Cumberland County
Fortescue Beach in Downe Township, on the Delaware Bayshore of New Jersey
Flag of Cumberland County
Official seal of Cumberland County
Map of New Jersey highlighting Cumberland County
Location within the U.S. state of New Jersey
Map of the United States highlighting New Jersey
New Jersey's location within the U.S.
Coordinates: 39°20′N 75°08′W / 39.33°N 75.13°W / 39.33; -75.13
Country United States
State New Jersey
Founded1748
Named forPrince William, Duke of Cumberland
SeatBridgeton[1]
Largest municipalitiesVineland (population)
Maurice River Township (area)
Government
 • Director of the Board of County CommissionersDirector Douglas A. Albrecht (R, term ends December 31, 2023)
Area
 • Total677.85 sq mi (1,755.6 km2)
 • Land483.36 sq mi (1,251.9 km2)
 • Water194.49 sq mi (503.7 km2)  28.7%
Population
 • Total154,152
 • Estimate 
(2023)[3][5]
152,326
 • Density318.9/sq mi (123.1/km2)
Congressional district2nd
Websitewww.cumberlandcountynj.gov
Map
Interactive map of Cumberland County, New Jersey

Cumberland County is a coastal county located on the Delaware Bay in the Southern Shore Region of the U.S. state of New Jersey. As of the 2020 census, the county was the state's 16th-most-populous county,[6] with a population of 154,152,[3][4] a decrease of 2,746 (−1.8%) from the 2010 census count of 156,898.[7] Its county seat is Bridgeton.[1] Cumberland County is named for Prince William, Duke of Cumberland.[8][9] The county was formally created from portions of Salem County on January 19, 1748.[10] The county is part of the South Jersey region of the state.[11]

The most populous municipality is Vineland, which had a 2020 population of 60,780;[4] the largest municipality by area is Maurice River Township, which covered 95.76 square miles (248.0 km2).[12]

This county is part of the Vineland-Bridgeton metropolitan statistical area,[13] as well as the Delaware Valley Combined Statistical Area.[14]

History

Etymology

The county is named for Prince William, Duke of Cumberland who is best remembered for his role in putting down the Jacobite Rising at the Battle of Culloden in 1746, which made him immensely popular throughout parts of Britain.

Pre-settlement

The first people to populate Cumberland County were early descendants of the Lenape, also known as the Delaware, who include all Native American people who have lived in New Jersey [15] Water sources such as the Cohansey River and Maurice River made Cumberland County a resourceful environment for early native groups to utilize.[15] Archaeological materials such as stone tools and pottery have been excavated in sites in Bridgeton, Fairfield, Greenwich and Stow Creek.[16] Some of the earliest cultures that inhabited Cumberland County utilized clovis spear points which date to the Paleoindian period (10,000 BC to 8000 BC). As the climate switched from a tundra to woodlands during the archaic period (8000 BC to 1000 BC), ancestors of the Lenape developed axe technology, and later pottery during the woodland period (1000 BC to 1600 AD).[17] The prehistoric period ended when European exploration and settlement arrived in the area bringing with it greater technology which ultimately supplanted much of the Native populations. Today, many Lenape people still reside in Cumberland County, such as the Nanticoke tribe who make up the Native American people from Southern New Jersey and the Delmarva Peninsula.[18]

History

Early European settlement began with the Swedish who called what is now New Jersey New Sweden during the first half of the 17th century.[19] Prior to the United States gaining its independence from Great Britain, Cumberland County was deemed separate from Salem County in 1748 and was named after the Duke of Cumberland.[20] Cumberland County's economic exploits were agricultural and manufacturing, more specifically the county focused on fruits and vegetables, as well as glassware and preserved foods.[21]

America's early successes in glassmaking began in Southern New Jersey during the 18th century and eventually led to John Landis Mason of Vineland New Jersey to invent the mason jar for storing and preserving food at home during the 1850s.[22] Cumberland County's population has historically been "majority-minority".[23] Cumberland County went from holding one hundred and twenty enslaved people in 1790, to two by 1830.[23] Cumberland County included several towns settled by Black Americans many of whom escaped slavery.[24] Parts of the county were used for the Underground Railroad, and housed Harriet Tubman and William Still.[25]

