Manhattan
New York County
Midtown Manhattan, the world's largest central business district, in the foreground, with Lower Manhattan and its Financial District in the background
Midtown Manhattan, the world's largest central business district, in the foreground, with Lower Manhattan and its Financial District in the background
Flag of Manhattan
Official seal of Manhattan
Etymology: Lenape: Manaháhtaan (the place where we get bows)
Nickname: 
The City
Map
Interactive map outlining Manhattan
Map of Manhattan in New York
Map of Manhattan in New York
Manhattan is located in New York City
Manhattan
Manhattan
Location within New York City
Manhattan is located in New York
Manhattan
Manhattan
Location within the State of New York
Manhattan is located in the United States
Manhattan
Manhattan
Location within the United States
Manhattan is located in Earth
Manhattan
Manhattan
Location on Earth
Coordinates: 40°42′46″N 74°00′21″W / 40.7127°N 74.0059°W / 40.7127; -74.0059
Country United States
State New York
CountyNew York County (coterminous)
CityNew York City
Settled1624
Government
 • TypeBorough (New York City)
 • Borough PresidentMark Levine (D)
(Borough of Manhattan)
 • District AttorneyAlvin Bragg (D)
(New York County)
Area
 • Total33.58 sq mi (87.0 km2)
 • Land22.83 sq mi (59.1 km2)
 • Water10.76 sq mi (27.9 km2)  32%
Dimensions
—width at 14th Street, widest
 • Length13 mi (21 km)
 • Width2.3 mi (3.7 km)
Highest elevation265 ft (81 m)
Population
 • Total1,694,250
 • Estimate 
(2022)[3]
1,596,273
 • Density74,781.6/sq mi (28,873.3/km2)
DemonymsManhattanite[4]
Knickerbocker (historical)
GDP
 • TotalUS$780.966 billion (2022) · 2nd by U.S. county; 1st per capita
Time zoneUTC−05:00 (EST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−04:00 (EDT)
ZIP Code format
100xx, 101xx, 102xx
Area code212/646/332, 917[a]
WebsiteManhattan Borough President

Manhattan (/mænˈhætən, mən-/ ) is the most densely populated and geographically smallest of the five boroughs of New York City. The borough is coextensive with New York County, the smallest county by geographical area in the U.S. state of New York. Located almost entirely on Manhattan Island near the southern tip of the state, Manhattan constitutes the center of the Northeast megalopolis and the urban core of the New York metropolitan area.[6] Manhattan serves as New York City's economic and administrative center and has been described as the cultural, financial, media, and entertainment capital of the world.[7][8][9][10]

Present-day Manhattan was originally part of Lenape territory.[11] European settlement began with the establishment of a trading post by Dutch colonists in 1624 on southern Manhattan Island; the post was named New Amsterdam in 1626. The territory and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York.[12] New York, based in present-day Lower Manhattan, served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790.[13] The Statue of Liberty in New York Harbor greeted millions of arriving immigrants in the late 19th century and is a world symbol of the United States and its ideals.[14] Manhattan became a borough during the consolidation of New York City in 1898, and houses New York City Hall, the seat of the city's government.[15] The Stonewall Inn in Greenwich Village, part of the Stonewall National Monument, is considered the birthplace of the modern gay rights movement, cementing Manhattan's central role in LGBT culture.[16][17] It was also the site of the World Trade Center, which was destroyed during the September 11 terrorist attacks.

Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, the borough is bounded by the Hudson, East, and Harlem rivers and includes several small adjacent islands, including Roosevelt, U Thant, and Randalls and Wards Islands. It also includes the small neighborhood of Marble Hill now on the U.S. mainland. Manhattan Island is divided into three informally bounded components, each cutting across the borough's long axis: Lower Manhattan, Midtown, and Upper Manhattan. Manhattan is one of the most densely populated locations in the world, with a 2020 census population of 1,694,250 living in a land area of 22.66 square miles (58.69 km2),[3][18] or 72,918 residents per square mile (28,154 residents/km2), and coextensive with New York County, its residential property has the highest sale price per square foot in the United States.[19] Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere.[20]

Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York City has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial and fintech center of the world,[21][22][23] and Manhattan is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and Nasdaq.[24] Many multinational media conglomerates are based in Manhattan, as are numerous colleges and universities, such as Columbia University and New York University; the headquarters of the United Nations is also located in the borough. Manhattan hosts three of the world's most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, and Grand Central Terminal.[25] Penn Station is the busiest transportation hub in the Western Hemisphere.[26] The borough hosts many prominent bridges and tunnels, and skyscrapers including the Empire State Building, Chrysler Building, and One World Trade Center.[27] It is also home to the National Basketball Association's New York Knicks and the National Hockey League's New York Rangers.

History

Main article: History of Manhattan

See also: History of New York City

Lenape settlement

Manhattan was historically part of the Lenapehoking territory inhabited by the Munsee, Lenape,[28] and Wappinger tribes.[29] There were several Lenape settlements in the area including Sapohanikan, Nechtanc, and Konaande Kongh, which were interconnected by a series of trails. The primary trail on the island, which would later become Broadway, ran from what is now Inwood in the north to Battery Park in the south.[30] There were various sites for fishing and planting established by the Lenape throughout Manhattan.[11] The name Manhattan originated from the Lenape's language, Munsee, manaháhtaan (where manah- means "gather", -aht- means "bow", and -aan is an abstract element used to form verb stems). The Lenape word has been translated as "the place where we get bows" or "place for gathering the (wood to make) bows". According to a Munsee tradition recorded by Albert Seqaqkind Anthony in the 19th century, the island was named so for a grove of hickory trees at its southern end that was considered ideal for the making of bows.[31]

Colonial era

Main articles: New Netherland, New Amsterdam, and Province of New York

The Castello Plan, a 1660 map of New Amsterdam (the top right corner is roughly north) in Lower Manhattan
New Amsterdam, centered in what eventually became Lower Manhattan, in 1664, the year England took control and renamed it New York

In April 1524, Florentine explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano, sailing in service of Francis I of France, became the first documented European to visit the area that would become New York City.[32] Verrazzano entered the tidal strait now known as The Narrows and named the land around Upper New York Harbor New Angoulême, in reference to the family name of King Francis I; he sailed far enough into the harbor to sight the Hudson River, and he named the Bay of Santa Margarita – what is now Upper New York Bay – after Marguerite de Navarre, the elder sister of the king.[33][34]

Manhattan was first mapped during a 1609 voyage of Henry Hudson.[35] Hudson came across Manhattan Island and the native people living there, and continued up the river that would later bear his name, the Hudson River.[36] Manhattan was first recorded in writing as Manna-hata, in the logbook of Robert Juet, an officer on the voyage.[37]

A permanent European presence in New Netherland began in 1624, with the founding of a Dutch fur trading settlement on Governors Island.[38] In 1625, construction was started on the citadel of Fort Amsterdam on Manhattan Island, later called New Amsterdam (Nieuw Amsterdam), in what is now Lower Manhattan.[39][40] The establishment of Fort Amsterdam is recognized as the birth of New York City.[41] In 1647, Peter Stuyvesant was appointed as the last Dutch Director-General of the colony.[42] New Amsterdam was formally incorporated as a city on February 2, 1653.[43] In 1664, English forces conquered New Netherland and renamed it "New York" after the English Duke of York and Albany, the future King James II.[44] In August 1673, the Dutch reconquered the colony, renaming it "New Orange", but permanently relinquished it back to England the following year under the terms of the Treaty of Westminster that ended the Third Anglo-Dutch War.[45][46]

American Revolution

Further information: American Revolution

Statue of George Washington in front of Federal Hall on Wall Street, where in 1789 he was sworn in as the first U.S. president.[47]

Manhattan was at the heart of the New York Campaign, a series of major battles in the early stages of the American Revolutionary War. The Continental Army was forced to abandon Manhattan after the Battle of Fort Washington on November 16, 1776.[48] The city, greatly damaged by the Great Fire of New York during the campaign, became the British military and political center of operations in North America for the remainder of the war.[49] British occupation lasted until November 25, 1783, when George Washington returned to Manhattan, a day celebrated as Evacuation Day, marking when the last British forces left the city.[50]

From January 11, 1785, until 1789, New York City was the fifth of five capitals of the United States under the Articles of Confederation, with the Continental Congress meeting at New York City Hall (then at Fraunces Tavern).[51] New York was the first capital under the newly enacted Constitution of the United States, from March 4, 1789, to August 12, 1790, at Federal Hall.[52] Federal Hall was where the United States Supreme Court met for the first time,[53] the United States Bill of Rights were drafted and ratified,[54] and where the Northwest Ordinance was adopted, establishing measures for admission to the Union of new states.[55]

19th century

New York grew as an economic center, first as a result of Alexander Hamilton's policies and practices as the first Secretary of the Treasury to expand the city's role as a center of commerce and industry.[56] By 1810, New York City, then confined to Manhattan, had surpassed Philadelphia as the most populous city in the United States.[57] The Commissioners' Plan of 1811 laid out the island of Manhattan in its familiar grid plan.[58] The city's role as an economic center grew with the opening of the Erie Canal in 1825, cutting transportation costs by 90% compared to road transport and connecting the Atlantic port to the vast agricultural markets of the Midwestern United States and Canada.[59][60][61]

Tammany Hall, a Democratic Party political machine, began to grow in influence with the support of many of the immigrant Irish, culminating in the election of the first Tammany mayor, Fernando Wood, in 1854.[62] Covering 840 acres (340 ha) in the center of the island, Central Park, which opened its first portions to the public in 1858, became the first landscaped public park in an American city.[63][64][65][66]

The "Sanitary & Topographical Map of the City and Island of New York", commonly known as the Viele Map, developed by Egbert Ludovicus Viele in 1865

New York City played a complex role in the American Civil War. The city had strong commercial ties to the South, but anger around conscription, resentment against Lincoln's war policies and paranoia about free Blacks taking the jobs of poor immigrants[67] culminated in the three-day-long New York Draft Riots of July 1863, among the worst incidents of civil disorder in American history.[68] The rate of immigration from Europe grew steeply after the Civil War, and Manhattan became the first stop for millions seeking a new life in the United States, a role acknowledged by the dedication of the Statue of Liberty in 1886.[69][70] This immigration brought further social upheaval. In a city of tenements packed with poorly paid laborers from dozens of nations, the city became a hotbed of revolution (including anarchists and communists among others), syndicalism, racketeering, and unionization.[citation needed]

