Herkimer County
Herkimer County Courthouse
Flag of Herkimer County
Official seal of Herkimer County
Map of New York highlighting Herkimer County
Location within the U.S. state of New York
Map of the United States highlighting New York
New York's location within the U.S.
Coordinates: 43°25′N 74°58′W / 43.41°N 74.96°W / 43.41; -74.96
Country United States
State New York
Founded1791
Named forNicholas Herkimer
SeatHerkimer
Largest townGerman Flatts
Area
 • Total1,458 sq mi (3,780 km2)
 • Land1,411 sq mi (3,650 km2)
 • Water46 sq mi (120 km2)  3.2%
Population
 (2020)
 • Total60,139[1]
 • Density42.6/sq mi (16.4/km2)
Time zoneUTC−5 (Eastern)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−4 (EDT)
Congressional districts21st, 22nd
Websitewww.herkimercounty.org

Herkimer County is a county in the U.S. state of New York. As of the 2020 census, the population was 60,139.[2] Its county seat is Herkimer.[3] The county was created in 1791 north of the Mohawk River out of part of Montgomery County. It is named after General Nicholas Herkimer,[4] who died from battle wounds in 1777 after taking part in the Battle of Oriskany during the Revolutionary War.

Herkimer County is part of the Utica–Rome Metropolitan Statistical Area.

History

See also: Montgomery County, New York

General Nicholas Herkimer, commander at the Battle of Oriskany in 1777 and namesake of Herkimer County
General Nicholas Herkimer, commander at the Battle of Oriskany in 1777 and namesake of Herkimer County

In 1791, Herkimer County was created as one of three counties split off from Montgomery (the other two being Otsego and Tioga counties) as New York State was developed after the American Revolutionary War. Its area was much larger than the present county, however, and was reduced subsequently as more counties were organized.

Part of Herkimer County was included in the Macomb's Purchase of 1791, during the wide-scale sale of public lands after the state forced Iroquois tribes allied with the British during the war to cede their territory. Suddenly the state was selling 5 million acres (20,000 km2) of land in upstate, central and western New York.

In 1794, Onondaga County was split off from Herkimer County. This county was larger than the current Onondaga County, and included the present Cayuga, Cortland, and part of Oswego counties.

In 1798, portions of Herkimer and Tioga counties were taken to form Chenango County.

Another part of Herkimer was split off to form Oneida County. It was then larger than the current Oneida County, including the present Jefferson, Lewis, and part of Oswego counties.

In 1802, parts of Herkimer, Clinton and Montgomery counties were combined to form the new St. Lawrence County.

The rural economy was first based on general agriculture and then wheat, but after the opening of the Erie Canal, Herkimer farmers found that they could not compete with grain farmers to the west. By the mid-19th century, they had begun to specialize in dairy farming and created a cheese industry that supplied the New York City market, among others.

During the American Civil War, Herkimer contributed five companies to the 34th New York Volunteer Infantry Regiment, leading to the unit's nickname "The Herkimer Regiment".

The Herkimer County Jail, constructed in 1834, was used to hold the murderer Chester Gillette before his trial at the Herkimer County Courthouse. The jail is now disused, except for tours by the Herkimer County Historical Society.

By the late 20th and early 21st centuries, some small farmers had begun to revive an artisan cheese industry and sustainable dairy farming here and in other parts of the central state. In 2008 New York had the third-largest milk production in the nation and was fourth-ranking in production of cheese, according to Cornell University. It has several inter-disciplinary programs related to the dairy industry.[5]

The Herkimer County shootings took place in 2013, killing five people.

Geography

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,458 square miles (3,780 km2), of which 1,411 square miles (3,650 km2) is land and 46 square miles (120 km2) (3.2%) is water.[6]

Adjacent counties

Herkimer County is in central New York State, northwest of Albany, and east of Syracuse. The northern part of the county is in the Adirondack Park. The Mohawk River flows across the southern part of the county.

