On March 13, 1855, the City of Elizabeth was created by an act of the New Jersey Legislature, combining and replacing both Elizabeth Borough (which dated back to 1740) and Elizabeth Township (which had been formed in 1693), subject to the results of a referendum held on March 27, 1855. On March 19, 1857, the city became part of the newly created Union County. Portions of the city were taken to form Linden Township on March 4, 1861.
The first major industry, the Singer Sewing Machine Company came to Elizabeth and employed as many as 2,000 people. In 1895, it saw one of the first car companies, when Electric Carriage and Wagon Company was founded to manufacture the Electrobat, joined soon by another electric car builder, Andrew L. Riker. The Electric Boat Company got its start building submarines for the United States Navy in Elizabeth, New Jersey, beginning with the launch of USS Holland (SS-1) in 1897. These pioneering naval craft [known as A-Class] were developed at Lewis Nixon'sCrescent Shipyard in Elizabeth between the years 1896–1903. Elizabeth grew in parallel to its sister city of Newark for many years, but has been more successful in retaining a middle-class presence and was mostly spared riots in the 1960s.
On September 18, 2016, a backpack holding five bombs was discovered outside NJ Transit's Elizabeth train station. One bomb detonated accidentally when a bomb squad robot failed to disarm the contents of the backpack; no one was hurt. Police were initially unsure if this event was related to bombs in Seaside Park, New Jersey and Manhattan that had exploded the previous day. On September 19, police arrested Ahmad Khan Rahami, a 28-year-old Afghan-born naturalized U.S. citizen, for questioning in connection with all three incidents; the FBI considered Rahami, whose last known address was within 0.5 miles (0.8 km) of the train station, to be armed and dangerous.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city had a total area of 13.66 square miles (35.37 km2), including 12.32 square miles (31.91 km2) of land and 1.34 square miles (3.46 km2) of water (9.78%).
Bayway is located in the southern part of the city and borders the City of Linden. From US 1&9 and Allen Street, between the Elizabeth River and the Arthur Kill, it has maintained a strong Polish community for years. Developed at the turn of the 20th century, many of the area residents once worked at the refinery which straddles both Elizabeth and Linden. There are unique ethnic restaurants, bars, and stores along Bayway, and a variety of houses of worship. Housing styles are older and well maintained. There are many affordable two to four-family housing units, and multiple apartment complexes. The western terminus of the Goethals Bridge, which spans the Arthur Kill to Staten Island can be found here. A small section of the neighborhood was isolated with both the completion of the Goethals Bridge in 1928 and the construction of the New Jersey Turnpike in the 1950s.
Downtown / Elizabethport
School # 1 can be seen in the distance from the park on Court Street.
Downtown / E-Port (a.k.a. The Port and Elizabethport) is the oldest neighborhood and perhaps the most diverse place in Elizabeth. It consists of a collection of old world Elizabethan, new American colonial-style houses and apartment buildings that stretch east of 7th Street to its shores. The name is derived from its dependence on businesses catering to seagoing ventures. It was a thriving center of commerce between the 1660s through the middle of the 20th century. This area has had a great deal of improvement since 2000. Many homes have been renovated or been replaced with new, more ornate structures. Federal housing projects that stood for decades along First Street have been demolished and replaced with low to moderate income housing. The waterfront is home to new town homes and two-family homes (duplexes).
The area was once three distinct neighborhoods: Buckeye, Diamondville and New Mexico. It was the US home of the Singer Manufacturing Company, makers of Singer sewing machines, which constructed a 1,400,000-square-foot (130,000 m2) facility on a 32-acre (13 ha) site in 1873. Shortly after it opened, the factory manufactured the majority of all sewing machines worldwide. With 6,000 employees working there in the 1870s, it employed the largest number of workers at a single facility in 1873. The company moved out of Elizabeth in 1982.
The Elizabeth Marina, which was once filled with trash and debris along its walkway, was also restored. It is the site of year-round celebrations from a Hispanic festival in late spring to the lighting of a Christmas tree in winter. Living conditions in this area continue to improve year after year. Historically, there were immigrant communities centered around Christian churches. The Slavic community was centered by Sts. Peter and Paul Byzantine, the Lithuanian community attended Sts. Peter and Paul Roman Catholic and the Polish community attended St. Adalbert Roman Catholic Church which still stands. St. Patrick Church, originally Irish, dominates the 'Port; the cornerstone for the second and current building was laid in 1887.
