New York State Senate
New York State Legislature
Coat of arms or logo
Antonio Delgado (D)
since May 25, 2022
Andrea Stewart-Cousins (D)
since January 9, 2019
Minority Leader
Rob Ortt (R)
since June 28, 2020
Political groups
  •   Democratic (42)


Length of term
2 years[1]
AuthorityArticle III, New York Constitution
Salary$142,000/year + per diem
Last election
November 8, 2022
Next election
November 5, 2024
RedistrictingLegislative Control
Meeting place
Senate Chamber at New York State Capitol in Albany

The New York State Senate is the upper house of the New York State Legislature, while the New York State Assembly is its lower house.[2] Established in 1777 by the Constitution of New York, its members are elected to two-year terms[3] with no term limits.[4] There are 63 seats in the Senate. The Democratic Party has held control of the New York State Senate since 2019. The Senate Majority Leader is Andrea Stewart-Cousins.

Partisan composition

Main article: Political party strength in New York (state)

The New York State Senate was dominated by the Republican Party for much of the 20th century. Between World War II and the turn of the 21st century, the Democratic Party only controlled the upper house for one year.[5] The Democrats took control of the Senate following the 1964 elections;[6] however, the Republicans quickly regained a Senate majority in special elections later that year.[7] By 2018, the State Senate was the last Republican-controlled body in New York's government.[8]

In the 2018 elections, Democrats gained eight Senate seats, taking control of the chamber from the Republicans.[9] In the 2020 elections, Democrats won a total of 43 seats, while Republicans won 20;[10] the election results gave Senate Democrats a veto-proof two-thirds supermajority.[11]

Affiliation Recent party affiliation history
(Shading indicates majority caucus)
Democratic Republican
SDC[a] IDC[b] SF[c] Vacant
Begin 2007 session[12] 29 33 62 0
End 2008 session 30 31 61 1
Begin 2009 session[13] 32 30 62 0
End 2010 session 32 29 61 1
Begin 2011 session[14] 26 4 32 62 0
End 2012 session 25 33 62 0
Begin 2013 session[15] 27 5 1 30 63 0
End 2014 session 24 2[d] 29 61 2
Begin 2015 session[16] 25 1[e] 5 1 32 63 0
End 2016 session 25 31 62 1
Begin 2017 session[17] 24 7 1 31 63 0
End 2018 session 31
Begin 2019 session[18] 39 1[19] 23 63 0
End 2020 session 40 20 60 3
Begin 2021 session[20] 43 20 63 0
September 9, 2021[21] 42 62 1
End of 2022 session [22] 43 63 0
Begin 2023 Session 42 21 63 0
Latest voting share 66.7% 33.3%
Additional sources regarding recent party affiliation history

Recent history

2009–2010: Democrats control Senate; parliamentary coup occurs

New York State Senate Chamber

For more information, see 2008 New York State legislative elections.

For more information, see 2009 New York State Senate leadership crisis.

Democrats won 32 of 62 seats in New York's upper chamber in the 2008 general election on November 4, capturing the Senate majority for the first time in more than four decades.[51][52]

However, a power struggle emerged before the new term began. Four Democratic senators — Rubén Díaz Sr. (Bronx), Carl Kruger (Brooklyn), Pedro Espada Jr. (Bronx), and Hiram Monserrate (Queens) — immediately refused to caucus with their party.[53] The self-named "Gang of Four" refused to back Malcolm Smith (Queens) as the chamber's majority leader and sought concessions.[54] Monserrate soon rejoined the caucus after reaching an agreement with Smith that reportedly included the chairmanship of the Consumer Affairs Committee.[55] The remaining "Gang of Three" reached an initial compromise in early December that collapsed within a week,[56] but was ultimately resolved[57] with Smith becoming majority leader.[58]

At the beginning of the 2009–2010 legislative session, there were 32 Democrats and 30 Republicans in the Senate. On June 8, 2009, then-Senators Hiram Monserrate and Pedro Espada Jr.—both Democrats—voted with the 30 Republican members to install Senate Republican Leader Dean Skelos (R-Rockville Centre) as the new majority leader of the Senate, replacing Democratic Senate Majority Leader Malcolm Smith.[59][60] The Associated Press described the vote as a "parliamentary coup". The move came after Republican whip Tom Libous introduced a surprise resolution to vacate the chair and replace Smith as temporary president and majority leader. In an effort to stop the vote, Democratic whip Jeff Klein (Bronx) unilaterally moved to recess, and Smith had the lights and Internet cut off; however, they were unable to prevent the vote from being held. In accordance with a prearranged deal, Espada was elected temporary president and acting lieutenant governor while Skelos was elected majority leader.[61]