In 1883, the opening of the Brooklyn Bridge across the East River established a road connection to Brooklyn and the rest of Long Island.[71] In 1898, New York City consolidated with three neighboring counties to form "the City of Greater New York", and Manhattan was established as one of the five boroughs of New York City.[72][73] The Bronx remained part of New York County until 1914, when Bronx County was established.[74]

20th century

Further information: Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire and Stonewall riots

Manhattan's Little Italy on the Lower East Side, c. 1900

The construction of the New York City Subway, which opened in 1904, helped bind the new city together,[75] as did the completion of the Williamsburg Bridge (1903) and Manhattan Bridge (1909) connecting to Brooklyn and the Queensboro Bridge (1909) connecting to Queens.[76] In the 1920s, Manhattan experienced large arrivals of African-Americans as part of the Great Migration from the southern United States, and the Harlem Renaissance,[77] part of a larger boom time in the Prohibition era that included new skyscrapers competing for the skyline, with the Woolworth Building (1913), 40 Wall Street (1930), Chrysler Building (1930) and the Empire State Building (1931) leapfrogging each other to take their place as the world's tallest building.[78] Manhattan's majority white ethnic group declined from 98.7% in 1900 to 58.3% by 1990.[79] On March 25, 1911, the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire in Greenwich Village killed 146 garment workers,[80] leading to overhauls of the city's fire department, building codes, and workplace safety regulations.[81] In 1912, about 20,000 workers, a quarter of them women, marched upon Washington Square Park to commemorate the fire. Many of the women wore fitted tucked-front blouses like those manufactured by the company, a clothing style that became the working woman's uniform and a symbol of women's liberation, reflecting the alliance of the labor and suffrage movements.[82]

Despite the Great Depression, some of the world's tallest skyscrapers were completed in Manhattan during the 1930s, including numerous Art Deco masterpieces that are still part of the city's skyline, most notably the Empire State Building, the Chrysler Building, and 30 Rockefeller Plaza.[83] A postwar economic boom led to the development of huge housing developments targeted at returning veterans, the largest being Stuyvesant Town–Peter Cooper Village, which opened in 1947.[84][85] The United Nations relocated to a new headquarters that was completed in 1952 along the East River.[86][87][88]

The Stonewall riots were a series of spontaneous, violent protests by members of the gay community against a police raid that took place in the early morning hours of June 28, 1969, at the Stonewall Inn in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of Lower Manhattan. They are widely considered to constitute the single most important event leading to the gay liberation movement[89][90] and the modern fight for LGBT rights.[91][92]

In the 1970s, job losses due to industrial restructuring caused New York City, including Manhattan, to suffer from economic problems and rising crime rates.[93] While a resurgence in the financial industry greatly improved the city's economic health in the 1980s, New York's crime rate continued to increase through the decade and into the beginning of the 1990s.[94] The 1980s saw a rebirth of Wall Street, and Manhattan reclaimed its role as the world's financial center, with Wall Street employment doubling from 1977 to 1987.[95] The 1980s also saw Manhattan at the heart of the AIDS crisis, with Greenwich Village at its epicenter.[96]

In the 1970s, Times Square and 42nd Street – with its sex shops, peep shows, and adult theaters, along with its sex trade, street crime, and public drug use – became emblematic of the city's decline, with a 1981 article in Rolling Stone magazine calling the stretch of West 42nd Street between 7th and 8th Avenues the "sleaziest block in America".[97] By the late 1990s, led by efforts by the city and the Walt Disney Company, the area had been revived as a center of tourism to the point where it was described by The New York Times as "arguably the most sought-after 13 acres of commercial property in the world."[98]

By the 1990s, crime rates began to drop dramatically[99][100] and the city once again became the destination of immigrants from around the world, joining with low interest rates and Wall Street bonus payments to fuel the growth of the real estate market.[101] Important new sectors, such as Silicon Alley, emerged in the Flatiron District, cementing technology as a key component of Manhattan's economy.[102]

The 1993 World Trade Center bombing, described by the FBI as "something of a deadly dress rehearsal for 9/11", was a terrorist attack in which six people were killed when a van bomb filled with explosives was detonated in a parking lot below the North Tower of the World Trade Center complex.[103]

21st century

See also: September 11 attacks

United Airlines Flight 175 hits the South Tower on September 11, 2001.

On September 11, 2001, the Twin Towers of the original World Trade Center were struck by hijacked aircraft and collapsed in the September 11 attacks launched by al-Qaeda terrorists. The collapse caused extensive damage to surrounding buildings and skyscrapers in Lower Manhattan, and resulted in the deaths of 2,606 of the 17,400 who had been in the buildings when the planes hit, in addition to those on the planes.[104] Since 2001, most of Lower Manhattan has been restored, although there has been controversy surrounding the rebuilding. In 2014, the new One World Trade Center, at 1,776 feet (541 m) measured to the top if its spire, became the tallest building in the Western Hemisphere[105] and is the world's seventh-tallest building (as of 2023).[106]

The Occupy Wall Street protests in Zuccotti Park in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan began on September 17, 2011, receiving global attention and spawning the Occupy movement against social and economic inequality worldwide.[107][108]

On October 29 and 30, 2012, Hurricane Sandy caused extensive destruction in the borough, ravaging portions of Lower Manhattan with record-high storm surge from New York Harbor,[109] severe flooding, and high winds, causing power outages for hundreds of thousands of city residents[110] and leading to gasoline shortages[111] and disruption of mass transit systems.[112][113][114][115] The storm and its profound impacts have prompted discussion of constructing seawalls and other coastal barriers around the shorelines of the borough and the metropolitan area to minimize the risk of destructive consequences from another such event in the future.[116]

On October 31, 2017, a terrorist drove a truck down a bike path alongside the West Side Highway in Lower Manhattan, killing eight.[117]

Geography

See also: Geography of New York City

Satellite image of Manhattan, bounded by the Hudson River to the west, the Harlem River to the north, the East River to the east, and New York Harbor to the south, with rectangular Central Park prominently visible. Roosevelt Island, in the East River, belongs to Manhattan.

According to the United States Census Bureau, New York County has a total area of 33.6 square miles (87 km2), of which 22.8 square miles (59 km2) is land and 10.8 square miles (28 km2) (32%) is water.[1] The northern segment of Upper Manhattan represents a geographic panhandle. Manhattan Island is 22.7 square miles (59 km2) in area, 13.4 miles (21.6 km) long and 2.3 miles (3.7 km) wide, at its widest point, near 14th Street.[118]

The borough consists primarily of Manhattan Island, along with the Marble Hill neighborhood and several small islands, including Randalls Island and Wards Island and Roosevelt Island in the East River; and Governors Island and Liberty Island to the south in New York Harbor.[119]

Manhattan Island

Manhattan Island is loosely divided into Downtown (Lower Manhattan), Midtown (Midtown Manhattan), and Uptown (Upper Manhattan), with Fifth Avenue dividing Manhattan lengthwise into its East Side and West Side.[120] Manhattan Island is bounded by the Hudson River to the west and the East River to the east. To the north, the Harlem River divides Manhattan Island from the Bronx and the mainland United States. Early in the 19th century, land reclamation was used to expand Lower Manhattan from the natural Hudson shoreline at Greenwich Street to West Street.[121] When building the World Trade Center in 1968, 1.2 million cubic yards (920,000 m3) of material excavated from the site[122] was used to expand the Manhattan shoreline across West Street, creating Battery Park City.[123] Constructed on piers at a cost of $260 million, Little Island opened on the Hudson River in May 2021, connected to the western termini of 13th and 14th Streets by footbridges.[124]

Marble Hill

Main article: Marble Hill, Manhattan

Marble Hill was part of the northern tip of Manhattan Island, but the Harlem River Ship Canal, dug in 1895 to better connect the Harlem and Hudson rivers, separated it from the remainder of Manhattan.[125] Before World War I, the section of the original Harlem River channel separating Marble Hill from the Bronx was filled in, and Marble Hill became part of the mainland.[126] After a May 1984 court ruling that Marble Hill was simultaneously part of the Borough of Manhattan (not the Borough of the Bronx) and part of Bronx County (not New York County),[127] the matter was definitively settled later that year when the New York Legislature overwhelmingly passed legislation declaring the neighborhood part of both New York County and the Borough of Manhattan.[128][129]

Smaller islands

See also: List of smaller islands in New York City

A tall green statue on an island in a harbor.
Liberty Island, an exclave of Manhattan, New York City, and the state of New York, that is surrounded by New Jersey waters

Within New York Harbor, there are three smaller islands:

Other smaller islands, in the East River, include (from north to south):

Geology

Main article: Geology of Manhattan

The bedrock underlying much of Manhattan consists of three rock formations: Inwood marble, Fordham gneiss, and Manhattan schist, and is well suited for the foundations of Manhattan's skyscrapers.[134] It is part of the Manhattan Prong physiographic region.