Elmora and The West End
Warinanco Park, Elmora
Elmora is a middle/working-class neighborhood in the western part of Elizabeth. The main thoroughfare, Elmora Avenue, boasts some of the best restaurants, shops and boutiques. A few of the city's most luxurious high-rise building complexes, affording views of the New York skyline, dot the edge of this neighborhood and are convenient to the Midtown NJ Transit Train Station. The neighborhood area forms a "V" from its approximate borders of the Central RR tracks to Rahway Avenue.
The northwestern part of Elmora is known as Elmora Hills. It is a strongly middle- to upper-middle-class neighborhood.
Originally called Shearerville, the name Elmora came from the developers of the area, the El Mora Land Company. This area was annexed from Union, returning to Elizabeth in the early part of the 20th century. This was done to increase the city's tax base as major improvements to infrastructure were necessary at the time.
Frog Hollow is a small community of homes east of Atlantic Street, west of the Arthur Kill, and south of Elizabeth Avenue. Its name is derived from the excellent frog catching in its marshes as well as the excellent oyster and fishing of the past. The area expanded east and includes the area formerly known as Helltown. Helltown included many of the docks and shipyards, as well as several drydocks. The area's developer was Edward N. Kellogg, who also laid out the neighborhood in Keighry Head. Frog Hollow contains older-style, affordable homes, rentals, and some quality restaurants in a working-class community. The statue honoring former Mayor Mack on Elizabeth Avenue is a landmark in the community. Frog Hollow is also convenient to the Veteran's Memorial Waterfront Park.
Its name is attributed to James Keighry of the Isle of Kerry, Ireland. He was a notable resident who owned a business facing the square formed at the junction of Jackson, Madison, Chestnut and Magnolia Avenues. The approximate borders of this neighborhood extended north from East Grand Street to Flora Street and from Walnut to Division Street. Developed by Edward N. Kellogg, many of the streets were named after family and friends. Keighry Head is located close to Midtown, containing affordable one and two-family homes, and apartment houses, convenient to the Midtown shopping district, and transportation.
War monument; north Elizabeth
North End / North Elizabeth
The North End, also known as "North Elizabeth", is a diverse working-class neighborhood. The borders are approximately the Arch north to the city line between North Broad Street and US 1&9. It was developed mostly in the 1920s for workers in the Duesenberg automobile plant (later Durant Auto, Burry Biscuits and Interbake Foods). The area was heavily settled by the Irish and then Portuguese. The North End has easy access to New York and Newark via its own NJ Transit train station, Routes 1&9 and the NJ Turnpike. The neighborhood also has Crane Square, the Historic Nugents Tavern, and Kellogg Park and its proximity to Newark Liberty International Airport. There is currently a plan in place to develop the former Interbake Foods facility into shopping and residential townhouses and condominiums. This community contains many larger one and two-family homes that have been rebuilt over the past decade. North Elizabeth also features many well-kept apartment houses and condominium units on and around North Avenue that are home to professionals who work in New York or the area. The only Benedictine women's community in New Jersey is located at Saint Walburga Monastery on North Broad Street.
War memorial in Union Square
Peterstown (also known as "The Burg") is a middle/working-class neighborhood in the southeastern part of the city. Its borders run west of Atlantic Street to South Spring Street from 1st Avenue to the Elizabeth River. Its name is derived from John Peters, who owned most of the land with George Peters. They divided the land and developed it during the end of the 19th century. The area was once predominantly occupied by its earliest settlers, who were German, and during the 1920s was gentrified by newly immigrated Italians. Peterstown has clean, quiet streets and has many affordable housing opportunities with a "village" feel. The area contains the historic Union Square, which is home to produce stands, meat markets, fresh fish and poultry stores. Peterstown is also home of the DeCavalcante crime family, one of the most infamous Mafia families in the United States.
The Point / the Crossroads
The Point, formally known as the Crossroads, is centrally located and defined by New Point Road and Division Street. It is close to Midtown and contains many new affordable two-family homes, apartment houses and is undergoing a transformation. The former Elizabeth General Hospital site is currently being demolished and awaiting a new development.
Home to St. Mary's and the "Hilltoppers", this area once was lined with mansions. Its approximate borders were South Broad Street to Grier Avenue and Pearl Street to what is now US 1&9. During its development in the 1860s it was the most fashionable area of the city to live. It is now a quiet middle class community experiencing a re-development with many new condominiums.
Developed by Edward J. Grassman, Westminster got its name from the city's largest residential estates of the Tudor style and was inhabited by many residents who traced their ancestry to England. This neighborhood borders Hillside with the Elizabeth River running its border creating a dramatic splash of greenery and rolling hills off of North Avenue, near Liberty Hall. Residents use this area for recreation, whether it is at the newly christened Phil Rizzuto Park area, or for bird watching or for sunbathing by the river. It is one of the more affluent areas of Elizabeth.
