Oneida County
Oneida County Courthouse
Oneida County Courthouse
Flag of Oneida County
Official seal of Oneida County
Map of New York highlighting Oneida County
Location within the U.S. state of New York
Map of the United States highlighting New York
New York's location within the U.S.
Coordinates: 43°14′N 75°26′W / 43.24°N 75.44°W / 43.24; -75.44
Country United States
State New York
Founded1798
Named forOneida people
SeatUtica
Largest cityUtica
Area
 • Total1,258 sq mi (3,260 km2)
 • Land1,212 sq mi (3,140 km2)
 • Water45 sq mi (120 km2)  3.6%
Population
 (2020)
 • Total232,125[1]
 • Density191.5/sq mi (73.9/km2)
Time zoneUTC−5 (Eastern)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−4 (EDT)
Congressional district22nd
Websiteocgov.net

Oneida County is a county in the state of New York, United States. As of the 2020 census, the population was 232,125.[2] The county seat is Utica.[3] The name is in honor of the Oneida, one of the Five Nations of the Iroquois League or Haudenosaunee, which had long occupied this territory at the time of European encounter and colonization. The federally recognized Oneida Indian Nation has had a reservation in the region since the late 18th century, after the American Revolutionary War.

Oneida County is part of the UticaRome, NY Metropolitan Statistical Area.

History

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When England established colonial counties in the Province of New York in 1683, the territory of present Oneida County was included in a very large, mostly undeveloped Albany County. This county included the northern part of present-day New York State as well as all of the present state of Vermont and, in theory, extended westward to the Pacific Ocean. This county was reduced in size on July 3, 1766, to create Cumberland County, and further on March 16, 1770, by the creation of Gloucester County, both containing territory now in Vermont.

On March 12, 1772, what was left of Albany County was split into three parts, one remaining under the name Albany County. Tryon County contained the western portion (and thus, since no western boundary was specified, theoretically still extended west to the Pacific). The eastern boundary of Tryon County was approximately five miles west of the present city of Schenectady in the Mohawk River Valley, and the county included the western part of the Adirondack Mountains and the area west of the West Branch of the Delaware River. Tryon County was later divided to organize 37 distinct counties of New York State. The county was named for William Tryon, colonial governor of New York.

During and after the Revolution, most of the Loyalists in Tryon County fled to Canada. In 1784, following the peace treaty that ended the American Revolutionary War, Americans changed the name of Tryon County to Montgomery County to honor the general, Richard Montgomery, who had captured several places in Canada and died attempting to capture the city of Quebec. They replaced the name of the British governor.

In 1789, Montgomery County was reduced by the splitting off of Ontario County from Montgomery. The area taken from Montgomery County contained all of present-day Allegany, Cattaraugus, Chautauqua, Erie, Genesee, Livingston, Monroe, Niagara, Orleans, Steuben, Wyoming, Yates, and part of Schuyler and Wayne counties, as well as Ontario County.

After continued new settlement, in 1791 Herkimer County was one of three counties taken from Montgomery (the other two being Otsego, and Tioga County). It was much larger than the present Herkimer County, however, and was reduced by a number of subsequent splits.

In 1794, Herkimer County was reduced in size by the creation of Onondaga County. This county was larger than the current Onondaga County, including the present Cayuga, Cortland, and part of Oswego counties.

In 1798, Oneida County was created from another part of Herkimer County. This county was larger than the current Oneida County, as it included the present-day Jefferson (which extends along Lake Ontario), Lewis, and part of Oswego counties.

In 1805, Jefferson and Lewis counties were split off from Oneida. In 1816, parts of Oneida and Onondaga counties were taken to form the new Oswego County.

In 1848, John Humphrey Noyes founded a religious and Utopian community, the Oneida Community, near Oneida. Its unconventional views on religion and relations between the sexes generated much controversy. The community lasted until 1881. The Oneida Silver Company was founded here to manufacture sterling silver, silverplate holloware and, later, stainless steel flatware.