Adjacent counties

Climate

See also: Climate of New York City

Central Park in autumn

Under the Köppen climate classification, New York City features both a humid subtropical climate (Cfa) and a humid continental climate (Dfa);[135] it is the northernmost major city on the North American continent with a humid subtropical climate. The city averages 234 days with at least some sunshine annually.[136]

Winters are cold and damp, and prevailing wind patterns that blow offshore temper the moderating effects of the Atlantic Ocean, yet the Atlantic and the partial shielding from colder air by the Appalachians keep the city warmer in the winter than inland North American cities at similar or lesser latitudes. The daily mean temperature in January, the area's coldest month, is 32.6 °F (0.3 °C);[137] temperatures usually drop to 10 °F (−12 °C) several times per winter,[137][138] and reach 60 °F (16 °C) several days in the coldest winter month.[137] Spring and autumn are unpredictable and can range from chilly to warm, although they are usually mild with low humidity. Summers are typically warm to hot and humid, with a daily mean temperature of 76.5 °F (24.7 °C) in July.[137] Nighttime conditions are often exacerbated by the urban heat island phenomenon, which causes heat absorbed during the day to be radiated back at night, raising temperatures by as much as 7 °F (4 °C) when winds are slow.[139] Daytime temperatures exceed 90 °F (32 °C) on average of 17 days each summer[140] and in some years exceed 100 °F (38 °C). Extreme temperatures have ranged from −15 °F (−26 °C), recorded on February 9, 1934, up to 106 °F (41 °C) on July 9, 1936.[140]

Manhattan receives 49.9 inches (1,270 mm) of precipitation annually, which is relatively evenly spread throughout the year. Average winter snowfall between 1981 and 2010 has been 25.8 inches (66 cm); this varies considerably from year to year.[140]

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 72
(22)
78
(26)
86
(30)
96
(36)
99
(37)
101
(38)
106
(41)
104
(40)
102
(39)
94
(34)
84
(29)
75
(24)
106
(41)
Mean maximum °F (°C) 60.4
(15.8)
60.7
(15.9)
70.3
(21.3)
82.9
(28.3)
88.5
(31.4)
92.1
(33.4)
95.7
(35.4)
93.4
(34.1)
89.0
(31.7)
79.7
(26.5)
70.7
(21.5)
62.9
(17.2)
97.0
(36.1)
Mean daily maximum °F (°C) 39.5
(4.2)
42.2
(5.7)
49.9
(9.9)
61.8
(16.6)
71.4
(21.9)
79.7
(26.5)
84.9
(29.4)
83.3
(28.5)
76.2
(24.6)
64.5
(18.1)
54.0
(12.2)
44.3
(6.8)
62.6
(17.0)
Daily mean °F (°C) 33.7
(0.9)
35.9
(2.2)
42.8
(6.0)
53.7
(12.1)
63.2
(17.3)
72.0
(22.2)
77.5
(25.3)
76.1
(24.5)
69.2
(20.7)
57.9
(14.4)
48.0
(8.9)
39.1
(3.9)
55.8
(13.2)
Mean daily minimum °F (°C) 27.9
(−2.3)
29.5
(−1.4)
35.8
(2.1)
45.5
(7.5)
55.0
(12.8)
64.4
(18.0)
70.1
(21.2)
68.9
(20.5)
62.3
(16.8)
51.4
(10.8)
42.0
(5.6)
33.8
(1.0)
48.9
(9.4)
Mean minimum °F (°C) 9.8
(−12.3)
12.7
(−10.7)
19.7
(−6.8)
32.8
(0.4)
43.9
(6.6)
52.7
(11.5)
61.8
(16.6)
60.3
(15.7)
50.2
(10.1)
38.4
(3.6)
27.7
(−2.4)
18.0
(−7.8)
7.7
(−13.5)
Record low °F (°C) −6
(−21)
−15
(−26)
3
(−16)
12
(−11)
32
(0)
44
(7)
52
(11)
50
(10)
39
(4)
28
(−2)
5
(−15)
−13
(−25)
−15
(−26)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 3.64
(92)
3.19
(81)
4.29
(109)
4.09
(104)
3.96
(101)
4.54
(115)
4.60
(117)
4.56
(116)
4.31
(109)
4.38
(111)
3.58
(91)
4.38
(111)
49.52
(1,258)
Average snowfall inches (cm) 8.8
(22)
10.1
(26)
5.0
(13)
0.4
(1.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.1
(0.25)
0.5
(1.3)
4.9
(12)
29.8
(76)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 10.8 10.0 11.1 11.4 11.5 11.2 10.5 10.0 8.8 9.5 9.2 11.4 125.4
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 3.7 3.2 2.0 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 2.1 11.4
Average relative humidity (%) 61.5 60.2 58.5 55.3 62.7 65.2 64.2 66.0 67.8 65.6 64.6 64.1 63.0
Mean monthly sunshine hours 162.7 163.1 212.5 225.6 256.6 257.3 268.2 268.2 219.3 211.2 151.0 139.0 2,534.7
Percent possible sunshine 54 55 57 57 57 57 59 63 59 61 51 48 57
Source 1: NOAA[140][137][136]
Source 2: Weather Atlas[142]

Neighborhoods

Main articles: Neighborhoods in New York City and List of Manhattan neighborhoods

The Empire State Building (in foreground) looking south from the top of Rockefeller Center with One World Trade Center (in background)

Manhattan's many neighborhoods are not named according to any particular convention, nor do they have official boundaries. Some are geographical (the Upper East Side), or ethnically descriptive (Little Italy). Others are acronyms, such as TriBeCa (for "TRIangle BElow CAnal Street") or SoHo ("SOuth of HOuston"), NoLIta ("NOrth of Little ITAly"), and NoMad ("NOrth of MADison Square Park").[143][144][145][146][147] Harlem is a name from the Dutch colonial era after Haarlem, a city in the Netherlands.[148] Some have simple folkloric names, such as Hell's Kitchen, alongside their more official but lesser used title (in this case, Clinton).[149]

Some neighborhoods, such as SoHo, which is mixed use, are known for upscale shopping as well as residential use.[150] Others, such as Greenwich Village, the Lower East Side, Alphabet City and the East Village, have long been associated with the Bohemian subculture.[151][152][153] Chelsea is one of several Manhattan neighborhoods with large gay populations and has become a center of both the international art industry and New York's nightlife.[154] Chinatown has the highest concentration of people of Chinese descent outside of Asia.[155][156] Koreatown is roughly centered on 32nd Street between Fifth and Sixth Avenues.[157] Rose Hill features a growing number of Indian restaurants and spice shops along a stretch of Lexington Avenue between 25th and 30th Streets which has become known as Curry Hill.[158] Washington Heights in Uptown Manhattan is home to the largest Dominican immigrant community in the United States.[159] Harlem, also in Upper Manhattan, is the historical epicenter of African American culture.[160] Since 2010, a Little Australia has emerged and is growing in Nolita, Lower Manhattan.[161]

Manhattan has two central business districts, the Financial District at the southern tip of the island, and Midtown Manhattan. The term uptown also refers to the northern part of Manhattan above 72nd Street and downtown to the southern portion below 14th Street,[162] with Midtown covering the area in between, though definitions can be fluid. Fifth Avenue roughly bisects Manhattan Island and acts as the demarcation line for east/west designations.[162][163] South of Waverly Place, Fifth Avenue terminates and Broadway becomes the east/west demarcation line.[citation needed] In Manhattan, uptown means north and downtown means south.[164] This usage differs from that of most American cities, where downtown refers to the central business district.

Boroughscape

Demographics

Main article: Demographics of Manhattan

Looking at crowds down Broadway
Broadway in Midtown Manhattan. As of the 2020 U.S. census, Manhattan was the most densely populated municipality in the United States.

As of the 2020 census, Manhattan's population had increased by 6.8% over the decade to 1,694,250, representing 19.2% of New York City's population of 8,804,194 and 8.4% of New York State's population of 20,201,230.[3] The population density of New York County was 70,450.8 inhabitants per square mile (27,201.2/km2) in 2022, the highest population density of any county in the United States and higher than the density of any individual U.S. city.[165] [166] At the 2010 census, there were 1,585,873 people living in Manhattan, an increase of 3.2% from the 1,537,195 counted in the 2000 census.[167]

Racial composition 2020[169] 2010[170] 2000[171] 1990[79] 1950[79] 1900[79]
White 50.0% 57.4% 54.3% 58.3% 79.4% 97.8%
 —Non-Hispanic 46.8% 48% 45.7% 48.9% n/a n/a
Black or African American 13.5% 15.6% 17.3% 22.0% 19.6% 2.0%
Hispanic or Latino (of any race) 23.8% 25.4% 27.1% 26.0% n/a n/a
Asian 13.1% 11.3% 9.4% 7.4% 0.8% 0.3%

Religion

In 2010, the largest organized religious group in Manhattan was the Archdiocese of New York, with 323,325 Catholics worshiping at 109 parishes, followed by 64,000 Orthodox Jews with 77 congregations, an estimated 42,545 Muslims with 21 congregations, 42,502 non-denominational adherents with 54 congregations, 26,178 TEC Episcopalians with 46 congregations, 25,048 ABC-USA Baptists with 41 congregations, 24,536 Reform Jews with 10 congregations, 23,982 Mahayana Buddhists with 35 congregations, 10,503 PC-USA Presbyterians with 30 congregations, and 10,268 RCA Presbyterians with 10 congregations. Altogether, 44.0% of the population was claimed as members by religious congregations, although members of historically African-American denominations were underrepresented due to incomplete information.[172] In 2014, Manhattan had 703 religious organizations, the seventeenth most out of all US counties.[173] There is a large Buddhist temple in Manhattan located at the foot of the Manhattan Bridge in Chinatown.[174]

Languages

As of 2015, 60.0% (927,650) of Manhattan residents, aged five and older, spoke only English at home, while 22.63% (350,112) spoke Spanish, 5.37% (83,013) Chinese, 2.21% (34,246) French, 0.85% (13,138) Korean, 0.72% (11,135) Russian, and 0.70% (10,766) Japanese. In total, 40.0% of Manhattan's population, aged five and older, spoke a language other than English at home.[175]

Landmarks and architecture

Main article: Architecture of New York City

See also: List of skyscrapers in New York City

Points of interest on Manhattan Island include the American Museum of Natural History; the Battery; Broadway and the Theater District; Bryant Park; Central Park, Chinatown; the Chrysler Building; The Cloisters; Columbia University; Curry Hill; the Empire State Building; Flatiron Building; the Financial District (including the New York Stock Exchange Building; Wall Street; and the South Street Seaport); Grand Central Terminal; Greenwich Village (including New York University; Washington Square Arch; and Stonewall Inn); Harlem and Spanish Harlem; the High Line; Koreatown; Lincoln Center; Little Australia; Little Italy; Madison Square Garden; Museum Mile on Fifth Avenue (including the Metropolitan Museum of Art); Penn Station, Port Authority Bus Terminal; Rockefeller Center (including Radio City Music Hall); Times Square; and the World Trade Center (including the National September 11 Museum and One World Trade Center).

There are also numerous iconic bridges across rivers that connect to Manhattan Island, as well as an emerging number of supertall skyscrapers. The Statue of Liberty rests on Liberty Island, an exclave of Manhattan, and part of Ellis Island is also an exclave of Manhattan. The borough has many energy-efficient office buildings, such as the Hearst Tower, the rebuilt 7 World Trade Center,[176] and the Bank of America Tower—the first skyscraper designed to attain a Platinum LEED Certification.[177][178]

Many tall buildings have setbacks on their facade due to the 1916 Zoning Resolution, exemplified at Park Avenue and 57th Street in Midtown Manhattan.