Maritime history

Along with agriculture and glassware, Cumberland County is also known for its maritime industries. Cumberland County's main maritime export was oysters until the 1950s when disease destroyed the oyster population.[26] With the oyster industry came shipbuilding in 1780.[27] Later, the industrial revolution and railroad development increased the number of ships and the types of ships being made. By the late 19th century, ships switched from the sloop model to the schooner to be more useful for oystering.[28] Whaling was also an industry in Cumberland County until 1775 when settlers turned to raising, farming, and trapping.[29] Caviar was a short-lived industry in the area from the 1860s to 1925, when sturgeon had been overfished.[29] 19th and 20th century maritime related artifacts such as ship models, building plans, tools, and rigging equipment can be viewed at the John Dubois Maritime Museum in Bridgeton.[30]

Geography

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, as of the 2020 Census, the county had a total area of 677.85 square miles (1,755.6 km2), of which 483.36 square miles (1,251.9 km2) was land (71.3%) and 194.49 square miles (503.7 km2) was water (28.7%).[2] Cumberland is a low-lying, generally featureless coastal county, with many salt marshes near the Delaware Bay. The highest elevation is at one of 12 areas in Upper Deerfield Township that stand approximately 140 feet (43 m) above sea level;[31] the lowest elevation is sea level.

Climate and weather

Bridgeton, New Jersey
Climate chart (explanation)
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Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Source: The Weather Channel[32]
Metric conversion
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Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm

In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Bridgeton have ranged from a low of 25 °F (−4 °C) in January to a high of 87 °F (31 °C) in July, although a record low of −13 °F (−25 °C) was recorded in January 1985 and a record high of 101 °F (38 °C) was recorded in July 1966. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.94 inches (75 mm) in February to 4.30 inches (109 mm) in March.[32] Cumberland has a humid subtropical climate (Cfa).

Demographics

Historical population
CensusPop.Note
17908,248
18009,52915.5%
181012,67033.0%
182012,6680.0%
183014,09311.2%
184014,3742.0%
185017,18919.6%
186022,60531.5%
187034,66553.4%
188037,6878.7%
189045,43820.6%
190051,19312.7%
191055,1537.7%
192061,34811.2%
193069,89513.9%
194073,1844.7%
195088,59721.1%
1960106,85020.6%
1970121,37413.6%
1980132,8669.5%
1990138,0533.9%
2000146,4386.1%
2010156,8987.1%
2020154,152−1.8%
2023 (est.)152,326[3][5]−1.2%
Historical sources: 1790-1990[33]
1970-2010[12] 2010[7] 2020[3][4]

2020 census

As of the 2020 United States census, the county's had 154,152 people, 51,360 households, and 34,309 families.[34] The population density was 318.7 inhabitants per square mile (123.1/km2). There were 57,119 housing units at an average density of 118 per square mile (45.6/km2). The racial makeup was 45.4% White, 18.0% African American, 0.9% Native American, 1.2% Asian, and 2.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 34.4% of the population.[35]

Of the 51,360 households, of which 26.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.9% were married couples living together, 18.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 9.3% had a male householder with no wife present and 33.2% were non-families, and 12.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.68 and the average family size was 3.30.

About 23.8% of the population was under age 18, 7.5% was from age 18 to 24, 39.3% was from age 15 to 44, and 15.7% was age 65 or older. The median age was 38.1 years. The gender makeup was 51.7% male and 48.3% female. For every 100 females, there were 107.1 males.[36]

The median household income was $54,587, and the median family income was $65,022. About 13.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.1% of those under age 18 and 10.4% of those age 65 or over.[37][38]

2010 census

The 2010 United States census counted 156,898 people, 51,931 households, and 36,559 families in the county. The population density was 324.4 inhabitants per square mile (125.3/km2). There were 55,834 housing units at an average density of 115.4 per square mile (44.6/km2). The racial makeup was 62.74% (98,430) White, 20.23% (31,741) Black or African American, 1.11% (1,746) Native American, 1.22% (1,907) Asian, 0.04% (59) Pacific Islander, 11.15% (17,492) from other races, and 3.52% (5,523) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 27.06% (42,457) of the population.[7]

Of the 51,931 households, 31.4% had children under the age of 18; 45.2% were married couples living together; 18.6% had a female householder with no husband present and 29.6% were non-families. Of all households, 24% were made up of individuals and 10.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.79 and the average family size was 3.26.[7]

Of the population, 24% were under the age of 18, 9.5% from 18 to 24, 28.5% from 25 to 44, 25.3% from 45 to 64, and 12.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36.5 years. For every 100 females, the population had 106.2 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 106.9 males.[7]