Geography

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,258 square miles (3,260 km2), of which 1,212 square miles (3,140 km2) is land and 45 square miles (120 km2) (3.6%) is water.[4]

Oneida County is in the central portion of New York State, east of Syracuse, and west of Albany. Oneida Lake is on the northwestern corner of the county, and the Adirondack Park is on the northeast. Part of the Tug Hill Plateau is in the northern part of the county. Oneida County's highest point lies neither on the plateau nor in the Adirondack Park, but in the county's southern extremity. The peak's name is Tassel Hill. It is located slightly southeast of Hardscrabble Road (Tassel Hill Road), between the villages of Waterville and Cassville.

The Erie Canal, completed in 1825, runs east–west along the Mohawk River through the county. It stimulated considerable trade and settlement. Oneida Lake and Oneida Creek form part of the western boundary.

In the early 21st century, Oneida is the only county in New York state documented as having Chronic wasting disease among its wild White-tailed deer.[5]

Adjacent counties

National protected area

Demographics

Historical population
Census Pop.
180022,047
181033,79253.3%
182050,99750.9%
183071,32639.9%
184085,31019.6%
185099,56616.7%
1860105,2025.7%
1870110,0084.6%
1880115,4755.0%
1890122,9226.4%
1900132,8008.0%
1910154,15716.1%
1920182,83318.6%
1930198,7638.7%
1940203,6362.5%
1950222,8559.4%
1960264,40118.6%
1970273,0373.3%
1980253,466−7.2%
1990250,836−1.0%
2000235,469−6.1%
2010234,878−0.3%
2020232,125−1.2%
U.S. Decennial Census[6]
1790-1960[7] 1900-1990[8]
1990-2000[9] 2010-2020[2]

As of the census[10] of 2000, there were 235,469 people, 90,496 households, and 59,184 families residing in the county. The population density was 194 people per square mile (75/km2). There were 102,803 housing units at an average density of 85 per square mile (33/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 90.21% White, 5.74% African American, 0.23% Native American, 1.16% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.11% from other races, and 1.52% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.20% of the population.

21.7% were of Italian, 13.1% Irish, 12.1% German, 9.9% Polish, 8.5% English and 5.6% American ancestry according to self-identification of ethnic background in Census 2000. 90.6% spoke English, 2.7% Spanish, 1.3% Italian, 1.2% Serbo-Croatian and 1.1% Polish as their first language.

There were 90,496 households, out of which 30.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.10% were married couples living together, 12.00% had a female householder with no husband present, and 34.60% were non-families. 29.50% of all households were made up of individuals, and 13.10% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 3.02.

In the county, the population was spread out, with 23.90% under the age of 18, 8.60% from 18 to 24, 28.20% from 25 to 44, 22.90% from 45 to 64, and 16.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 98.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.30 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $35,909, and the median income for a family was $45,341. Males had a median income of $32,194 versus $24,295 for females. The per capita income for the county was $18,516. About 9.80% of families and 13.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.90% of those under age 18 and 8.50% of those age 65 or over.

2020 Census

Oneida County Racial Composition[11]
Race Num. Perc.
White (NH) 180,984 78.0%
Black or African American (NH) 14,989 7.0%
Native American (NH) 508 0.22%
Asian (NH) 10,522 4.53%
Pacific Islander (NH) 72 0.03%
Other/Mixed (NH) 9,859 4.3%
Hispanic or Latino 15,191 6.54%