Following the coup, Senate Democrats voted for John Sampson (D-Brooklyn) to replace Smith as Democratic Leader. On June 14, Monserrate declared that he would once again caucus with the Democrats. This development meant that the Senate was evenly split, 31–31, between the Republican Conference and the Democratic Conference. Due to a vacancy in the office of the Lieutenant Governor, there was no way to break the deadlock.[62]

Between June 8 and the end of the coup on July 9, the Senate did not conduct any official business.[63] According to The New York Times, Espada's power play "threw the Senate into turmoil and hobbled the state government, making the body a national laughingstock as the feuding factions shouted and gaveled over each other in simultaneous legislative sessions."[64] The coup also led to litigation.[65]

On July 9, 2009, the coup ended. Espada rejoined the Senate Democratic Conference after reaching a deal in which he would be named Senate Majority Leader,[64] Sampson would remain Senate Democratic Leader, and Smith would be Temporary President of the Senate during a "transition period" after which Sampson would ascend to the Temporary Presidency.[66] On February 9, 2010, the Senate voted to expel Monserrate from the Senate following a misdemeanor domestic violence conviction.[67] Espada was defeated in a September 2010 primary election[68] in which the Democratic Party backed his challenger, Gustavo Rivera.

2011–2012: Republicans return to power; IDC forms

Republicans retook the Senate majority in the 2010 elections,[69] winning 32 seats to the Democrats' 30 on Election Day.[70][71] One Republican Senate incumbent (Sen. Frank Padavan of Queens) was defeated,[72] while Democratic candidate David Carlucci was elected to an open seat in Senate District 38[73] that had been vacated due to the death of Republican Senator Thomas Morahan on July 12, 2010.[74] Four Democratic incumbents lost their seats to Republicans in the 2010 elections: Sen. Brian Foley was defeated by Lee Zeldin,[75] Sen. Antoine Thompson was defeated by Mark Grisanti,[76] Sen. Darrel Aubertine was defeated by Patty Ritchie,[77] and Craig M. Johnson was defeated by Jack Martins.[78][70]

Just before the new legislative session convened in January 2011, four Senate Democrats—led by former Democratic whip Jeff Klein—broke away from the Senate Democratic Conference to form an Independent Democratic Conference (IDC). Klein said that he and his three colleagues, Diane Savino, David Carlucci and David Valesky could no longer support the leadership of Senate Democratic Leader John Sampson.[79]

In March 2011, "Gang of Four" member Senator Carl Kruger surrendered to bribery charges. He later pleaded guilty to those charges in December 2011.[80] On March 20, 2012, Republican David Storobin defeated Democrat Lew Fidler in a special election to fill Kruger's vacated seat; results of the special election took weeks to finalize.[29][81]

On June 24, 2011, same-sex marriage legislation passed the Senate by a vote of 33–29. Governor Andrew Cuomo signed it into law at 11:55 P.M.[82]

2013–2014: Coalition government

In the November 6, 2012 elections, Democrats won a total of 33 seats for a three-seat majority. Democrats gained seats in Senate Districts 17 (where Democrat Simcha Felder defeated Republican incumbent David Storobin), 41, and 55 (where Ted O'Brien defeated Sean Hanna to win the seat vacated by the retiring Republican Sen. Jim Alesi), and won the election in the newly created Senate District 46 (discussed below).[83][84][85][86][87]

The election in Senate District 46—a new district that was created through the redistricting process following the 2010 census—was noteworthy because the candidate who was sworn in as the victor was later found, following a recount, to have lost the election. Republican George Amedore was sworn in to the State Senate following the election. However, a recount revealed that Democrat Cecilia Tkaczyk had defeated Amedore by 18 votes; therefore, Amedore vacated the seat, becoming the shortest-tenured senator in modern New York history.[30][88][85] Amedore would eventually win a rematch with Tkaczyk in 2014.[89]