Demographics

Herkimer County Treasurer's Office, 108 Court Street in Herkimer
Herkimer County Treasurer's Office, 108 Court Street in Herkimer
Historical population
Census Pop.
180014,479
181022,04652.3%
182031,01740.7%
183035,87015.6%
184037,4774.5%
185038,2442.0%
186040,5616.1%
187039,929−1.6%
188042,6696.9%
189045,6086.9%
190051,04911.9%
191056,35610.4%
192064,96215.3%
193064,006−1.5%
194059,527−7.0%
195061,4073.2%
196066,3708.1%
197067,6331.9%
198066,714−1.4%
199065,797−1.4%
200064,427−2.1%
201064,5190.1%
202060,139−6.8%
U.S. Decennial Census[7]
1790-1960[8] 1900-1990[9]
1990-2000[10] 2010-2020[2]

As of the census[11] of 2000, there were 64,427 people, 25,734 households, and 17,113 families residing in the county. The population density was 46 people per square mile (18/km2). There were 32,026 housing units at an average density of 23 per square mile (9/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 97.83% White, 0.51% Black or African American, 0.22% Native American, 0.41% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.18% from other races, and 0.84% from two or more races. 0.90% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 20.6% were of Italian, 16.3% German, 13.9% Irish, 9.3% English, 7.7% Polish, 6.2% American and 5.2% French ancestry according to Census 2000. 95.2% spoke English, 1.2% Spanish and 1.1% Italian as their first language.

There were 25,734 households, out of which 30.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.20% were married couples living together, 10.30% had a female householder with no husband present, and 33.50% were non-families. 27.60% of all households were made up of individuals, and 13.70% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 2.99.

In the county, the population was spread out, with 24.40% under the age of 18, 8.30% from 18 to 24, 26.60% from 25 to 44, 24.00% from 45 to 64, and 16.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 94.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.70 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $32,924, and the median income for a family was $40,570. Males had a median income of $29,908 versus $21,518 for females. The per capita income for the county was $16,141. About 8.90% of families and 12.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.60% of those under age 18 and 10.40% of those age 65 or over.

Government and politics

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (December 2009)
United States presidential election results for Herkimer County, New York[12]
Year Republican Democratic Third party
No.  % No.  % No.  %
2020 18,870 64.26% 9,937 33.84% 559 1.90%
2016 16,699 63.60% 8,083 30.79% 1,473 5.61%
2012 13,282 53.04% 11,273 45.02% 485 1.94%
2008 14,619 53.78% 12,094 44.49% 471 1.73%
2004 16,024 56.60% 11,675 41.24% 611 2.16%
2000 14,147 51.06% 12,224 44.12% 1,334 4.82%
1996 10,085 37.88% 11,910 44.73% 4,631 17.39%
1992 12,052 40.26% 10,880 36.34% 7,007 23.40%
1988 15,104 53.90% 12,694 45.30% 224 0.80%
1984 18,827 64.35% 10,346 35.36% 85 0.29%
1980 14,105 50.58% 11,497 41.23% 2,286 8.20%
1976 15,362 54.14% 12,875 45.37% 140 0.49%
1972 20,194 67.84% 9,487 31.87% 86 0.29%
1968 15,192 54.91% 10,940 39.54% 1,533 5.54%
1964 10,159 33.51% 20,136 66.42% 22 0.07%
1960 17,758 54.19% 14,977 45.71% 33 0.10%
1956 22,246 71.68% 8,789 28.32% 0 0.00%
1952 20,980 64.26% 11,599 35.53% 70 0.21%
1948 14,688 51.83% 12,577 44.38% 1,073 3.79%
1944 15,656 55.75% 12,381 44.08% 48 0.17%
1940 17,590 57.38% 13,013 42.45% 54 0.18%
1936 15,941 54.73% 12,847 44.10% 341 1.17%
1932 15,158 56.58% 11,194 41.78% 438 1.63%
1928 18,624 62.69% 10,654 35.86% 431 1.45%
1924 15,625 66.31% 6,464 27.43% 1,474 6.26%
1920 14,310 65.27% 6,507 29.68% 1,107 5.05%
1916 7,934 54.42% 6,271 43.01% 375 2.57%
1912 4,665 34.35% 5,122 37.72% 3,793 27.93%
1908 8,202 55.88% 5,918 40.32% 559 3.81%
1904 8,319 56.80% 5,827 39.79% 499 3.41%
1900 8,100 57.77% 5,401 38.52% 521 3.72%
1896 8,096 59.77% 5,027 37.11% 422 3.12%
1892 6,219 49.94% 5,526 44.37% 709 5.69%
1888 6,683 52.87% 5,611 44.39% 346 2.74%
1884 6,138 51.79% 5,329 44.97% 384 3.24%


The Herkimer County Legislature consists of 17 members, each elected from single-member districts.