Government and politics

United States presidential election results for Oneida County, New York[12]
Year Republican Democratic Third party
No.  % No.  % No.  %
2020 57,180 56.76% 41,567 41.26% 1,999 1.98%
2016 51,437 56.52% 33,743 37.08% 5,829 6.40%
2012 44,530 51.36% 40,468 46.68% 1,702 1.96%
2008 49,256 52.20% 43,506 46.10% 1,603 1.70%
2004 52,392 54.93% 40,792 42.77% 2,197 2.30%
2000 47,603 49.58% 43,933 45.76% 4,474 4.66%
1996 37,996 40.03% 44,399 46.77% 12,534 13.20%
1992 43,806 40.43% 40,966 37.81% 23,570 21.76%
1988 55,039 53.20% 47,665 46.07% 757 0.73%
1984 65,377 60.38% 42,603 39.35% 289 0.27%
1980 51,968 49.59% 44,292 42.26% 8,539 8.15%
1976 57,655 54.40% 47,779 45.08% 554 0.52%
1972 78,549 69.86% 33,642 29.92% 253 0.23%
1968 52,875 50.96% 44,685 43.07% 6,201 5.98%
1964 39,737 35.10% 73,359 64.80% 114 0.10%
1960 59,513 48.39% 63,368 51.53% 100 0.08%
1956 80,178 69.83% 34,649 30.17% 0 0.00%
1952 69,652 60.98% 44,438 38.90% 134 0.12%
1948 46,755 47.90% 48,332 49.51% 2,526 2.59%
1944 48,749 50.08% 48,371 49.69% 224 0.23%
1940 52,362 51.47% 49,109 48.27% 271 0.27%
1936 46,317 50.84% 43,439 47.68% 1,355 1.49%
1932 41,193 50.76% 38,413 47.34% 1,542 1.90%
1928 44,782 52.82% 38,231 45.09% 1,773 2.09%
1924 37,545 61.82% 18,124 29.84% 5,065 8.34%
1920 36,311 66.27% 15,560 28.40% 2,920 5.33%
1916 18,813 52.54% 16,070 44.88% 922 2.58%
1912 11,245 33.39% 12,182 36.17% 10,249 30.43%
1908 19,346 54.59% 14,968 42.24% 1,123 3.17%
1904 19,243 55.66% 14,064 40.68% 1,264 3.66%
1900 19,204 57.93% 12,820 38.67% 1,128 3.40%
1896 18,855 60.81% 11,003 35.49% 1,149 3.71%
1892 14,359 48.36% 13,552 45.64% 1,783 6.00%
1888 16,241 51.78% 14,276 45.51% 851 2.71%
1884 13,790 48.06% 13,823 48.17% 1,083 3.77%
1880 14,546 52.82% 12,600 45.75% 393 1.43%
1876 14,019 51.90% 12,844 47.55% 147 0.54%
1872 13,384 56.95% 10,078 42.88% 40 0.17%
1868 12,593 52.76% 11,276 47.24% 0 0.00%
1864 12,048 52.46% 10,916 47.54% 0 0.00%
1860 12,508 58.13% 9,011 41.87% 0 0.00%
1856 11,174 58.32% 6,386 33.33% 1,601 8.36%
1852 7,832 44.72% 8,636 49.31% 1,044 5.96%
1848 6,032 41.50% 3,585 24.66% 4,919 33.84%
1844 6,983 44.07% 7,717 48.71% 1,144 7.22%
1840 7,156 46.73% 7,769 50.73% 390 2.55%
1836 3,621 39.80% 5,477 60.20% 0 0.00%


Oneida County was governed by a board of supervisors until 1962, when the county charter was changed to create a county executive and a 29-seat county legislature. The county executive is elected by the entire county. On January 1, 2014, the Oneida County Legislature was reduced to 23 seats. All 23 members are elected from single-member districts. Currently, there are 14 Republicans and nine Democrats.[13]