This section needs to be updated. The reason given is: Newer information is available from the 2020 Census report. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (November 2021)
In 2019, the foreign-born population in the city was 46.6% of the total population, and the Latino population was 65%.
Of the 41,596 households, 37.0% had children under the age of 18; 39.2% were married couples living together; 22.0% had a female householder with no husband present and 29.5% were non-families. Of all households, 23.5% were made up of individuals and 7.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.94 and the average family size was 3.43.
25.6% of the population were under the age of 18, 10.6% from 18 to 24, 31.3% from 25 to 44, 23.3% from 45 to 64, and 9.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33.2 years. For every 100 females, the population had 98.6 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 96.8 males.
The Census Bureau's 2006–2010 American Community Survey showed that (in 2010 inflation-adjusted dollars) median household income was $43,770 (with a margin of error of +/- $1,488) and the median family income was $46,891 (+/- $1,873). Males had a median income of $32,268 (+/- $1,205) versus $27,228 (+/- $1,427) for females. The per capita income for the borough was $19,196 (+/- $604). About 14.7% of families and 16.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.5% of those under age 18 and 18.5% of those age 65 or over.
Colombia is the nation of birth for the highest number of foreign-born inhabitants of Elizabeth: it was the birthplace of 8,731 Elizabeth residents as of the 2000 Census. This exceeded the combined total of 8,214 for Mexico and Central America immigrants. It also far exceeded the next highest single nation count of Cuba at 5,812. The highest number for a non-Spanish speaking country and third highest overall was Portugal, whose native-born immigrants numbered 4,544. The next largest groups were Salvadoran immigrants numbering 4,043, Peruvians at 3,591 and Dominican immigrants, of whom there were 3,492.
There were 40,482 households, out of which 36.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.9% were married couples living together, 19.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 30.4% were non-families. 24.6% of all households were made up of individuals, and 8.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.91 and the average family size was 3.45.
In the city the population was spread out, with 26.3% under the age of 18, 10.8% from 18 to 24, 33.7% from 25 to 44, 19.3% from 45 to 64, and 10.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.1 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $35,175, and the median income for a family was $38,370. Males had a median income of $30,757 versus $23,931 for females. The per capita income for the city was $15,114. About 15.6% of families and 17.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.2% of those under age 18 and 17.2% of those age 65 or over.
Industrial "backyard" east of Elizabeth, New Jersey
Celadon, a mixed-use development containing 14 glass skyscrapers, offices, retail, a hotel, boardwalk and many other amenities is proposed to border the east side of The Mills at Jersey Gardens, directly on the Port Newark Bay. Groundbreaking was scheduled for the summer of 2008 on the ferry, roads and parking, and construction was planned to continue for at least twelve years. As of 2021 this project has not started construction and there is no recent news about Celadon, so it is assumed that this project has been canceled
Portions of the city are part of an Urban Enterprise Zone (UEZ), one of 32 zones covering 37 municipalities statewide. Elizabeth was selected in 1983 as one of the initial group of 10 zones chosen to participate in the program. In addition to other benefits to encourage employment and investment within the Zone, shoppers can take advantage of a reduced 3.3125% sales tax rate (half of the 6+5⁄8% rate charged statewide) at eligible merchants. Established in November 1992, the city's Urban Enterprise Zone status expires in November 2023.
The City of Elizabeth is governed within the Faulkner Act, formally known as the Optional Municipal Charter Law, under the Mayor-Council system of municipal government. The city is one of 71 municipalities (of the 564) statewide that use this form of government. The governing body is comprised of the Mayor and the City Council. The Elizabeth City Council is comprised of nine members, who are elected to serve four-year terms of office on a staggered basis with elections held in even-numbered years. The mayor and the three council members elected at-large come up for election together in leap years and two years later the six members who are elected from each of Elizabeth's six wards are all up for election.
As of 2022[update], the city's Mayor is DemocratChris Bollwage, a lifelong resident of Elizabeth who is serving his eighth term as Mayor, serving a term of office that ends December 31, 2024. City Council members are Council President Patricia Perkins-Auguste (at-large; D, 2024), Carlos Cedeño (Fourth Ward; D, 2022), Frank J. Cuesta (at-large; D, 2024), William Gallman Jr. (Fifth Ward; D, 2022), Nelson Gonzalez (Second Ward; D, 2022), Manny Grova Jr. (at-large; D, 2024), Kevin Kiniery (Third Ward; D, 2022), Frank O. Mazza (Sixth Ward; D, 2022), and Carlos L. Torres (First Ward; D, 2022).