The skyscraper, which has shaped Manhattan's distinctive skyline, has been closely associated with New York City's identity since the end of the 19th century.[179] Structures such as the Equitable Building of 1915, which rises vertically forty stories from the sidewalk, prompted the passage of the 1916 Zoning Resolution, requiring new buildings to contain setbacks withdrawing progressively at a defined angle from the street as they rose, in order to preserve a view of the sky at street level.[180] Manhattan's skyline includes several buildings that are symbolic of New York, in particular the Chrysler Building[181]: 14  and the Empire State Building, which sees about 4 million visitors a year.[182]

In 1961, the struggling Pennsylvania Railroad unveiled plans to tear down the old Penn Station and replace it with a new Madison Square Garden and office building complex.[183] Organized protests were aimed at preserving the McKim, Mead & White-designed structure completed in 1910, widely considered a masterpiece of the Beaux-Arts style and one of the architectural jewels of New York City.[184] Despite these efforts, demolition of the structure began in October 1963.[185] The loss of Penn Station led directly to the enactment in 1965 of a local law establishing the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission, which is responsible for preserving the "city's historic, aesthetic, and cultural heritage".[186] The historic preservation movement triggered by Penn Station's demise has been credited with the retention of some one million structures nationwide, including over 1,000 in New York City.[187] In 2017, a multibillion-dollar rebuilding plan was unveiled to restore the historic grandeur of Penn Station, in the process of upgrading the landmark's status as a critical transportation hub.[188]

The 700,000 sq ft (65,000 m2) Moynihan Train Hall, developed as a $1.6 billion renovation and expansion of Penn Station into the James A. Farley Building, the city's former main post office building, was opened in January 2021.[189]

National protected areas

Parkland

Central Park

Parkland covers a total of 2,659 acres (10.76 km2), accounting for 18.2% of the borough's land area; the 840-acre (3.4 km2) Central Park is the borough's largest park, comprising 31.6% of Manhattan's parkland.[190] Designed by Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux, the park is anchored by the 12-acre (4.9 ha) Great Lawn[191] and offers extensive walking tracks, two ice-skating rinks, a wildlife sanctuary, and several lawns and sporting areas, as well as 21 playgrounds,[192] and a 6-mile (9.7 km) road from which automobile traffic has been banned since 2018.[193] While much of the park looks natural, it is almost entirely landscaped; the construction of Central Park in the 1850s was one of the era's most massive public works projects, with some 20,000 workers moving 5 million cubic yards (3.8 million cubic meters) of material to shape the topography and create the English-style pastoral landscape that Olmsted and Vaux sought.[194]

The remaining 70% of Manhattan's parkland includes 204 playgrounds, 251 Greenstreets, 371 basketball courts, and many other amenities.[195] The next-largest park in Manhattan, the Hudson River Park, stretches 4.5 miles (7.2 km) along the Hudson River and comprises 550 acres (220 ha).[196] Other major parks include:[190]

Economy

Main article: Economy of New York City

The New York Stock Exchange

Manhattan is the economic engine of New York City, with its 2.45 million workers drawn from the entire New York metropolitan area accounting for almost more than half of all jobs in New York City.[197]Manhattan's workforce is overwhelmingly focused on white collar professions. In 2010, Manhattan's daytime population was swelling to 3.94 million, with commuters adding a net 1.48 million people to the population, along with visitors, tourists, and commuting students. The commuter influx of 1.61 million workers coming into Manhattan was the largest of any county or city in the country.[198]

Manhattan had the highest per capita income, at $186,848 in 2022, among United States counties with more than 50,000 residents.[199] Based on census data for New York County for 2018–2022, the median household income was $99,880 and the poverty rate was 17.2%.[3] In the second quarter of 2023, Manhattan had an average weekly wage of $2,590, ranked fourth-highest among the nation's 360 largest counties.[197] Data for 2022 from the Census Bureau showed growing inequality, with those in the top 20% having an average household income of $545,549, more than 50 times higher than the $10,529 average income in the lowest 20% of households, the largest gap of any county in the country and "larger ... than in many developing countries",[200][201] with inequality growing steadily since 2010.[202] As of 2023, Manhattan's cost of living was the highest in the United States.[203]

Financial sector

Main article: Wall Street

The Financial District of Lower Manhattan, seen from Brooklyn

Manhattan's most important economic sector lies in its role as the headquarters for the U.S. financial industry, metonymously known as Wall Street. Manhattan is home to the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), at 11 Wall Street in Lower Manhattan, and the Nasdaq, now located at 4 Times Square in Midtown Manhattan, representing the world's largest and second-largest stock exchanges, respectively, when measured both by overall share trading value and by total market capitalization of their listed companies in 2023.[24] The NYSE American (formerly the American Stock Exchange, AMEX), New York Board of Trade, and the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) are also located downtown.

Corporate sector

New York City is home to the most corporate headquarters of any city in the United States, the overwhelming majority based in Manhattan.[204] Manhattan had more than 520 million square feet (48 million square meters) of office space in 2022,[205] making it the largest office market in the United States; while Midtown Manhattan, with more than 400 million square feet (37 million square meters) is the largest central business district in the world.[206] Lower Manhattan is the third-largest U.S. central business district (following the Chicago Loop).[207][208] New York City's role as the top global center for the advertising industry is metonymously known as "Madison Avenue".[209]

Tech and biotech

Further information: Tech companies in Manhattan, Biotech companies in Manhattan, Silicon Alley, and Tech:NYC

The Flatiron District, the birthplace and center of Silicon Alley[210]

Manhattan has driven New York's status as a top-tier global high technology hub.[211][212] Silicon Alley, once a metonym for the sphere encompassing the metropolitan region's high tech industries,[213] is no longer a relevant moniker as the city's tech environment has expanded dramatically both in location and in its scope. New York City's current tech sphere encompasses a universal array of applications involving artificial intelligence, the internet, new media, financial technology (fintech) and cryptocurrency, biotechnology, game design, and other fields within information technology that are supported by its entrepreneurship ecosystem and venture capital investments. As of 2014, New York City hosted 300,000 employees in the tech sector.[214][215] In 2015, Silicon Alley generated over US$7.3 billion in venture capital investment,[216] most based in Manhattan, as well as in Brooklyn, Queens, and elsewhere in the region. High technology startup companies and employment are growing in Manhattan and across New York City, bolstered by the city's emergence as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship,[216] social tolerance,[217] and environmental sustainability,[218][219] as well as New York's position as the leading Internet hub and telecommunications center in North America, including its vicinity to several transatlantic fiber optic trunk lines, the city's intellectual capital, and its extensive outdoor wireless connectivity.[220] Verizon Communications, headquartered at 140 West Street in Lower Manhattan, was at the final stages in 2014 of completing a US$3 billion fiberoptic telecommunications upgrade throughout New York City.[221]

The biotechnology sector is also growing in Manhattan based upon the city's strength in academic scientific research and public and commercial financial support. By mid-2014, Accelerator, a biotech investment firm, had raised more than US$30 million from investors, including Eli Lilly and Company, Pfizer, and Johnson & Johnson, for initial funding to create biotechnology startups at the Alexandria Center for Life Science, which encompasses more than 700,000 square feet (65,000 m2) on East 29th Street and promotes collaboration among scientists and entrepreneurs at the center and with nearby academic, medical, and research institutions. The New York City Economic Development Corporation's Early Stage Life Sciences Funding Initiative and venture capital partners, including Celgene, General Electric Ventures, and Eli Lilly, committed a minimum of US$100 million to help launch 15 to 20 ventures in life sciences and biotechnology.[222] In 2011, Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg had announced his choice of Cornell University and Technion-Israel Institute of Technology to build a US$2 billion graduate school of applied sciences on Roosevelt Island, Manhattan, with the goal of transforming New York City into the world's premier technology capital.[223][224][needs update]

Tourism

Main article: Tourism in New York City

Times Square is the hub of Broadway's theater district and a major Manhattan cultural venue with 50 million tourists annually, making it one of the world's most popular tourist destinations.[25]

Tourism is vital to Manhattan's economy, and the landmarks of Manhattan are the focus of New York City's tourists, with a record 66.6 million visiting the city in 2019, bringing in $47.4 billion in tourism revenue. Visitor numbers dropped by two-thirds in 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic, climbing back to 63.3 million visitors in 2023.[225][226] In the 2018–19 Broadway theater season ending in May 2019, total attendance set records of 14.8 million and shows grossed $1.83 billion.[227] Recovering from closures during the COVID-19 pandemic, 2022-23 revenues rebounded to $1.58 billion with total attendance of 12.3 million.[228]

Real estate

Real estate is a major force in Manhattan's economy. Manhattan has perennially been home to some of the nation's, as well as the world's, most valuable real estate, including the Time Warner Center, which had the highest-listed market value in the city in 2006 at US$1.1 billion,[229] to be subsequently surpassed in October 2014 by the Waldorf Astoria New York, which became the most expensive hotel ever sold after being purchased by the Anbang Insurance Group, based in China, for US$1.95 billion.[230] When 450 Park Avenue was sold on July 2, 2007, for US$510 million, about US$1,589 per square foot (US$17,104/m²), it broke the barely month-old record for an American office building of US$1,476 per square foot (US$15,887/m²) based on the sale of 660 Madison Avenue.[231] In 2014, Manhattan was home to six of the top ten zip codes in the United States by median housing price.[232] In 2019, the most expensive home sale ever in the United States occurred in Manhattan, at a selling price of US$238 million, for a 24,000-square-foot (2,200 m2) penthouse apartment overlooking Central Park,[233] while Central Park Tower, topped out at 1,550 feet (472 m) in 2019, is the world's tallest residential building, followed globally in height by 111 West 57th Street and 432 Park Avenue, both also located in Midtown Manhattan.

Media

Main articles: Media in New York City and New Yorkers in journalism

See also: List of films set in New York City and List of television shows set in New York City

Manhattan has been described as the media capital of the world.[234][235] A significant array of media outlets and their journalists report about international, American, business, entertainment, and New York metropolitan area–related matters from Manhattan.