Of the four Republican state senators who voted for the Marriage Equality Act in 2011 (Sens. Roy McDonald, James Alesi, Mark Grisanti, and Stephen Saland),[90]) only Grisanti was re-elected in 2012.[91][92] The Conservative Party of New York withdrew support for any candidate who had voted for the bill.[93] Sen. Alesi opted to retire instead of facing a potential primary challenge;[94] Sen. McDonald lost a Republican primary to Saratoga County Clerk Kathy Marchione;[95] and Sen. Saland won his Republican primary, but lost the general election to Democrat Terry Gipson[86] after Saland's Republican primary challenger, Neil Di Carlo, remained on the ballot on the Conservative line and acted as a spoiler.[87]

On December 4, 2012, it was announced that Senate Republicans had reached a power-sharing deal with the four-member Independent Democratic Conference (IDC). Under their power-sharing arrangement, the IDC and the Senate Republicans to "jointly decide what bills [would] reach the Senate floor each day of the session", would "dole out committee assignments", would "have the power to make appointments to state and local boards", and would "share negotiations over the state budget".[96] Sens. Klein and Skelos also agreed that the title of Senate President would shift back and forth between the two of them every two weeks.[96] Together, the Senate Republicans and the IDC held enough seats to form a governing majority; that majority was augmented when freshman Sen. Simcha Felder of Brooklyn, a Democrat, joined the Senate Republican Conference.[97] Also, former Democratic Senate Majority Leader Malcolm Smith joined the IDC in December 2012.[98]

On December 17, 2012, Senate Democrats elected Andrea Stewart-Cousins as Senate Democratic Leader.[99][100] Stewart-Cousins became the first woman in history to lead a conference in the New York State Legislature.[101]

Malcolm Smith was expelled from the IDC in April 2013 due to a scandal in which he attempted to bribe the Republican Party chairs in New York City for a Wilson Pakula to run in the upcoming New York City mayoral election.[102]

Former Senate Minority Leader John L. Sampson was expelled from the Senate Democratic Conference on May 6, 2013, following his arrest on embezzlement charges.[103][104] Sampson later forfeited his Senate seat after being convicted of making false statements to federal agents in relation to the initial embezzlement case.[105]

In February 2014, Tony Avella joined the IDC.[106]

2015–2017: Republicans lead again

In June 2014, the IDC announced that it would end its political alliance with the Republicans and create a new one with the Senate Democratic Conference, citing a need "to fight for the core Democratic policies that are left undone."[107] In the 2014 elections, Senate Republicans retook an outright majority in the Senate.[108] The election results meant that Klein lost his position as co-leader, with Skelos taking over as the Senate Majority Leader and Temporary President of the Senate and regaining sole control over which bills would reach the Senate floor.[96][109][110] After the election, the IDC reversed course and continued its alliance with the Republicans in the 2015 legislative session[109][111] despite their conference's diminished role.[96]

On May 4, 2015, U.S. Attorney Preet Bharara announced the arrest of Senate Majority Leader Dean Skelos (along with his son, Adam Skelos) and the arrest of Assembly Speaker Sheldon Silver.[112] Within days, Skelos announced that he was stepping down as leader of the Republican Caucus and as Majority Leader. Senator John Flanagan, of Suffolk County, became the new Majority Leader, and the first Majority Leader from Suffolk County.[113] After Skelos was convicted in December 2015, his seat was declared vacant, with a special election to be held on the presidential primary of 2016.[114][115] The special election was won by Democrat Todd Kaminsky, resulting in the Democratic Party having a numerical 32–31 advantage over the Republicans in the State Senate.[116][117] Despite this, both Senator Felder and the members of the IDC chose to remain in coalition with the Republican majority.[118]

Late in 2016, Senator Jesse Hamilton announced his intention to join the IDC if re-elected.[119] The IDC aided Hamilton in his first election in 2014, which had resulted in speculation he would eventually join the conference.[120]

In the 2016 elections, Senate Republicans lost one seat on Long Island and gained an upstate seat in Buffalo. On Long Island, freshman Sen. Michael Venditto was defeated in a close race by Democrat John Brooks.[121] In Buffalo, the open seat vacated by Democratic Sen. Mark Panepinto (who did not seek re-election) was won by Republican Erie County Clerk Chris Jacobs. Sen. Simcha Felder announced that he would continue to caucus with the GOP; Felder's move ensured that the Republicans would retain control of the Senate by a margin of 32–31.[122] Newly elected Democratic Sen. Marisol Alcantara also announced that she would join the IDC, after Klein assisted her campaign.[123][124]

Liberal groups in New York State, including the Working Families Party, called on Gov. Cuomo to intervene and pressure Sen. Felder, the IDC, and the Senate Democratic Conference to unite. On January 2, 2017, Senate Majority Leader Flanagan and Senate IDC Leader Klein announced the continuation of their coalition.[125]