Bollwage, who has served as mayor of Elizabeth since 1992, was paid an annual salary of $152,564 in 2016, placing him among the three highest-paid mayors in the state and the only mayor in Union County to earn annual compensation in excess of $100,000.
Union County is governed by a Board of County Commissioners, whose nine members are elected at-large to three-year terms of office on a staggered basis with three seats coming up for election each year, with an appointed County Manager overseeing the day-to-day operations of the county. At an annual reorganization meeting held in the beginning of January, the board selects a Chair and Vice Chair from among its members. As of 2019[update], Union County's County Commissioners are Chair Bette Jane Kowalski (D, Cranford, term ends December 31, 2019), Vice Chair Alexander Mirabella (D, Fanwood, 2021)
Angel G. Estrada (D, Elizabeth, 2020),
Angela R. Garretson (D, Hillside Township, 2020),
Sergio Granados (D, Elizabeth, 2019),
Christopher Hudak (D, Linden, term ends December 31, 2020),
Kimberly Palmieri-Mouded (D, Westfield, 2021),
Andrea Staten (D, Roselle, 2021),
Rebecca Williams (D, Plainfield, 2019). Constitutional officers elected on a countywide basis are
County Clerk Joanne Rajoppi (D, Union, 2020),
Sheriff Peter Corvelli (D, Kenilworth, 2020) and
Surrogate James S. LaCorte (D, Springfield Township, 2019). The County Manager is Edward Oatman.
As of March 23, 2011, there were a total of 44,415 registered voters in Elizabeth, of which 24,988 (56.3% vs. 41.8% countywide) were registered as Democrats, 2,430 (5.5% vs. 15.3%) were registered as Republicans and 16,985 (38.2% vs. 42.9%) were registered as Unaffiliated. There were 12 voters registered to other parties. Among the city's 2010 Census population, 35.5% (vs. 53.3% in Union County) were registered to vote, including 47.8% of those ages 18 and over (vs. 70.6% countywide).
In the 2012 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama received 24,751 votes (80.8% vs. 66.0% countywide), ahead of Republican Mitt Romney with 5,213 votes (17.0% vs. 32.3%) and other candidates with 166 votes (0.5% vs. 0.8%), among the 30,640 ballots cast by the city's 50,715 registered voters, for a turnout of 60.4% (vs. 68.8% in Union County). In the 2008 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama received 23,524 votes (74.3% vs. 63.1% countywide), ahead of Republican John McCain with 7,559 votes (23.9% vs. 35.2%) and other candidates with 202 votes (0.6% vs. 0.9%), among the 31,677 ballots cast by the city's 48,294 registered voters, for a turnout of 65.6% (vs. 74.7% in Union County). In the 2004 presidential election, Democrat John Kerry received 18,363 votes (67.2% vs. 58.3% countywide), ahead of Republican George W. Bush with 8,486 votes (31.0% vs. 40.3%) and other candidates with 144 votes (0.5% vs. 0.7%), among the 27,334 ballots cast by the city's 45,882 registered voters, for a turnout of 59.6% (vs. 72.3% in the whole county).
In the 2013 gubernatorial election, Democrat Barbara Buono received 63.2% of the vote (7,804 cast), ahead of Republican Chris Christie with 35.5% (4,379 votes), and other candidates with 1.3% (163 votes), among the 13,592 ballots cast by the city's 49,515 registered voters (1,246 ballots were spoiled), for a turnout of 27.5%. In the 2009 gubernatorial election, Democrat Jon Corzine received 10,258 ballots cast (66.8% vs. 50.6% countywide), ahead of Republican Chris Christie with 4,386 votes (28.6% vs. 41.7%), Independent Chris Daggett with 376 votes (2.4% vs. 5.9%) and other candidates with 131 votes (0.9% vs. 0.8%), among the 15,355 ballots cast by the city's 46,219 registered voters, yielding a 33.2% turnout (vs. 46.5% in the county).
The Elizabeth Police Department was established in May 1858.
The current Police Director is Earl Graves and the Chief of Police is Giacomo Sacca.
The Table of Organization authorizes 365 officers, including 9 captains, 21 lieutenants and 39 sergeants.
The Elizabeth Fire Department provides fire protection and emergency medical services to the city of Elizabeth. The Elizabeth Fire Department was established as a volunteer organization in 1837 when Engine Company # 1 was organized. In 1901, the volunteer department was no longer adequate and the department reorganized into a paid department on January 1, 1902. There are 7 Engine Companies, 3 Ladder Companies, 1 Rescue Company, and several Special Units. These companies and units are under the command of both a Deputy Chief and two Battalion Chiefs.