The headquarters of The New York Times at 620 Eighth Avenue

Manhattan is served by the major New York City daily news publications, including The New York Times, which has won the most Pulitzer Prizes for journalism[236] and is considered the U.S. media's newspaper of record;[237] the New York Daily News; and the New York Post, which are all headquartered in the borough. The nation's largest newspaper by circulation, The Wall Street Journal, is also based in Manhattan.[238] Other daily newspapers include AM New York and The Villager. The New York Amsterdam News, based in Harlem, is one of the leading Black-owned weekly newspapers in the United States. The Village Voice, historically the largest alternative newspaper in the United States, announced in 2017 that it would cease publication of its print edition and convert to a fully digital venture.[239]

The television industry developed in Manhattan and is a significant employer in the borough's economy. The four major American broadcast networks, ABC, CBS, NBC, and Fox,[240] as well as Univision, are all headquartered in Manhattan, as are many cable channels, including CNN, MSNBC, MTV, Fox News, HBO, and Comedy Central. In 1971, WLIB became New York City's first Black-owned radio station[241] and began broadcasts geared toward the African-American community in 1949.[242] WQHT, also known as Hot 97, claims to be the premier hip-hop station in the United States.[243] WNYC, broadcasting on both an AM and FM signal, has the largest public radio audience in the nation and is the most-listened to commercial or non-commercial radio station in Manhattan.[244] WBAI, owned by the non-profit Pacifica Foundation, broadcasts eclectic music, as well as political news, talk and opinion from a left-leaning viewpoint.[245]

The oldest public-access television cable TV channel in the United States is the Manhattan Neighborhood Network, founded in 1971, offers eclectic local programming that ranges from a jazz hour to discussions of labor issues to foreign language and religious programming.[246] NY1, Charter Communications's local news channel, is known for its beat coverage of City Hall and state politics.[247]

Education

See also: Education in New York City, List of high schools in New York City, and List of colleges and universities in New York City

The notable architectural design of Butler Library at Columbia University, an Ivy League university in Manhattan[248]
Stuyvesant High School in Tribeca[249]
New York Public Library Main Branch at 42nd Street and Fifth Avenue

Education in Manhattan is provided by a vast number of public and private institutions. Non-charter public schools in the borough are operated by the New York City Department of Education,[250] the largest public school system in the United States. Charter schools include Success Academy Harlem 1 through 5, Success Academy Upper West, and Public Prep.

Several notable New York City public high schools are located in Manhattan, including A. Philip Randolph Campus High School, Beacon High School, Stuyvesant High School, Fiorello H. LaGuardia High School, High School of Fashion Industries, Eleanor Roosevelt High School, NYC Lab School, Manhattan Center for Science and Mathematics, Hunter College High School, and High School for Math, Science and Engineering at City College. Bard High School Early College, a hybrid school created by Bard College, serves students from around the city.

Many private preparatory schools are also situated in Manhattan, including the Upper East Side's Brearley School, Dalton School, Browning School, Spence School, Chapin School, Nightingale-Bamford School, Convent of the Sacred Heart, Hewitt School, Saint David's School, Loyola School, and Regis High School. The Upper West Side is home to the Collegiate School and Trinity School. The borough is also home to Manhattan Country School, Trevor Day School, Xavier High School and the United Nations International School.

Based on data from the 2011–2015 American Community Survey, 59.9% of Manhattan residents over age 25 have a bachelor's degree.[251] As of 2005, about 60% of residents were college graduates and some 25% had earned advanced degrees, giving Manhattan one of the nation's densest concentrations of highly educated people.[252]

Manhattan has various colleges and universities, including Columbia University (and its affiliate Barnard College), Cooper Union, Marymount Manhattan College, New York Institute of Technology, New York University (NYU), The Juilliard School, Pace University, Berkeley College, The New School, Yeshiva University, and a campus of Fordham University. Other schools include Bank Street College of Education, Boricua College, Jewish Theological Seminary of America, Manhattan School of Music, Metropolitan College of New York, Parsons School of Design, School of Visual Arts, Touro College, and Union Theological Seminary. Several other private institutions maintain a Manhattan presence, among them Mercy College, St. John's University, Adelphi University, The King's College, and Pratt Institute. Cornell Tech, part of Cornell University, is developing on Roosevelt Island.

The City University of New York (CUNY), the municipal college system of New York City, is the largest urban university system in the United States, serving more than 226,000 degree students and a roughly equal number of adult, continuing and professional education students.[253] A third of college graduates in New York City graduate from CUNY, with the institution enrolling about half of all college students in New York City. CUNY senior colleges located in Manhattan include: Baruch College, City College of New York, Hunter College, John Jay College of Criminal Justice and William E. Macaulay Honors College; graduate studies and doctorate-granting institutions are Craig Newmark Graduate School of Journalism at the City University of New York, CUNY Graduate Center, CUNY Graduate School of Public Health & Health Policy, CUNY School of Labor and Urban Studies and CUNY School of Professional Studies.[254][255] The only CUNY community college located in Manhattan is the Borough of Manhattan Community College.[256] The State University of New York is represented by the Fashion Institute of Technology, State University of New York State College of Optometry, and Stony Brook University – Manhattan.[257]

Manhattan is a world center for training and education in medicine and the life sciences.[258] The city as a whole receives the second-highest amount of annual funding from the National Institutes of Health among all U.S. cities,[259] the bulk of which goes to Manhattan's research institutions, including Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Rockefeller University, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Weill Cornell Medical College, and New York University School of Medicine.

Manhattan is served by the New York Public Library, which has the largest collection of any public library system in the country.[260] The five units of the Central Library—Mid-Manhattan Library, 53rd Street Library, the New York Public Library for the Performing Arts, Andrew Heiskell Braille and Talking Book Library, and the Science, Industry and Business Library—are all located in Manhattan.[261] More than 35 other branch libraries are located in the borough.[262]

Culture

See also: Culture of New York City

Further information: Broadway theatre, LGBT culture in New York City, List of museums and cultural institutions in New York City, Music of New York City, List of nightclubs in New York City, Met Gala, New York Fashion Week, NYC Pride March, and Stonewall Riots

The Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts
The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Manhattan is the borough most closely associated with New York City by non-residents; regionally, residents within the New York City metropolitan area, including natives of New York City's boroughs outside Manhattan, will often describe a trip to Manhattan as "going to the City".[263] Poet Walt Whitman characterized the streets of Manhattan as being traversed by "hurrying, feverish, electric crowds".[264]

Manhattan has been the scene of many important global and American cultural movements. The Harlem Renaissance in the 1920s established the African-American literary canon in the United States and introduced writers Langston Hughes and Zora Neale Hurston. Manhattan's visual art scene in the 1950s and 1960s was a center of the pop art movement, which gave birth to such giants as Jasper Johns and Roy Lichtenstein. The downtown pop art movement of the late 1970s included artist Andy Warhol and clubs like Serendipity 3 and Studio 54, where he socialized.

Broadway theatre is considered the highest professional form of theatre in the United States. Plays and musicals are staged in one of the 39 larger professional theatres with at least 500 seats, almost all in and around Times Square. Off-Broadway theatres feature productions in venues with 100–500 seats.[265][266] Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts, anchoring Lincoln Square on the Upper West Side of Manhattan, is home to 12 influential arts organizations, including the Metropolitan Opera, New York Philharmonic, and New York City Ballet, as well as the Vivian Beaumont Theater, the Juilliard School, Jazz at Lincoln Center, and Alice Tully Hall. Performance artists displaying diverse skills are ubiquitous on the streets of Manhattan.

Manhattan is also home to some of the most extensive art collections in the world, both contemporary and classical art, including the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA), the Frick Collection, the Whitney Museum of American Art, and the Frank Lloyd Wright-designed Guggenheim Museum. The Upper East Side has many art galleries,[267][268] and the downtown neighborhood of Chelsea is known for its more than 200 art galleries that are home to modern art from both upcoming and established artists.[269][270] Many of the world's most lucrative art auctions are held in Manhattan.[271][272]

The Empire State Building displays the colors of the Rainbow Flag as an LGBT icon, top. The annual NYC Pride March in June (seen here in 2018) is the world's largest LGBT event, imaged below.[273][274]

Manhattan is the epicenter of LGBT culture and the central node of the LGBTQ+ sociopolitical ecosystem.[275] The borough is widely acclaimed as the cradle of the modern LGBTQ rights movement, with its inception at the 1969 Stonewall Riots.[90][276][277][91][278] Brian Silverman, the author of Frommer's New York City from $90 a Day, wrote the city has "one of the world's largest, loudest, and most powerful LGBT communities", and "Gay and lesbian culture is as much a part of New York's basic identity as yellow cabs, high-rise buildings, and Broadway theatre"—[279] radiating from this central hub, as LGBT travel guide Queer in the World states, "The fabulosity of Gay New York is unrivaled on Earth, and queer culture seeps into every corner of its five boroughs".[280] Multiple gay villages have developed, spanning the length of the borough from the Lower East Side, East Village, and Greenwich Village, through Chelsea and Hell's Kitchen, uptown to Morningside Heights.

The annual NYC Pride March (or gay pride parade) traverses southward down Fifth Avenue and ends at Greenwich Village; the Manhattan parade is the largest pride parade in the world, attracting tens of thousands of participants and millions of sidewalk spectators each June.[273][274] Stonewall 50 – WorldPride NYC 2019 was the largest international Pride celebration in history, produced by Heritage of Pride. The events were in partnership with the I NY program's LGBT division, commemorating the 50th anniversary of the Stonewall uprising, with 150,000 participants and five million spectators attending in Manhattan.[281]

The borough is represented in several prominent idioms. The phrase New York minute is meant to convey an extremely short time such as an instant,[282] sometimes in hyperbolic form, as in "perhaps faster than you would believe is possible," referring to the rapid pace of life in Manhattan.[283][284] The expression "melting pot" was first popularly coined to describe the densely populated immigrant neighborhoods on the Lower East Side in Israel Zangwill's play The Melting Pot, which was an adaptation of William Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet set in New York City in 1908.[285] The iconic Flatiron Building is said to have been the source of the phrase "23 skidoo" or scram, from what cops would shout at men who tried to get glimpses of women's dresses being blown up by the winds created by the triangular building.[286] The "Big Apple" dates back to the 1920s, when a reporter heard the term used by New Orleans stable-hands to refer to New York City's horse racetracks and named his racing column "Around The Big Apple". Jazz musicians adopted the term to refer to the city as the world's jazz capital, and a 1970s ad campaign by the New York Convention and Visitors Bureau helped popularize the term.[287] Manhattan, Kansas, a city of 53,000 people,[288][importance?] was named by New York investors after the borough and is nicknamed the "little apple".[289]

Clockwise, from upper left: the annual Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade, the world's largest parade;[290] the annual Halloween Parade in Greenwich Village, the world's largest Halloween parade, with millions of spectators annually, and with its roots in New York's queer community;[291] the annual Philippine Independence Day Parade, the largest outside Manila;[292] and the ticker-tape parade for the Apollo 11 astronauts

Manhattan is well known for its street parades, which celebrate a broad array of themes, including holidays, nationalities, human rights, and major league sports team championship victories. The majority of higher profile parades in New York City are held in Manhattan. The primary orientation of the annual street parades is typically from north to south, marching along major avenues. The annual Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade is the world's largest parade,[290] beginning alongside Central Park and processing southward to the flagship Macy's Herald Square store;[293] the parade is viewed on telecasts worldwide and draws millions of spectators in person.[290]

Other notable parades including the world's oldest St. Patrick's Day Parade, held annually in March since 1762,[294][295] the NYC Pride March in June,[296] the Greenwich Village Halloween Parade in October,[297] and numerous parades commemorating the independence days of many nations.[298] Ticker-tape parades celebrating championships won by sports teams as well as other heroic national accomplishments march northward on Broadway from Bowling Green to City Hall Park in Lower Manhattan, along the Canyon of Heroes.[299] New York Fashion Week, held at various locations in Manhattan, is a high-profile semiannual event featuring models displaying the latest wardrobes created by prominent fashion designers worldwide in advance of these fashions proceeding to the retail marketplace.