In late January 2017, Senator Jose Peralta announced that he was joining the IDC, expanding the IDC to 8 members, the Republican-IDC-Felder coalition to 40 members, and reducing the Democratic conference to 23 members.[126]

2018: The IDC dissolves

On April 4, 2018, the IDC announced that it would dissolve, that its members would rejoin the Senate Democratic Conference, that Stewart-Cousins would continue as Senate Democratic Leader, and that Sen. Klein would become the Deputy Democratic Conference Leader.[127] The announcement followed a meeting called by Governor Andrew Cuomo at which Cuomo requested that the IDC reunite with the Senate Democratic Conference.[127] On April 16, the IDC was dissolved.[128] After the IDC dissolved, the Senate Democratic Conference contained 29 Members, the Senate Republican Conference contained 32 Members (including Sen. Felder), and there were two vacant Senate seats.[129]

After two April 24, 2018 special elections were won by Democrats, the Democrats gained a 32–31 numerical Senate majority; however, Felder continued to caucus with the Republicans, allowing them to maintain a 32–31 majority instead.[130]

In 2018, five Republican senators announced that they would not seek re-election in the fall.[131]

In the September 13, 2018 Democratic primary elections, all eight Democratic senators who had been members of the IDC at the time of its dissolution faced challengers.[132] Six of the challengers prevailed.[133] Another Democratic incumbent, Martin Malave Dilan, was also defeated by a primary challenger (Julia Salazar, a self-described democratic socialist).[134]

2019–present: Democratic majority

Further information: 2018 New York state elections, 2020 New York State Senate election, and 2022 New York State Senate election

On November 6, 2018, the Democratic Party gained eight seats and won control of the State Senate.[9] Democratic challengers defeated incumbent Republican Sens. Carl Marcellino, Kemp Hannon, Martin Golden, Terrence Murphy, and Elaine Phillips and won races in three districts (Districts 3, 39, and 42, respectively) in which Republican incumbents had not sought re-election. The mainstream Democrats won 39 seats, a decisive majority.[101][135] In total, enrolled Democrats won 40 of the chamber's 63 seats, including all but one seat in New York City and six of the nine seats on Long Island, the latter of which has been under GOP control for decades. Felder offered to rejoin the Democratic Conference, but was turned down in December 2018.[136] Senate Republicans won 23 seats in the 2018 elections.[135] Stewart-Cousins was formally elected Majority Leader and Temporary President on January 9, becoming the first woman to hold the post.[137]

In July 2019, Simcha Felder was accepted into the Senate Democratic Conference; this action gave the Conference a total of 40 members.[46][138]

During the 2019-2020 session, Republican Bob Antonacci resigned his seat to become a trial court judge, and eight other members of the Senate Republican Conference announced that they would not seek re-election in 2020.[139] In anticipation of Leader Flanagan's resignation on June 28, Sen. Rob Ortt was named the leader of the Senate Republican Conference.[140][141] On July 20, 2020, Sen. Chris Jacobs stepped down after being elected to the United States House of Representatives.[48]

In the 2020 elections, Senate Democrats won a total of 43 seats, while Republicans won 20.[10]


Further information: 2009 New York State Senate leadership crisis

The Lieutenant Governor of New York is the ex officio President of the Senate. Like the Vice President of the United States, the Lieutenant Governor has a casting vote in the event of a tie, but otherwise may not vote. With few exceptions, the Senate is presided over by the Temporary President, a post which is normally also held by the Majority Leader.[citation needed]

The Senate has one additional officer outside those who are elected by the people. The Secretary of the Senate is a post that is chosen by a majority vote of the senators, and does not have voting power (the Secretary is allowed, though officially discouraged, from discussing and negotiating legislative matters). The Secretary of the Senate is responsible for administering the Senate's office space, overseeing the handling of bills and the oversight of the sergeants-at-arms and the stenographer. Alejandra Paulino was appointed to the position in December 2018.[142]

Senate officers
Position Name Party District
President of the Senate/Lieutenant Governor Antonio Delgado Democratic
Temporary President/Majority Leader Andrea Stewart-Cousins Democratic 35
Minority Leader Rob Ortt Republican 62

Democratic Conference leadership:[143]

Republican Conference leadership:[143]