The department is part of the Metro USAR Strike Team, which consists of nine North Jersey fire departments and other emergency services divisions working to address major emergency rescue situations.
Fire station locations and apparatus
Air Cascade Unit
24 South Broad Street
651 South Broad Street
Ladder 2 (Tiller)
Haz-Mat Unit 1, Haz-Mat Decon Trailer
442 Trumbull Street
QRV 1 (Quick Attack Response Vehicle), Foam Unit, Fire Boat 1 (docked at the port)
147 Elizabeth Avenue
Tower Ladder 3
472 Catherine Street
Rescue 1, Rescue 2 – (Metro USAR Collapse Rescue Strike Team Unit), Special Operations Vehicle 1 (USAR Support)
Car 42 (Deputy Chief), Battalion 2
411 Irvington Avenue
Tactical Support Unit 1
524 West Grand Street
Emergency medical services
Emergency medical services are provided by the Elizabeth Fire Department's Division of Emergency Medical Services. This is a civilian division of the fire department and handles approximately 20,000 calls a year. The division is made up of an EMS chief, 5 supervisors, 28 full-time emergency medical technicians, and approximately 12 per-diem EMTs. The division, at its maximum staffing, aims to operate five ambulances and a supervisor on days (7am-7pm) and three ambulances and a supervisor on nights (7pm-7am). They also operate the NJ EMS Task Force Medical Ambulance Bus #1.
Hatzalah of Union County provides EMS primarily to the Elmora Hills neighborhood of Elizabeth, and certain sections of Hillside, Union and Roselle Park.
The John E. Dwyer Technology Academy and Dunn Sports Center
With 5,300 students, Elizabeth High School had been the largest high school in the state of New Jersey and one of the largest in the United States, and underwent a split that created five new academies and a smaller Elizabeth High School under a transformation program that began in the 2009–10 school year. The school was the 294th-ranked public high school in New Jersey out of 322 schools statewide, in New Jersey Monthly magazine's September 2010 cover story on the state's "Top Public High Schools", after being ranked 302nd in 2008 out of 316 schools. Before the 2008–09 school year, all of the district's schools (except high schools) became K–8 schools, replacing the middle schools and elementary schools. SchoolDigger.com ranked Elizabeth 449th of 558 districts evaluated in New Jersey.
These and other indicators reveal a seriously declining performance standard in the city's schools. Data reported by the state Department of Education showed that a majority of students in a majority of the Elizabeth public schools failed basic skills tests.
In the 2008–09 school year, Victor Mravlag Elementary School No. 21 was recognized with the Blue Ribbon School Award of Excellence by the United States Department of Education, the highest award an American school can receive. For the 2006–07 school year, William F. Halloran Alternative School #22 was one of four schools in New Jersey recognized with the Blue Ribbon Award. William F. Halloran Alternative School #22 earned a second award when it was one of 11 in the state to be recognized in 2014 by the National Blue Ribbon Schools Program. Terence C. Reilly School No. 7 was honored by the National Blue Ribbon Schools Program in 2019, one of nine schools in the state recognized as Exemplary High Performing Schools; the school had previously won the honor in 2013.
Saint Patrick High School was closed by the Newark Archdiocese in June 2012 due to increasing costs and declining enrollment. Administrators and parents affiliated with the defunct school came together to open an independent non-denominational school on Morris Avenue called "The Patrick School" in September 2012.
The Benedictine Preschool, operated by the Benedictine Sisters, is housed at Saint Walburga Monastery.
There are numerous crossings of the Elizabeth River. The city was once home to several smaller bascule bridges. The South First Street Bridge over the river, originally built in 1908, was replaced by a fixed span. The South Front Street Bridge, built in 1922, has been left in the open position since March 2011. A study is underway to determine if the bridge can be rehabilitated. The bridge is notable in that it is the only remaining movable road bridge in Union County (movable railroad bridges still exist).
The Daily Journal was published in Elizabeth from 1779 to 1992, ending publication as circulation plummeted from a peak of 60,000.
Residents of Elizabeth can tune into the public-access televisioncable-TV channel at any time to view public information, the city bulletin board, live meetings, important health information and tips. This service is provided by Optimum on channel 18. The channel also features the top ten ranked television shows, educational facts, quote of the day, gas price statistics, and tips for keeping the city safe and clean.