Sports

Madison Square Garden, home to the New York Rangers of the National Hockey League and the New York Knicks of the National Basketball Association

Manhattan is home to the NBA's New York Knicks and the NHL's New York Rangers, both of which play their home games at Madison Square Garden, the only major professional sports arena in the borough.[300] The Garden was also home to the WNBA's New York Liberty through the 2017 season, but that team's primary home is now the Barclays Center in Brooklyn. The New York Jets proposed a West Side Stadium for their home field, but the proposal was eventually defeated in June 2005, and they now play at MetLife Stadium in East Rutherford, New Jersey.[301]

While Manhattan does not currently host a professional baseball franchise, three of the four Major League Baseball teams to have played in New York City played in Manhattan. The original New York Giants played in the various incarnations of the Polo Grounds at 155th Street and Eighth Avenue from their inception in 1883—except for 1889, when they split their time between Jersey City, New Jersey, and Staten Island, and when they played in Hilltop Park in 1911—until they headed to California with the Brooklyn Dodgers after the 1957 season.[302] The New York Yankees began their franchise as the Highlanders, named for Hilltop Park, where they played from their creation in 1903 until 1912.[303] The team moved to the Polo Grounds with the 1913 season, where they were officially christened the New York Yankees, remaining there until they moved across the Harlem River in 1923 to Yankee Stadium.[304] The New York Mets played in the Polo Grounds in 1962 and 1963, their first two seasons, before Shea Stadium was completed in 1964.[305] After the Mets departed, the Polo Grounds was demolished in April 1964, replaced by public housing.[306][307]

The first national college-level basketball championship, the National Invitation Tournament, was held in New York in 1938 and remains in the city.[308] The New York Knicks started play in 1946 as one of the National Basketball Association's original teams, playing their first home games at the 69th Regiment Armory, before making Madison Square Garden their permanent home.[309] The New York Liberty of the WNBA shared the Garden with the Knicks from their creation in 1997 as one of the league's original eight teams through the 2017 season,[310] after which the team moved nearly all of its home schedule to White Plains in Westchester County.[311] Rucker Park in Harlem is a playground court, famed for its streetball style of play, where many NBA athletes have played in the summer league.[312]

Although both of New York City's football teams play today across the Hudson River in MetLife Stadium in East Rutherford, New Jersey, both teams started out playing in the Polo Grounds. The New York Giants played side-by-side with their baseball namesakes from the time they entered the National Football League in 1925, until crossing over to Yankee Stadium in 1956.[313] The New York Jets, originally known as the Titans of New York, started out in 1960 at the Polo Grounds, staying there for four seasons before joining the Mets in Queens at Shea Stadium in 1964.[314]

The New York Rangers of the National Hockey League have played in the various locations of Madison Square Garden since the team's founding in the 1926–1927 season. The Rangers were predated by the New York Americans, who started play in the Garden the previous season, lasting until the team folded after the 1941–1942 NHL season, a season it played in the Garden as the Brooklyn Americans.[315]

The New York Cosmos of the North American Soccer League played their home games at Downing Stadium for two seasons, starting in 1974. The playing pitch and facilities at Downing Stadium were in unsatisfactory condition, however, and as the team's popularity grew they too left for Yankee Stadium, and then Giants Stadium. The stadium was demolished in 2002 to make way for the $45 million, 4,754-seat Icahn Stadium, which includes an Olympic-standard 400-meter running track and, as part of Pelé's and the Cosmos' legacy, includes a FIFA-approved floodlit soccer stadium that hosts matches between the 48 youth teams of a Manhattan soccer club.[316][317]

Government

Main article: Government of New York City

Manhattan Municipal Building

Since New York City's consolidation in 1898, Manhattan has been governed by the New York City Charter, which has provided for a strong mayor–council system since its revision in 1989.[318] The centralized New York City government is responsible for public education, correctional institutions, libraries, public safety, recreational facilities, sanitation, water supply, and welfare services in Manhattan.

The office of Borough President was created in the consolidation of 1898 to balance centralization with local authority. Each borough president had a powerful administrative role derived from having a vote on the New York City Board of Estimate, which was responsible for creating and approving the city's budget and proposals for land use. In 1989, the Supreme Court of the United States declared the Board of Estimate unconstitutional because Brooklyn, the most populous borough, had no greater effective representation on the Board than Staten Island, the least populous borough, a violation of the Fourteenth Amendment's Equal Protection Clause pursuant to the high court's 1964 "one man, one vote" decision.[319] Since 1990, the largely powerless Borough President has acted as an advocate for the borough at the mayoral agencies, the City Council, the New York state government, and corporations. Manhattan's current Borough President is Mark Levine, elected as a Democrat in November 2021. Levine replaced Gale Brewer, who went on to represent the sixth district of the New York City Council.

Alvin Bragg, a Democrat, is the District Attorney of New York County. Manhattan has ten City Council members, the third largest contingent among the five boroughs. It also has twelve administrative districts, each served by a local Community Board. Community Boards are representative bodies that field complaints and serve as advocates for local residents.

As the host of the United Nations, the borough is home to the world's largest international consular corps, comprising 105 consulates, consulates general and honorary consulates.[320] It is also the home of New York City Hall, the seat of New York City government housing the Mayor of New York City and the New York City Council. The mayor's staff and thirteen municipal agencies are located in the nearby Manhattan Municipal Building, completed in 1914, one of the largest governmental buildings in the world.[321]

Politics

See also: Community boards of Manhattan

United States presidential election results for New York County, New York[d][322][323][324]
Year Republican / Whig Democratic Third party
No.  % No.  % No.  %
2020 85,185 12.21% 603,040 86.42% 9,588 1.37%
2016 64,930 9.71% 579,013 86.56% 24,997 3.74%
2012 89,559 14.92% 502,674 83.74% 8,058 1.34%
2008 89,949 13.47% 572,370 85.70% 5,566 0.83%
2004 107,405 16.73% 526,765 82.06% 7,781 1.21%
2000 82,113 14.38% 454,523 79.60% 34,370 6.02%
1996 67,839 13.76% 394,131 79.96% 30,929 6.27%
1992 84,501 15.88% 416,142 78.20% 31,475 5.92%
1988 115,927 22.89% 385,675 76.14% 4,949 0.98%
1984 144,281 27.39% 379,521 72.06% 2,869 0.54%
1980 115,911 26.23% 275,742 62.40% 50,245 11.37%
1976 117,702 25.54% 337,438 73.22% 5,698 1.24%
1972 178,515 33.38% 354,326 66.25% 2,022 0.38%
1968 135,458 25.59% 370,806 70.04% 23,128 4.37%
1964 120,125 19.20% 503,848 80.52% 1,746 0.28%
1960 217,271 34.19% 414,902 65.28% 3,394 0.53%
1956 300,004 44.26% 377,856 55.74% 0 0.00%
1952 300,284 39.30% 446,727 58.47% 16,974 2.22%
1948 241,752 32.75% 380,310 51.51% 116,208 15.74%
1944 258,650 33.47% 509,263 65.90% 4,864 0.63%
1940 292,480 37.59% 478,153 61.45% 7,466 0.96%
1936 174,299 24.51% 517,134 72.71% 19,820 2.79%
1932 157,014 27.78% 378,077 66.89% 30,114 5.33%
1928 186,396 35.74% 317,227 60.82% 17,935 3.44%
1924 190,871 41.20% 183,249 39.55% 89,206 19.25%
1920 275,013 59.22% 135,249 29.12% 54,158 11.66%
1916 113,254 42.65% 139,547 52.55% 12,759 4.80%
1912 63,107 18.15% 166,157 47.79% 118,391 34.05%
1908 154,958 44.71% 160,261 46.24% 31,393 9.06%
1904 155,003 42.11% 189,712 51.54% 23,357 6.35%
1900 153,001 44.16% 181,786 52.47% 11,700 3.38%
1896 156,359 50.73% 135,624 44.00% 16,249 5.27%
1892 98,967 34.73% 175,267 61.50% 10,750 3.77%
1888 106,922 39.20% 162,735 59.67% 3,076 1.13%
1884 90,095 39.54% 133,222 58.47% 4,530 1.99%
1880 81,730 39.79% 123,015 59.90% 636 0.31%
1876 58,561 34.17% 112,530 65.66% 289 0.17%
1872 54,676 41.27% 77,814 58.73% 0 0.00%
1868 47,738 30.59% 108,316 69.41% 0 0.00%
1864 36,681 33.23% 73,709 66.77% 0 0.00%
1860 33,290 34.83% 62,293 65.17% 0 0.00%
1856 17,771 22.32% 41,913 52.65% 19,922 25.03%
1852 23,124 39.98% 34,280 59.27% 436 0.75%
1848 29,070 54.51% 18,973 35.57% 5,290 9.92%
1844 26,385 48.15% 28,296 51.64% 117 0.21%
1840 20,958 48.69% 21,936 50.96% 153 0.36%
1836 16,348 48.42% 17,417 51.58% 0 0.00%
1832 12,506 40.97% 18,020 59.03% 0 0.00%
1828 9,638 38.44% 15,435 61.56% 0 0.00%
James A. Farley Post Office

The Democratic Party holds most public offices. Registered Republicans are a minority in the borough, constituting 9.88% of the electorate as of April 2016. Registered Republicans are more than 20% of the electorate only in the neighborhoods of the Upper East Side and the Financial District as of 2016. Democrats accounted for 68.41% of those registered to vote, while 17.94% of voters were unaffiliated.[325][326]

As of 2023, three Democrats represented Manhattan in the United States House of Representatives.[327]

Federal offices

The United States Postal Service operates post offices in Manhattan. The James Farley Post Office at 421 Eighth Avenue in Midtown Manhattan, between 31st Street and 33rd Street, is New York City's main post office.[328] Both the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York and United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit are located in Lower Manhattan's Foley Square, and the U.S. Attorney and other federal offices and agencies maintain locations in that area.