Herkimer County is one of the most politically conservative counties in New York. Since 1884, it has voted for a Democratic presidential candidate only three times, with vote splitting due to a third-party candidate playing a role in two of those races. As of 2021 the county legislature is almost entirely Republican: the single Democratic legislator also ran on the Conservative Party line.[13]

The northern part of the county lies within New York's 21st congressional district, presently held by Republican Elise Stefanik. The southern part lies within New York's 22nd congressional district, presently held by Republican Claudia Tenney.

Economy

Herkimer County is known for producing unusual clear, doubly terminated quartz crystals, marketed as Herkimer diamonds.

Ilion in Herkimer County has one of two production sites of the Remington Arms Company, where many of the company's firearms are produced.

Education

Herkimer County Community College is located in the Village of Herkimer.

Transportation

Airport

The following public use airport is located in the county:[14]

Rail

Passenger rail service by Amtrak is available at Utica, nearby to the west of the county. Up to the latter 1950s, New York Central Railroad trains such as the North Shore Limited (New York-Chicago) made stops at Little Falls.[15] Until 1965, the New York Central operated passenger trains through Thendara in the upper part of the county.[16][17]

Roads

Interstate 90, as part of the New York State Thruway, runs east–west through the lower part of the county, as does New York State Route 5. State Route 28 runs north–south through the county.

Communities

Larger Settlements

# Location Population Type Area
1 Ilion 8,053 Village Canalside
2 Herkimer 7,743 Village Canalside
3 Little Falls 4,946 City Canalside
4 Mohawk 2,731 Village Canalside
5 Frankfort 2,598 Village Canalside
6 Dolgeville 2,206 Village Center
7 West Winfield 826 Village South
8 Old Forge 756 CDP Adirondack Park
9 Middleville 512 Village Center
10 Poland 508 Village Center
11 Cold Brook 329 Village Center
- Eagle Bay N/A CDP Adirondack Park
- East Frankfort N/A CDP Canalside
- East Herkimer N/A CDP Canalside
- Salisbury Center N/A CDP Center
- South Ilion N/A CDP Canalside
- Thendara N/A CDP Adirondack Park

Towns

Hamlets

See also

References

  1. ^ "US Census 2020 Population Dataset Tables for New York". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 2, 2022.
  2. ^ a b "U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts: Herkimer County, New York". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 3, 2022.
  3. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  4. ^ Gannett, Henry (1905). The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States. Govt. Print. Off. pp. 155.
  5. ^ Thomas R. Overton, "The New York Dairy Industry and Cornell" Archived 2016-10-11 at the Wayback Machine, CCE Tompkins
  6. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Archived from the original on May 19, 2014. Retrieved January 5, 2015.
  7. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 5, 2015.
  8. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Archived from the original on August 11, 2012. Retrieved January 5, 2015.
  9. ^ "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 19, 2015. Retrieved January 5, 2015.
  10. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Archived (PDF) from the original on December 18, 2014. Retrieved January 5, 2015.
  11. ^ "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  12. ^ Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Archived from the original on March 23, 2018. Retrieved May 7, 2018.
  13. ^ "Election Results, Board of Elections". Herkimer County NY. Retrieved February 25, 2022.
  14. ^ Herkimer County Public and Private Airports, New York Archived 2011-10-19 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved June 13, 2013.
  15. ^ "New York Central System, Tables 11, 12". Official Guide of the Railways. National Railway Publication Company. 90 (7). December 1957.
  16. ^ New York Central timetable, October 1964, Table 8, last timetable showing service
  17. ^ Gove, William. 'Logging Railroads in the Adirondacks,' Syracuse, NY: 2006, p. 71.

Further reading

Coordinates: 43°25′N 74°58′W / 43.41°N 74.96°W / 43.41; -74.96