^Schweber, Nate; and Bromwich, Jonah Engel. "Pipe Bombs Found Near Train Station in Elizabeth, N.J., Official Says"Archived September 26, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, The New York Times, September 19, 2016. Accessed September 19, 2016. The bomb drama rattling the New York region arrived here Sunday night when two men walked out of Hector's Place Restaurant near the city's train station and found a backpack containing five explosives resting atop a municipal garbage can, Mayor J. Christian Bollwage said.... It was not yet known whether the backpack found here had any connection to a bomb that injured 29 people in Manhattan on Saturday night, or to a bomb nearby that failed to detonate, or to a bomb that went off Saturday morning in Seaside Park, N.J., without injuring anybody."
^ abSantora, Marc; Rashbaum, William K.; Baker, Al; and Goldman, Adam. "Ahmad Khan Rahami Is Arrested in Manhattan and New Jersey Bombings"Archived September 19, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, The New York Times, September 19, 2016. Accessed September 25, 2016. "The frenzied end came on a rain-soaked street in Linden, N.J., four hours after the police issued an unprecedented cellphone alert to millions of people in the area telling them to be on the lookout for Ahmad Khan Rahami, 28, who was described as 'armed and dangerous'.... Mayor J. Christian Bollwage of Elizabeth, N.J., outside an apartment on Monday where Mr. Rahami was believed to have lived."
^Hatala, Greg. "Made in Jersey: Singer sewing machines had the market sewn up"Archived April 15, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, The Star-Ledger, November 18, 2013. Accessed September 19, 2016. "In 1873, the Singer Sewing Machine Manufacturing Co. purchased 32 acres of land in Elizabeth and established its first factory in the United States (the company also had a plant in Kilbowie, Clydebank, Scotland).... In 1982, the last 560 workers at the 1,400,000 square foot Elizabeth factory were laid off and the facility closed."
^Elizabeth, NJ – A Concise Historical OverviewArchived May 13, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, Visit Historical Elizabeth, NJ. Accessed September 19, 2016. "St. Patrick's Church, a Roman Catholic parish since 1858, laid the cornerstone of its present church in 1887. The imposing twin-spired structure, designed by William Shickel imitating the Cologne Cathedral, took thirteen years to complete and used Maine granite."
^"Phillips 66 Bayway Refinery; Providing Energy – Improving Lives", New Jersey Business, November 24, 2020. Accessed January 6, 2022. "Named after a nearby neighborhood spanning the cities of Linden and Elizabeth, the Bayway Refinery has been providing residents and businesses in the region with a variety of products such as gasoline, diesel fuel, jet fuel, home heating oil, propane, butane, plastics and other products which have been improving people’s lives for more than a century."
^Haydon, Tom; and Lannan, Katie. "How much are Union County mayors paid?"Archived October 11, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, NJ Advance Media for NJ.com, May 12, 2015. Accessed October 11, 2017. "A review of mayors' salaries across Union County shows the numbers range from a low of zero to high of $148,060 for Mayor J. Christian Bollwage, the top elected official in the city of 125,800 residents, the fourth largest municipality in the state. He is the only municipal chief executive in the county making six figures."
^Biography of Bob Menendez, United States Senate, January 26, 2015. "Menendez, who started his political career in Union City, moved in September from Paramus to one of Harrison's new apartment buildings near the town's PATH station.."
^EMS, Elizabeth Fire Department. Accessed March 26, 2022.
^About Us, Hatzalah of Union County. Accessed March 26, 2022. "Hatzalah of Union County is a voluntary, not-for-profit emergency medical response team. Its primary goal is to provide rapid response, rapid treatment and rapid transport when called to medical emergencies in its primary response area encompassing parts of Elizabeth, Hillside, Roselle Park and Union Township."
^What We Do: History, New Jersey Schools Development Authority. Accessed March 1, 2022. "In 1998, the New Jersey Supreme Court ruled in the Abbott v. Burke case that the State must provide 100 percent funding for all school renovation and construction projects in special-needs school districts. According to the Court, aging, unsafe and overcrowded buildings prevented children from receiving the "thorough and efficient" education required under the New Jersey Constitution.... Full funding for approved projects was authorized for the 31 special-needs districts, known as 'Abbott Districts'."
^"CIBA cited as one of the best by Education Department", Journal Inquirer, November 16, 2006. "The Blue Ribbon award is given only to schools that reach the top 10 percent of their state's testing scores over several years or show significant gains in student achievement. It is considered the highest honor a school can achieve."
^"Viers Mill School Wins Blue Ribbon; School Scored High on Statewide Test", The Washington Post. September 29, 2005. "For their accomplishments, all three schools this month earned the status of Blue Ribbon School, the highest honor the U.S. Education Department can bestow upon a school."