Crime and public safety

Main article: Crime in New York City

Starting in the mid-19th century, the United States became a magnet for immigrants seeking to escape poverty in their home countries. After arriving in New York, many new arrivals ended up living in squalor in the slums of the Five Points neighborhood, an area between Broadway and the Bowery, northeast of New York City Hall. By the 1820s, the area was home to many gambling dens and brothels, and was known as a dangerous place to go. In 1842, Charles Dickens visited the area and was appalled at the horrendous living conditions he had seen.[329] The area was so notorious that it even caught the attention of Abraham Lincoln, who visited the area before his Cooper Union speech in 1860.[330] The predominantly Irish Five Points Gang was one of the country's first major organized crime entities.

As Italian immigration grew in the early 20th century many joined ethnic gangs, including Al Capone, who got his start in crime with the Five Points Gang.[331] The Mafia (also known as Cosa Nostra) first developed in the mid-19th century in Sicily and spread to the East Coast of the United States during the late 19th century following waves of Sicilian and Southern Italian emigration. Lucky Luciano established Cosa Nostra in Manhattan, forming alliances with other criminal enterprises, including the Jewish mob, led by Meyer Lansky, the leading Jewish gangster of that period.[332] From 1920 to 1933, Prohibition helped create a thriving black market in liquor, upon which the Mafia was quick to capitalize.[332]

New York City as a whole experienced a sharp increase in crime during the post-war period.[333] The murder rate in Manhattan hit an all-time high of 42 murders per 100,000 residents in 1979.[334] Manhattan retained the highest murder rate in the city until 1985 when it was surpassed by the Bronx.[334] Most serious violent crime has been historically concentrated in Upper Manhattan and the Lower East Side, though robbery in particular was a major quality of life concern throughout the borough. Through the 1990s and 2000s, levels of violent crime in Manhattan plummeted to levels not seen since the 1950s,[335] with murders in Manhattan dropping from 503 in 1990, at the citywide peak, to 78 in 2022, a decline of 84%.[336]

Today crime rates in most of Lower Manhattan, Midtown, the Upper East Side, and the Upper West Side are consistent with other major city centers in the United States. However, crime rates remain high in the Upper Manhattan neighborhoods of East Harlem, Harlem, Washington Heights, Inwood, and New York City Housing Authority developments across the borough, despite significant reductions. After the start of the COVID-19 pandemic in March 2020, there had been an increase in violent crime, particularly in Upper Manhattan.[337] Mirroring a nationwide trend, rates of shootings and violent crimes in 2023 declined from their peaks during the pandemic.[338][339][340]

Housing

Tenement houses in 1936
At the time of its construction, London Terrace in Chelsea was the largest apartment building in the world.

The rise of immigration near the turn of the 20th century left major portions of Manhattan, especially the Lower East Side, densely packed with recent arrivals, crammed into unhealthy and unsanitary housing. Tenements were usually five stories high, constructed on the then-typical 25 by 100 feet (7.6 by 30.5 m) lots, with "cockroach landlords" exploiting the new immigrants.[341][342] By 1929, stricter fire codes and the increased use of elevators in residential buildings, were the impetus behind a new housing code that effectively ended the tenement as a form of new construction, though many tenement buildings survive today on the East Side of the borough.[342] Conversely, there were also areas with luxury apartment developments, the first of which was the Dakota on the Upper West Side.[343]

Manhattan offers a wide array of private housing, as well as public housing, which is administered by the New York City Housing Authority (NYCHA). Affordable rental and co-operative housing units throughout the borough were created under the Mitchell–Lama Housing Program.[344] There were 923,302 housing units in 2022[3] at an average density of 40,745 units per square mile (15,732/km2). As of 2003, only 24.3% of Manhattan residents lived in owner-occupied housing, the second-lowest rate of all counties in the nation, behind the Bronx.[345] Public housing administered by NYCHA accounts for nearly 100,000 residents in more than 50,000 units in 2023.[346] Completed in 1935, the First Houses in the East Village were one of the country's first publicly-funded low-income housing projects.[347][348] At $2,024 in 2022, Manhattan has the highest average cost for rent of any county in the United States, although a lower percentage of annual income than in several other American cities.[349]

Manhattan's real estate market for luxury housing continues to be among the most expensive in the world,[350] and Manhattan residential property continues to have the highest sale price per square foot in the United States.[19] Manhattan's apartments cost $1,773 per square foot ($19,080/m2), compared to San Francisco housing at $1,185 per square foot ($12,760/m2), Boston housing at $751 per square foot ($8,080/m2), and Los Angeles housing at $451 per square foot ($4,850/m2).[351] As of the fourth quarter of 2021, the median value of homes in Manhattan was $1,306,208, second among US counties for highest median home value.[352]

Infrastructure

Transportation

See also: Transportation in New York City

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Public transportation

Grand Central Terminal, a National Historic Landmark
Ferries departing Battery Park City Ferry Terminal and helicopters flying above Manhattan
The Staten Island Ferry, seen from the Battery, crosses Upper New York Bay, providing free public transportation between Staten Island and Manhattan.

Manhattan is unique in the U.S. for intense use of public transportation and lack of private car ownership. While 88% of Americans nationwide drive to their jobs, with only 5% using public transport, mass transit is the dominant form of travel for residents of Manhattan, with 72% of borough residents using public transport to get to work, while only 18% drove.[353][354] According to the 2000 United States Census, 77.5% of Manhattan households do not own a car.[355] In 2008, Mayor Michael Bloomberg proposed a congestion pricing system to regulate entering Manhattan south of 60th Street, but the state legislature rejected the proposal.[356]

The New York City Subway, the largest subway system in the world by number of stations, is the primary means of travel within the city, linking every borough except Staten Island. There are 151 subway stations in Manhattan, out of the 472 stations.[357] A second subway, the PATH system, connects six stations in Manhattan to northern New Jersey. Passengers pay fares with pay-per-ride MetroCards, which are valid on all city buses and subways, as well as on PATH trains.[358][359] Commuter rail services operating to and from Manhattan are the Long Island Rail Road (LIRR), which connects Manhattan and other New York City boroughs to Long Island; the Metro-North Railroad, which connects Manhattan to Upstate New York and Southwestern Connecticut; and NJ Transit trains, which run to various points in New Jersey.

The US$11.1 billion East Side Access project, which brings LIRR trains to Grand Central Terminal, opened in 2023; this project utilized a pre-existing train tunnel beneath the East River, connecting the East Side of Manhattan with Long Island City, Queens.[360][361] Four multi-billion-dollar projects were completed in the mid-2010s: the $1.4 billion Fulton Center in November 2014,[362] the $2.4 billion 7 Subway Extension in September 2015,[363] the $4 billion World Trade Center Transportation Hub in March 2016,[364][365] and Phase 1 of the $4.5 billion Second Avenue Subway in January 2017.[366][367]

MTA New York City Transit offers a wide variety of local buses within Manhattan under the brand New York City Bus. An extensive network of express bus routes serves commuters and other travelers heading into Manhattan.[368] The bus system served 784 million passengers citywide in 2011, placing the bus system's ridership as the highest in the nation, and more than double the ridership of the second-place Los Angeles system.[369]

The Roosevelt Island Tramway, one of two commuter cable car systems in North America, takes commuters between Roosevelt Island and Manhattan in less than five minutes, and has been serving the island since 1978.[370][371]

The Staten Island Ferry, which runs 24 hours a day, 365 days a year, annually carries over 21 million passengers on the 5.2-mile (8.4 km) run between Manhattan and Staten Island. Each weekday, five vessels transport about 65,000 passengers on 109 boat trips.[372][373] The ferry has been fare-free since 1997.[374] In February 2015, Mayor Bill de Blasio announced that the city government would begin NYC Ferry to extend ferry transportation to traditionally underserved communities in the city.[375][376] The first routes of NYC Ferry opened in 2017.[377][378] All of the system's routes have termini in Manhattan, and the Lower East Side and Soundview routes also have intermediate stops on the East River.[379]

The metro region's commuter rail lines converge at Penn Station and Grand Central Terminal, on the west and east sides of Midtown Manhattan, respectively. They are the two busiest rail stations in the United States. About one-third of users of mass transit and two-thirds of railway passengers in the country live in New York and its suburbs.[380] Amtrak provides inter-city passenger rail service from Penn Station to Boston, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Washington, D.C.; Upstate New York and New England; cross-Canadian border service to Toronto and Montreal; and destinations in the Southern and Midwestern United States.

