Capitol building.[2]

Titles

Members of the Michigan Senate are called senators. Because this shadows the terminology used to describe members of the United States Senate, constituents and the news media, using The Associated Press Stylebook, often refer to members of the Michigan Senate as state senators when necessary to avoid confusion with their federal counterparts.

Terms

Senators are elected on a partisan basis for four-year terms, concurrent with the election of the Governor of Michigan. Terms for senators begin on January 1 at noon, following the November general election and end on January 1 when their replacements are sworn in.[2]

Senate elections are always held two years after the election for President of the United States, with the next election scheduled for November 3, 2026.

Term limits

On November 3, 1992, almost 59 percent of Michigan voters backed Proposal B, the Michigan Term Limits Amendment, which amended the state constitution, to enact term limits on federal and state officials. In 1995, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that states could not enact congressional term limits, but ruled that the state-level term limits remain. Under the amendment, a person could be elected to the state senate two times. A provision governing partial terms was also included. These provisions became Article IV, section 54 and Article V, section 30 of the Michigan Constitution.[3] On November 8, 2022, nearly 2 in 3 voters approved Proposal 1, limiting state legislators to 12 years combined in either chamber of the legislature, but incumbent senators re-elected in 2022 would remain eligible for their new terms even if it pushed them over the 12-year limit.[4]

Qualifications

Each senator must be a citizen of the United States, at least 21 years of age, and an elector of the district they represent. Under state law, moving out of the district shall be deemed a vacation of the office. No person who has been convicted of subversion or who has within the preceding 20 years been convicted of a felony involving a breach of public trust shall be eligible for either house of the legislature.

Legislative session

For reckoning periods of time during which the legislature operates, each two-year period coinciding with the election of new members of the House of Representatives is numbered consecutively as a legislature, dating to the first legislature following Michigan's admission as a state. The current two-year term of the legislature (January 1, 2023 – December 31, 2024) is the 102nd Legislature.

Each year during which the legislature meets constitutes a new legislative session. According to Article IV Section 13 of the State Constitution, a new session of the legislature begins when the members of each house convene, on the second Wednesday of January every year at noon. A regular session of the legislature typically lasts throughout the entire year with several periods of recess and adjourns sine die in late December.

The Michigan legislature is one of ten full-time state legislative bodies in the United States.[5] Members receive a base salary of $71,685 per year, which makes them the fourth-highest paid state legislators in the country, after California, Pennsylvania and New York. While legislators in many states receive per diems that make up for lower salaries, Michigan legislators receive $10,800 per year for session and interim expenses.[5] Salaries and expense allowances are determined by the State Officers Compensation Commission.

Any legislation pending in either chamber at the end of a session that is not the end of a legislative term of office continues and carries over to the next legislative session.

Powers and process

The Michigan legislature is authorized by the Michigan Constitution to create and amend the laws of the U.S. state of Michigan, subject to the governor's power to veto legislation. To do so, legislators propose legislation in the forms of bills drafted by a nonpartisan, professional staff. Successful legislation must undergo committee review, three readings on the floor of each house, with appropriate voting majorities, as required, and either be signed into law by the governor or enacted through a veto override approved by two-thirds of the membership of each legislative house.[6]

Composition

Affiliation Party
(Shading indicates majority caucus)
Total
Republican Democratic Vacant
End of Previous Legislature 22 16 38 0
Begin Legislature (2023) 18 20 38 0
Latest voting share 47% 53%

Leadership

The Michigan Senate is headed by the Lieutenant Governor of Michigan, who serves as President of the Senate but may cast a vote only in the instance of a tie.[7] The presiding officers of the senate, apart from the president, are elected by the body at its first session and serve until their term of office is up.[8] Majority and minority party officers are elected at the same time by their respective caucuses.[8]

The senate majority leader controls the assignment of committees and leadership positions, along with control of the agenda in the chamber.

Members, 2023–2026

Senate districts and party affiliation as of 2023


District Senator Party Residence Eligible for
re-election in 2026
1 Erika Geiss Dem Taylor No
2 Sylvia Santana Dem Detroit No
3 Stephanie Chang Dem Detroit No
4 Darrin Camilleri Dem Brownstown Yes
5 Dayna Polehanki Dem Livonia Yes
6 Mary Cavanagh Dem Redford Yes
7 Jeremy Moss Dem Southfield No
8 Mallory McMorrow Dem Royal Oak Yes
9 Michael Webber Rep Rochester Hills Yes
10 Paul Wojno Dem Warren No
11 Veronica Klinefelt Dem Eastpointe Yes
12 Kevin Hertel Dem St. Clair Shores Yes
13 Rosemary Bayer Dem Beverly Hills Yes
14 Sue Shink Dem Ann Arbor Yes
15 Jeff Irwin Dem Ann Arbor No
16 Joe Bellino Rep Monroe Yes
17 Jonathan Lindsey Rep Bronson Yes
18 Thomas Albert Rep Lowell Yes
19 Sean McCann Dem Kalamazoo No
20 Aric Nesbitt Rep Porter Township No
21 Sarah Anthony Dem Lansing Yes
22 Lana Theis Rep Brighton Township No
23 Jim Runestad Rep White Lake Township No
24 Ruth Johnson Rep Holly No
25 Dan Lauwers Rep Capac No
26 Kevin Daley Rep Lum No
27 John Cherry Dem Flint Yes
28 Sam Singh Dem East Lansing Yes
29 Winnie Brinks Dem Grand Rapids No
30 Mark Huizenga Rep Walker Yes
31 Roger Victory Rep Hudsonville No
32 Jon Bumstead Rep Newaygo No
33 Rick Outman Rep Six Lakes No
34 Roger Hauck Rep Mount Pleasant Yes
35 Kristen McDonald Rivet Dem Bay City Yes
36 Michele Hoitenga Rep Manton Yes
37 John Damoose Rep Harbor Springs Yes
38 Ed McBroom Rep Vulcan No

Past composition of the Senate

Main article: Political party strength in Michigan

See also

References

  1. ^ "Article IV Section 1". Michigan Constitution of 1963. Michigan Legislature.
  2. ^ a b c "Senate Information". Michigan Senate.
  3. ^ "Constitutional Amendments" (PDF). Michigan Legislature.
  4. ^ DesOrmeau, Taylor (November 9, 2022). "Proposal 1: Voters pass plan to shorten term limits, require politicians to disclose finances". MLive. Retrieved November 22, 2022.
  5. ^ a b National Conference of State Legislatures. "Full- and Part-Time Legislatures". National Conference of State Legislatures.
  6. ^ Citizens Guide. Michigan House of Representatives.
  7. ^ "Article V, Section 25". Michigan Constitution of 1963. Michigan Legislature.
  8. ^ a b "Chapter 1, Section 1". Senate Rules. Michigan State Senate. Retrieved December 26, 2016.
  9. ^ "Senate Leadership". Michigan Senate.