^Lannan, Aktie. "Elizabeth gifted and talented school earns National Blue Ribbon School designation"Archived January 1, 2015, at the Wayback Machine, NJ Advance Media for NJ.com, October 1, 2014. Accessed December 31, 2014. "Federal education officials designated the William F. Halloran Gifted and Talented School No. 22 as a National Blue Ribbon School, one of 337 selected nationwide based on academic excellence and progress in closing the achievement gap. This is the second time School 22 has received the honor in the past 10 years, according to the school department. It was first named a National Blue Ribbon School in 2006."
^Stanmyre, Matthew. "Recently closed St. Patrick High closing in on new location"Archived February 3, 2014, at the Wayback Machine, The Star-Ledger, July 20, 2012. Accessed August 15, 2013. "The Archdiocese of Newark—which had provided oversight for St. Patrick—decided to close the school June 30 because of dwindling enrollment and serious financial struggles. The Patrick School will re-open in the fall as a private school out of the Archdiocese's oversight. The new school has commitments from about 150 students, Picaro said."
^Araton, Harvey. "A Faith Is Tested, and Then Renewed"Archived March 30, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, The New York Times, February 27, 2013. Accessed August 15, 2013. "To mark the one-year anniversary of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Newark's announcement that it would close St. Patrick—forcing it to soldier on as the nondenominational, grades 7-to-12 Patrick School—Picaro's beloved boys' basketball team will begin state tournament play on Friday, a triumph in itself."
^Home PageArchived September 14, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, Jewish Educational Center. Accessed September 19, 2017. "The Jewish Educational Center of Elizabeth, NJ provides Torah and Secular education to students from Nursery through 12th grade.
Our three divisions include Yeshiva of Elizabeth, Bruriah High School for Girls, and Rav Teitz Mesivta Academy."
^Hyman, Vicki. "How three planes crashed in three months in Elizabeth in '50s"Archived January 5, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, NJ Advance Media for NJ.com, May 29, 2015. Accessed December 27, 2015. "One plane crash is a tragedy. Two in the same city is a catastrophe. And three is simply unfathomable. But that is just what happened in Elizabeth over a 58-day period in the early 1950s, a turbulent time for the historic city in the shadow of Newark Airport, and one that serves as the backdrop for Judy Blume's new novel In the Unlikely Event."
^Harvey, Cornelius Burnham. Genealogical History of Hudson and Bergen Counties, New JerseyArchived January 12, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, p. 127. New Jersey Genealogical Publishing Company, 1900. Accessed May 4, 2015. "Benjamin Blackledge was born at Elizabethtown, N.J., August 25, 1743. While still a young man he went on foot from Elizabethtown to Closter and taught school there the first one in the northern part of Bergen County."
^Goldblatt, Jennifer. "Blume's Day"Archived May 28, 2015, at the Wayback Machine, The New York Times, November 14, 2004. Accessed December 21, 2011. "And looking back at a childhood spent in the Elmora section of Elizabeth, Ms. Blume sees many signs that point toward a literary career: all her neighborhood streets were named for writers like Byron and Browning, her house on Shelley Avenue was stuffed with books, and she constantly conjured stories inside her head."
^Mason-Draffen, Carrie via Newsday. "What's in a name? At work, an initial reaction"Archived February 3, 2015, at the Wayback Machine, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, February 11, 2008. Accessed January 23, 2015. "Newton Jones Burkett III, a correspondent for New York's WABC-TV news station, became N.J. Burkett in a sort of Hollywood moment almost 19 years ago.... Mr. Burkett, who did grow up in Elizabeth, N.J., said he looked at the person dumbfounded and said, 'That's right – my mother named her son New Jersey.'"
^Rodney CarterArchived January 18, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, City of Elizabeth. Accessed September 19, 2017. "Rodey Carter grew up in the Port of Elizabeth and graduated from Elizabeth High School in 1982."
^Hasan, Khalid. "Bush nominee a rabbi's son", Daily Times (Pakistan), January 13, 2005, backed up as of July 29, 2012. Accessed September 19, 2017. "According to JTA, a Jewish news service, 'Chertoff has strong ties to the Jewish community. Born and raised in Elizabeth, N.J., Chertoff is the son of a rabbi, his two children have attended Jewish day schools and his wife, Meryl, was a co-chairwoman of the regional Anti-Defamation League's civil rights committee when he was the U.S. attorney in New Jersey in the mid 1990s.'"
^Joseph J. Higgins Obituary, Sun-Sentinel, August 15, 2007. Accessed December 13, 2021. "Born and raised in Elizabeth, NJ he attended St. Patrick's High School and was recognized as one of the top baseball pitchers in the state of New Jersey."