Current members

District Senator Party First elected Counties represented Residence
1 Anthony Palumbo Republican 2020 Suffolk New Suffolk
2 Mario Mattera Republican 2020 Suffolk St. James
3 Dean Murray Republican 2022 Suffolk East Patchogue
4 Monica Martinez Democratic 2022 Suffolk Brentwood
5 Steven Rhoads Republican 2022 Nassau Bellmore
6 Kevin Thomas Democratic 2018 Nassau Levittown
7 Jack Martins Republican 2022 Nassau Great Neck
8 Alexis Weik Republican 2020 Nassau, Suffolk Sayville
9 Patricia Canzoneri-Fitzpatrick Republican 2022 Nassau Malverne
10 James Sanders Jr. Democratic 2012 Queens Queens (Far Rockaway)
11 Toby Ann Stavisky Democratic 1999* Queens Queens (Whitestone)
12 Michael Gianaris Democratic 2010 Queens Queens (Astoria)
13 Jessica Ramos Democratic 2018 Queens Queens (East Elmhurst)
14 Leroy Comrie Democratic 2014 Queens Queens (St. Albans)
15 Joseph Addabbo Jr. Democratic 2008 Queens Queens (Ozone Park)
16 John Liu Democratic 2018 Queens Queens (Flushing)
17 Iwen Chu Democratic 2022 Kings (Brooklyn) Brooklyn (Dyker Heights)
18 Julia Salazar Democratic 2018 Kings (Brooklyn) Brooklyn (Bushwick)
19 Roxanne Persaud Democratic 2015* Kings (Brooklyn) Brooklyn (Canarise)
20 Zellnor Myrie Democratic 2018 Kings (Brooklyn) Brooklyn (Prospect Lefferts Gardens)
21 Kevin Parker Democratic 2002 Kings (Brooklyn) Brooklyn (Flatbush)
22 Simcha Felder Democratic 2012 Kings (Brooklyn) Brooklyn (Borough Park)
23 Jessica Scarcella-Spanton Democratic 2022 Kings (Brooklyn), Richmond (Staten Island) Staten Island (North Shore)
24 Andrew Lanza Republican 2006 Richmond (Staten Island) Staten Island (Great Kills)
25 Jabari Brisport Democratic 2020 Kings (Brooklyn) Brooklyn (Clinton Hill)
26 Andrew Gounardes Democratic 2018 Kings (Brooklyn) Brooklyn (Bay Ridge)
27 Brian P. Kavanagh Democratic 2017* New York (Manhattan) Manhattan (East Side)
28 Liz Krueger Democratic 2002* New York (Manhattan) Manhattan (Upper East Side)
29 José M. Serrano Democratic 2004 New York (Manhattan), Bronx The Bronx (South Bronx)
30 Cordell Cleare Democratic 2021* New York (Manhattan) Manhattan (Harlem)
31 Robert Jackson Democratic 2018 New York (Manhattan), Bronx Manhattan (Fort George)
32 Luis R. Sepúlveda Democratic 2018* Bronx The Bronx (West Farms)
33 Gustavo Rivera Democratic 2010 Bronx The Bronx (University Heights)
34 Nathalia Fernandez Democratic 2022 Bronx, Westchester The Bronx (Morris Park)
35 Andrea Stewart-Cousins Democratic 2006 Westchester Yonkers
36 Jamaal Bailey Democratic 2016 Bronx, Westchester The Bronx (Baychester)
37 Shelley Mayer Democratic 2018* Westchester Yonkers
38 Bill Weber Republican 2022 Rockland Montebello
39 Robert Rolison Republican 2022 Dutchess, Orange, Putnam Poughkeepsie
40 Peter Harckham Democratic 2018 Putnam, Rockland, Westchester South Salem
41 Michelle Hinchey Democratic 2020 Columbia, Dutchess, Greene, Ulster Saugerties
42 James Skoufis Democratic 2018 Orange Cornwall
43 Jake Ashby Republican 2022 Albany, Rensselaer, Washington Castleton-on-Hudson
44 Jim Tedisco Republican 2016 Saratoga, Schenectady Glenville
45 Dan Stec Republican 2020 Clinton, Essex, Franklin, Saint Lawrence, Warren, Washington Queensbury
46 Neil Breslin Democratic 1996 Albany, Montgomery, Schenectady Delmar
47 Brad Hoylman-Sigal Democratic 2012 New York (Manhattan) Manhattan (Greenwich Village)
48 Rachel May Democratic 2018 Cayuga, Onondaga Syracuse
49 Mark Walczyk Republican 2022 Fulton, Hamilton, Herkimer, Jefferson, Lewis, Oswego, St. Lawrence Watertown
50 John Mannion Democratic 2020 Onondaga, Oswego Geddes
51 Peter Oberacker Republican 2020 Broome, Chenango, Delaware, Herkimer, Otsego, Schoharie, Sullivan, Ulster Schenevus
52 Lea Webb Democratic 2022 Broome, Cortland, Tompkins Binghamton
53 Joseph Griffo Republican 2006 Chenango, Madison, Oneida Rome
54 Pam Helming Republican 2016 Livingston, Monroe, Ontario, Wayne Canandaigua
55 Samra Brouk Democratic 2020 Monroe Rochester
56 Jeremy Cooney Democratic 2020 Monroe Rochester
57 George Borrello Republican 2019* Allegany, Cattaraugus, Chautauqua, Genesee, Wyoming Sunset Bay
58 Tom O'Mara Republican 2010 Allegany, Chemung, Schuyler, Seneca, Steuben, Tioga, Yates Big Flats
59 Kristen Gonzalez Democratic 2022 Kings (Brooklyn), New York (Manhattan), Queens Queens (Long Island City)
60 Patrick M. Gallivan Republican 2020 Erie Elma
61 Sean Ryan Democratic 2020 Erie Buffalo
62 Rob Ortt Republican 2014 Monroe, Niagara, Orleans North Tonawanda
63 Vacant Erie