Oneida County Executives
Name Party Term
Charles T. Lanigan Republican January 1, 1963 – December 31, 1966
Harry S. Daniels Republican January 1, 1967 – December 31, 1967 (interim)
January 1, 1968 – December 31, 1973
William E. Bryant Democratic January 1, 1974 – April 21, 1979
Antoinette Hyer Democratic April 22, 1979 – May 2, 1979 (acting)
Seymour Greene Democratic May 3, 1979 – June, 1979 (interim)
Michael Nasser Democratic June 1979 – December 31, 1979 (interim)
Sherwood L. Boehlert Republican January 1, 1980 – December 31, 1982
John D. Plumley Republican January 1, 1983 – January 13, 1991
Raymond A. Meier Republican January 14, 1991 – December 31, 1991 (interim)
January 1, 1992 – December 31, 1996
Ralph J. Eannace Jr. Republican January 1, 1997 – May, 2003
Joseph A. Griffo Republican May, 2003 – December 31, 2003 (interim)
January 1, 2004 – December 31, 2006
Anthony J. Picente Jr. Republican January 1, 2007 – present
Oneida County Board of Legislators
District Legislator Title Party Residence
1 Keith Schiebel Republican Vernon
2 Colin Idzi Republican Oriskany Falls
3 Norman Leach Republican Camden
4 Michael Clancy Democratic Verona
5 Michael B. Waterman Republican Camden
6 Steven R. Boucher Republican Remsen
7 Gerald J. Fiorini Chairman Republican Rome
8 Richard A. Flisnik Republican Marcy
9 Philip M. Sacco Minority Leader Democratic Deerfield
10 George E. Joseph Majority Leader Republican Clinton
11 Robert Koenig Republican Oriskany
12 Michael D. Brown Democratic Rome
13 William B. Goodman Democratic Whitesboro
14 Chad Davis Democratic Clinton
15 James D'Onofrio Republican New Hartford
16 Mary Austin Pratt Republican New Hartford
17 Brian P. Mandryck Republican Ava
18 Joseph M. Furgol Democratic Utica
19 Edward P. Welsh Republican Utica
20 William R. Hendricks Democratic Utica
21 Lori Washburn Democratic Utica
22 Rose Ann Covertino Democratic Utica
23 Emil R. Paparella Republican Utica

Oneida County also leans Republican in major statewide and national elections. The last Democratic presidential nominee to carry Oneida County was Bill Clinton in 1996, by plurality. The last Democrat to win a majority in the county was Lyndon Johnson in his 1964 landslide. In 2008, Republican John McCain won the county by 6,000 votes out of 90,000 cast. He won all municipalities in the county except the city of Utica and the town of Kirkland. In 2012, Republican Mitt Romney won the county by even fewer votes, by around 4,000 plus votes. Republican Donald Trump returned the county to its reliably red roots, posting strong victories in both 2016 and 2020.

Economy

The main product of Oneida County was once silverware, chiefly manufactured at Oneida Ltd.'s headquarters in Sherrill. In January 2005, the company ceased manufacturing their product, closing its main plant and selling its assets. The factory, under new ownership, continues to produce American-made silverware under the Liberty Tabletop brand.

Currently the largest non-governmental, non-healthcare product of Oneida County is gambling. Turning Stone Casino Resort is an enterprise of the Oneida Indian Nation of New York, and the largest private employer in Oneida County.[14]

Education

Tertiary
Public school districts
[15]
State-operated schools

Communities

Cities

Towns

Villages

Census-designated places

Hamlets

Notable locations

See also

References

  1. ^ "US Census 2020 Population Dataset Tables for New York". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 2, 2022.
  2. ^ a b "U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts: Oneida County, New York". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 2, 2022.
  3. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  4. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Archived from the original on May 19, 2014. Retrieved January 6, 2015.
  5. ^ Chronic Wasting Disease Archived July 25, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. Cwd-info.org. Retrieved on 2013-08-23.
  6. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 6, 2015.
  7. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Archived from the original on August 11, 2012. Retrieved January 6, 2015.
  8. ^ "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 19, 2015. Retrieved January 6, 2015.
  9. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Archived (PDF) from the original on December 18, 2014. Retrieved January 6, 2015.
  10. ^ "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  11. ^ "P2 HISPANIC OR LATINO, AND NOT HISPANIC OR LATINO BY RACE – 2020: DEC Redistricting Data (PL 94-171) – Oneida County, New York".
  12. ^ Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Archived from the original on March 23, 2018. Retrieved October 23, 2018.
  13. ^ "Board of Legislators | ocgov.net". ocgov.net. Archived from the original on July 1, 2017. Retrieved June 25, 2017.
  14. ^ http://www.uticaod.com/news/specialreports/oneidas/2005_02_06.htm[bare URL]
  15. ^ "2020 CENSUS - SCHOOL DISTRICT REFERENCE MAP: Oneida County, NY" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved July 20, 2022. - Text list

Coordinates: 43°14′N 75°26′W / 43.24°N 75.44°W / 43.24; -75.44