^Davis, Seth. "Postcard: Stacked Blue Devils boast burgeoning star in freshman Irving", Sports Illustrated, November 2, 2010. Accessed March 17, 2012. "It's not often that a team boasts two returning seniors from a championship team – one of whom is a leading candidate for national player of the year – and neither is the most talented player on his team. By my lights, that is Kyrie Irving, a 6-foot-2 freshman point guard from Elizabeth, N.J., who was named a Parade and McDonald's All-American last year."
^Idec, Keith. "NBA dream fulfilled, Jenkins hungry for more", Herald News, January 12, 2005. "The Elizabeth native's athletic ability and scoring skills were obvious to Billups, but he has been more impressed recently with Jenkins' understanding of what Brown expects from his point guards."
^Stewart-Winter, Timothy. Interview with Arnie Kantrowitz, Queer Newark Oral History Project, June 1, 2015. Accessed January 24, 2022. "During this time—I was born in Newark, lived in the Weequahic section, at several addresses over the years my parents divorced and my mother and my brother and I moved to Elizabeth, New Jersey, and it was from there that I commuted to downtown Newark to go to Rutgers."
^Interview of Stephanie Pogue by Sharon Patton, October 18, 1987, written by Stephanie Pogue, 1944-2004 (1987); edited by James V. Hatch, 1928- and Leo Hamalian, 1920-2003; in Artist and Influence, Vol. 8, Artist and Influence, 8:1-127 (1989) (New York, NY: Hatch-Billops Collection, 1989), 79-86
^Iati, Marisa. "'Hamilton' star talks Broadway and his N.J. roots"Archived August 29, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, NJ Advance Media for NJ.com, July 13, 2016. Accessed August 29, 2017. "Rua chatted with a full house in Elizabeth last week about how his childhood in Union County inspires and shapes his push to create theater, music and dance that strike audience members at their core. Rua, now 32, was born in Elizabeth and grew up in Linden."
^Kreiser, John. "Mystery Writer Mickey Spillane Dies"Archived November 16, 2018, at the Wayback Machine, CBS News, July 17, 2006. Accessed September 19, 2017. "Spillane was born Frank Morrison Spillane on March 9, 1918, in the New York borough of Brooklyn. He grew up in Elizabeth, N.J., and attended Fort Hayes State College in Kansas where he was a standout swimmer before beginning his career writing for magazines."
^Anderson, Lisa. "A Widow Enters Politics To Heal The 'Unbelievable'", Chicago Tribune, November 15, 1988. AccessedApril 27, 2020. "A small, trim woman with a thick blond bob and clean, snub-nosed all-American looks, Tarantelli was born in Elizabeth, N.J., and was graduated from Wellesley College and then Brandeis University, with a doctorate in English."
^"New Air Chief in Vietnam John William Vogt Jr.", The New York Times, April 18, 1972. Accessed September 11, 2020. "Gen. John William Vogt Jr., who is directing the intensified bombardment of North Vietnamese forces in South and North Vietnam, is holding down his first command since he led a fighter squadron over the beaches of Normandy in World War II.... General Vogt was born on March 18, 1920, in Elizabeth, N. J., and graduated from Thomas Jefferson High School there in 1938."
^Fitzpatrick, John W. "In Memoriam: Glen Everett Woolfenden, 1930–2007", The Auk, Volume 126, Issue 2, April 1, 2009, Pages 460–462. Accessed December 17, 2020. "Glen was born in 1930 in Elizabeth, New Jersey, and fell in love with birds as an 11-year-old after his parents (Lester and Ethyl Woolfenden) moved to Westfield, New Jersey."
^"Rev. Albert C. Wyckoff"Archived October 29, 2019, at the Wayback Machine, The New York Times, January 13, 1953. Accessed October 29, 2019. "Elizabeth, N. J., Jan. 12--The Rev. Albert Capwell Wyckoff, formerly of this city who served the Presbyterian Church in the South for more than two decades as missionary and pastor died Saturday at Columbia, Ky., after a brief illness... Born in near-by Plainfield, he was ordained in 1928."
^"Sister Cities in Hokkaido and New Jersey Celebrate Fifty-Year Relationship", United States Embassy in Japan, July 5, 2019. Accessed February 1, 2020. "Although Kitami, Hokkaido, and Elizabeth, New Jersey, have been sister cities for about 50 years, their ties go back to the early 1900s when two American missionaries settled in the town.... Kitami has shared historical and spiritual ties with Elizabeth since the time the Piersons settled there. On June 12, 1969, they became sister-cities to deepen their friendship and mutual understanding."