* First elected in a special election.

See also


  1. ^ "SDC" stands for "Senate Democratic Conference".
  2. ^ "IDC" stands for "Independent Democratic Conference".
  3. ^ "SF" stands for "Simcha Felder". Felder is an enrolled Democrat. From the beginning of his Senate tenure (in 2013) until 2019, he caucused with Senate Republicans. In early 2019, he did not caucus with either party. In July 2019, he joined the Senate Democratic Conference.
  4. ^ As per the additional sources listed below this infobox, two Democratic senators--Malcolm Smith and John Sampson--were expelled from their respective conferences during the 2013-2014 session.
  5. ^ Democrat John Sampson was not a member of a legislative conference in 2015; he was expelled from the Senate Democratic Conference in 2014.


  1. ^ "Branches of Government in New York State". New York State Senate, A Guide to New York State's Government. New York State Senate. 1988. Archived from the original on September 23, 2008. Retrieved April 23, 2009.
  2. ^ Runyeon, Frank G. (November 28, 2018). "The Secret Playbook NY State Senate Democrats Used To 'Wipe The Floor' With Republicans". Gothamist. Archived from the original on July 30, 2019. Retrieved July 30, 2019.
  3. ^ "Everything You Need to Know About New York's Primary Election on Thursday". Vogue. September 10, 2018.
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  6. ^ Confessore, Nicholas; Hakim, Danny (November 5, 2008). "Democrats Are Poised to Control Albany". The New York Times – via
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  30. ^ a b Vielkind, Jimmy (January 18, 2013). "It's Tkaczyk by just 18 votes". Times Union.
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  32. ^ Feuer, Alan (January 18, 2017). "John Sampson, Once a State Senate Powerhouse, Sentenced to Prison". The New York Times – via
  33. ^ "Queens State Senator Becomes Latest Democrat to Join Breakaway GOP-Aligned Faction". The New York Observer. January 25, 2017.
  34. ^ Seiler, Casey (February 27, 2014). "Avella's defection strengthens Senate coalition". Times Union.
  35. ^ Vielkind, Jimmy (March 28, 2014). "Cuomo's special-election option". Politico PRO.
  36. ^ "GOP wins N.Y. Senate, puts Women's Equality Act in flux". The Poughkeepsie Journal.
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  41. ^ "New York 9th District State Senate Results: Todd Kaminsky Wins". The New York Times. August 1, 2017 – via
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  47. ^ Khurshid, Samar (November 5, 2020). "The State of Play in the State Senate as the 2020 Election Moves to Counting Absentee Ballots". Gotham Gazette.
  48. ^ a b "Chris Jacobs to be sworn in Tuesday". Lockport Union-Sun & Journal. July 21, 2020.
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  62. ^ Lovett, Kenneth (June 15, 2009) State Senate standoff means even bigger mess with Sen. Hiram Monserrate's change of heart. New York Daily News Retrieved June 15, 2009
  63. ^ "Dems regain control of Senate, Espada named majority leader". Albany Business Review. July 9, 2009.
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