The Port Authority Bus Terminal, at Eighth Avenue and 42nd Street, is the world's busiest bus station.[381][382]

The Port Authority Bus Terminal is the city's main intercity bus terminal and the world's busiest bus station, It serves 250,000 passengers on 7,000 buses each workday in a building opened in 1950 that was designed to accommodate 60,000 daily passengers. A 2021 plan announced by the Port Authority would spend $10 billion to expand capacity and modernize the facility.[382][383][381] In 2024, the Port Authority announced plans for a new terminal that would be completed by 2032 and include a pair of office buildings to defray the costs of the project.[384]

Major highways

Taxis

Main article: Taxis of New York City

New York's iconic yellow taxicabs, which number 13,087 citywide and must have a medallion authorizing the pickup of street hails, are ubiquitous in the borough.[385] Various private vehicle for hire companies provide significant competition for taxicab drivers in Manhattan.[386]

Bicycles

Main article: Cycling in New York City

According to the government of New York City, Manhattan had 19,676 bicycle commuters in 2017, roughly doubling from its total of 9,613 in 2012.[387]

Streets and roads

See also: List of numbered streets in Manhattan and List of eponymous streets in New York City

Tourists observing Manhattanhenge on 42nd Street on July 12, 2016

The Commissioners' Plan of 1811 called for twelve numbered “avenues” running north and south roughly parallel to the shore of the Hudson River, each 100 feet (30 m) wide, with First Avenue on the east side and Twelfth Avenue on the west side.[58][388] There are several intermittent avenues east of First Avenue, including four additional lettered avenues running from Avenue A eastward to Avenue D in an area now known as Alphabet City in Manhattan's East Village.[389] The numbered streets in Manhattan run east–west, and are generally 60 feet (18 m) wide, with about 200 feet (61 m) between each pair of streets.[58] The address algorithm of Manhattan refers to the formulas used to estimate the closest east–west cross street for building numbers on north–south avenues.[390]

According to the original Commissioner's Plan, there were 155 numbered crosstown streets,[391] but later the grid was extended up to the northernmost corner of Manhattan Island, where the last numbered street is 220th Street, though the grid continues to 228th Street in the borough's Marble Hill neighborhood.[392][393] Moreover, the numbering system continues even in the Bronx, north of Manhattan, despite the fact that the grid plan is not as regular in that borough, whose last numbered street is 263rd Street.[393][394] Fifteen crosstown streets were designated as 100 feet (30 m) wide, including 34th, 42nd, 57th and 125th Streets,[395] which became some of the borough's most significant transportation and shopping venues. Broadway, following the route of a Native American trail, is the most notable of many exceptions to the grid, starting at Bowling Green in Lower Manhattan and continuing north for 13 miles (21 km) into the Bronx at Manhattan's northern tip.[396] In much of Midtown Manhattan, Broadway runs at a diagonal to the grid, creating major named intersections at Union Square (Park Avenue South/Fourth Avenue and 14th Street), Madison Square (Fifth Avenue and 23rd Street), Herald Square (Sixth Avenue and 34th Street), Times Square (Seventh Avenue and 42nd Street), and Columbus Circle (Eighth Avenue/Central Park West and 59th Street).[397][398]

"Crosstown streets" refers primarily to major east-west streets connecting Manhattan's East Side and West Side. The trip is notoriously frustrating for drivers because of heavy congestion on narrow local streets laid out by the Commissioners' Plan of 1811, absence of express roads other than the Trans-Manhattan Expressway at the far north end of Manhattan Island; and restricted to very limited crosstown automobile travel within Central Park. Proposals to build highways traversing the island through Manhattan's densest neighborhoods, namely the Mid-Manhattan Expressway across 34th Street and the Lower Manhattan Expressway through SoHo, failed in the 1960s.[399][400] Unlike the rest of the United States, New York State prohibits right or left turns on red in cities with a population greater than one million, to reduce traffic collisions and increase pedestrian safety. In New York City, therefore, all turns at red lights are illegal unless a sign permitting such maneuvers is present, significantly shaping traffic patterns in Manhattan.[401]

Another consequence of the strict grid plan of most of Manhattan, and the grid's skew of approximately 28.9 degrees, is a phenomenon sometimes referred to as Manhattanhenge (by analogy with Stonehenge).[402] On May 28 and July 12, the sunset is aligned with the street grid lines, with the result that the sun is visible at or near the western horizon from street level.[402][403] A similar phenomenon occurs with the sunrise on the eastern horizon on December 5 and January 8.[404]

The FDR Drive and Harlem River Drive, both designed by controversial New York master planner Robert Moses,[405] comprise a single, long limited-access parkway skirting the east side of Manhattan along the East River and Harlem River south of Dyckman Street. The Henry Hudson Parkway is the corresponding parkway on the West Side north of 57th Street.

Bridges, tunnels, and ferries

The Brooklyn Bridge (on right) and Manhattan Bridge (on left), two of three bridges that connect Lower Manhattan with Brooklyn over the East River.

Being primarily an island, Manhattan is linked to New York City's outer boroughs by numerous bridges, of various sizes. Manhattan has fixed highway connections with New Jersey to its west by way of the George Washington Bridge, the Holland Tunnel, and the Lincoln Tunnel, and to three of the four other New York City boroughs—the Bronx to the northeast, and Brooklyn and Queens (both on Long Island) to the east and south. Its only direct connection with the fifth New York City borough, Staten Island, is the Staten Island Ferry across New York Harbor, which is free of charge. The ferry terminal is located near Battery Park at Manhattan's southern tip. It is also possible to travel on land to Staten Island by way of Brooklyn, via the Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge.

The 14-lane George Washington Bridge, the world's busiest motor vehicle bridge,[406][407] connects Washington Heights, in Upper Manhattan to Bergen County in New Jersey.[408] There are numerous bridges to the Bronx across the Harlem River, and five (listed north to south)—the Triborough (known officially as the Robert F. Kennedy Bridge), Ed Koch Queensboro (also known as the 59th Street Bridge), Williamsburg, Manhattan, and Brooklyn Bridges—that cross the East River to connect Manhattan to Long Island.[409]

Several tunnels also link Manhattan Island to New York City's outer boroughs and New Jersey. The Lincoln Tunnel, which carries 120,000 vehicles a day under the Hudson River between New Jersey and Midtown Manhattan, is the busiest vehicular tunnel in the world.[410] The tunnel was built instead of a bridge to allow unfettered passage of large passenger and cargo ships that sail through New York Harbor and up the Hudson River to Manhattan's piers. The Holland Tunnel, connecting Lower Manhattan to Jersey City, New Jersey, was the world's first mechanically ventilated vehicular tunnel.[411] The Queens–Midtown Tunnel, built to relieve congestion on the bridges connecting Manhattan with Queens and Brooklyn, was the largest non-federal project in its time when it was completed in 1940;[412] President Franklin D. Roosevelt was the first person to drive through it.[413] The Brooklyn–Battery Tunnel runs underneath Battery Park and connects the Financial District at the southern tip of Manhattan to Red Hook in Brooklyn.

Several ferry services operate between New Jersey and Manhattan.[414] These ferries mainly serve midtown, Battery Park City, and Wall Street.

Heliports

Manhattan has three public heliports: the East 34th Street Heliport (also known as the Atlantic Metro-port) at East 34th Street, owned by New York City and run by the New York City Economic Development Corporation (NYCEDC); the Port Authority Downtown Manhattan/Wall Street Heliport, owned by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey and run by the NYCEDC; and the West 30th Street Heliport, a privately owned heliport owned by the Hudson River Park Trust.[415] US Helicopter offered regularly scheduled helicopter service connecting the Downtown Manhattan Heliport with John F. Kennedy International Airport in Queens and Newark Liberty International Airport in New Jersey, before going out of business in 2009.[416]

Utilities

Gas and electric service is provided by Consolidated Edison to all of Manhattan. Con Edison's electric business traces its roots back to Thomas Edison's Edison Electric Illuminating Company, the first investor-owned electric utility. The company started service on September 4, 1882, using one generator to provide 110 volts direct current (DC) to 59 customers with 800 light bulbs, in a one-square-mile area of Lower Manhattan from his Pearl Street Station.[417][excessive detail?] Con Edison operates the world's largest district steam system, which consists of 105 miles (169 km) of steam pipes, providing steam for heating, hot water, and air conditioning[418] by some 1,800 Manhattan customers.[419] Cable service is provided by Time Warner Cable and telephone service is provided by Verizon Communications, although AT&T is available as well.

Manhattan witnessed the doubling of the natural gas supply delivered to the borough when a new gas pipeline opened on November 1, 2013.[420]

The New York City Department of Sanitation is responsible for garbage removal.[421] The bulk of the city's trash ultimately is disposed at mega-dumps in Pennsylvania, Virginia, South Carolina and Ohio (via transfer stations in New Jersey, Brooklyn and Queens) since the 2001 closure of the Fresh Kills Landfill on Staten Island.[422] A small amount of trash processed at transfer sites in New Jersey is sometimes incinerated at waste-to-energy facilities. Like New York City, New Jersey and much of Greater New York relies on exporting its trash.

New York City has the largest clean-air diesel-hybrid and compressed natural gas bus fleet, which also operates in Manhattan, in the country. It also has some of the first hybrid taxis, most of which operate in Manhattan.[423]

Health care

Main article: List of hospitals in New York City § Manhattan

There are many hospitals in Manhattan, including two of the 25 largest in the United States (as of 2017):[424]

Water purity and availability

Main articles: Food and water in New York City and New York City water supply system

New York City is supplied with drinking water by the protected Catskill Mountains watershed.[425] As a result of the watershed's integrity and undisturbed natural water filtration system, New York is one of only four major cities in the United States the majority of whose drinking water is pure enough not to require purification by water treatment plants.[426] The Croton Watershed north of the city is undergoing construction of a US$3.2 billion water purification plant to augment New York City's water supply by an estimated 290 million gallons daily, representing a greater than 20% addition to the city's current availability of water.[427] Water comes to Manhattan through the tunnels 1 and 2, completed in 1917 and 1935, and in future through Tunnel No. 3, begun in 1970.[428]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Area codes 718, 347, and 929 are used in Marble Hill.
  2. ^ Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1991 to 2020.
  3. ^ Official weather observations for Central Park were conducted at the Arsenal at Fifth Avenue and 64th Street from 1869 to 1919, and at Belvedere Castle since 1919.[141]
  4. ^ The presidential election results for the years 1876–1912 are not strictly comparable with the earlier and later ones because New York County included the West Bronx after 1874 and all of what is now the Borough of the Bronx (Bronx County, New York) from 1895 until The Bronx became a separate borough in 1914.

References

Citations

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  2. ^ Manhattan High Point
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  8. ^ Sorrentino, Christopher (September 16, 2007). "When He Was Seventeen". The New York Times. Retrieved December 22, 2007. In 1980, there were still the remains of the various downtown revolutions that had reinvigorated New York's music and art scenes and kept Manhattan in the position it had occupied since the 1940s as the cultural center of the world.
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Sources

  • Burke, Katie. ed. Manhattan Memories: A Book of Postcards of Old New York (2000); Postcards lacking the (c) symbol are in the public domain.
  • Jackson, Kenneth T. and David S. Dunbar, eds. Empire City: New York Through the Centuries (2005), 1015 pages of excerpts
  • Still, Bayrd, ed. Mirror for Gotham: New York as Seen by Contemporaries from Dutch Days to the Present (New York University Press, 1956)
  • Virga, Vincent, ed. Historic Maps and Views of New York (2008)
  • Stokes, I.N. Phelps. The Iconography of Manhattan Island, 1498–1909 compiled from original sources and illustrated by photo-intaglio reproductions of important maps plans views and documents in public and private collections (6 vols., 1915–28). A highly detailed, heavily illustrated chronology of Manhattan and New York City. see The Iconography of Manhattan Island All volumes are on line free at:

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