Economy

The Bureau of Economic Analysis calculated that the county's gross domestic product was $5.9 billion in 2021, which was ranked 17th in the state and was a 3.8% increase from the prior year.[39]

Government

County government

Cumberland County Courthouse in Bridgeton

Cumberland County is governed by a Board of County Commissioners which is comprised of seven members who are elected at large by the citizens of Cumberland County in partisan elections and serve staggered three-year terms in office, with either two or three seats coming up for election each year in a three-year cycle. Each Commissioner is assigned responsibility for one of the county's departments.[40] In 2016, freeholders were paid $15,000 and the freeholder director was paid an annual salary of $16,000.[41]

As of 2024, members of the Cumberland County Board of County Commissioners (with party affiliation, residence, and term-end year listed in parentheses) are (with terms for director and deputy director ending every December 31):[40][42][43][44][45][46]

Commissioner Party, Residence, Term
Director Joseph V. Sileo R, Vineland, 2024[47]
Deputy Director Antonio Romero R, Vineland, 2024[48]
Douglas A. Albrecht R, Vineland, 2025[49]
Victoria Groetsch-Lods R, Vineland, 2025[50]
Arthur Marchand R, Hopewell Township, 2026[51]
James Sauro R, Vineland, 2026[52]
Sandra Taylor R, Downe Township, 2026[53]

Pursuant to Article VII Section II of the New Jersey State Constitution, each county in New Jersey has have three elected administrative officials known as "constitutional officers." These officers are the County Clerk and County Surrogate (both elected for five-year terms of office) and the County Sheriff (elected for a three-year term).[54] The county's constitutional officers are:

Title Representative
County Clerk Celeste Riley (D, Bridgeton, 2024),[55][56]
Sheriff Joe O'Donoghue (R, Bridgeton, 2026)[57][58]
Surrogate Rudolph Luisi (R, Vineland, 2028).[59][60][42]

The Cumberland County Prosecutor is Jennifer Webb-McRae of Vineland. First nominated by Governor of New Jersey Jon Corzine in January 2010, Webb-McRae was nominated for a second five-year term by Chris Christie in November 2016 and sworn into office after confirmation in January 2017.[61][62] Cumberland County is a part of Vicinage 15 of the New Jersey Superior Court (along with Gloucester County and Salem County), seated in Woodbury in Gloucester County; the Assignment Judge for the vicinage is Benjamin C. Telsey. The Cumberland County Courthouse is in Bridgeton.[63]

In January 2023, John P. Capizola Jr. was appointed to fill the commissioner seat expiring in December 2023 that had been held by George Castellini until he resigned from office earlier that month.[64] Democrats have not won a county-wide office since 2020.

Federal representatives

New Jersey's 2nd congressional district includes all of Cumberland County.[65][66] For the 118th United States Congress, New Jersey's 2nd congressional district is represented by Jeff Van Drew (R, Dennis Township).[67]

State representatives

The 14 municipalities of Cumberland County are part of two legislative districts.

District Senate[68] Assembly[68] Municipalities
1st Mike Testa (R) Antwan McClellan (R)

Erik K. Simonsen (R)

Bridgeton, Commercial Township, Downe Township, Fairfield Township, Lawrence Township, Maurice River Township, Millville, and Vineland.

The remainder of this district includes portions of Atlantic County & Cape May County.

3rd John Burzichelli (D) Heather Simmons (D)

Dave Bailey (D)

Deerfield Township, Greenwich Township, Hopewell Township, Shiloh Borough, Stow Creek, Upper Deerfield Township.

The remainder of this district includes portions of Gloucester County & Salem County.

Law enforcement

The New Jersey Department of Corrections operates three correctional facilities in the county: Bayside State Prison, South Woods State Prison, and Southern State Correctional Facility. The three facilities employ 1,500 people and house one of every three state prisoners.[69] In 2007, while the state was preparing to close Riverfront State Prison in Camden, it considered establishing a fourth state prison in Cumberland County.[70]

Politics

Cumberland County tends to lean towards the Democratic party. As of October 1, 2021, there were a total of 97,440 registered voters in Cumberland County, of whom 34,401 (35.3%) were registered as Democrats, 22,814 (23.4%) were registered as Republicans and 38,217 (39.2%) were registered as unaffiliated. There were 2,008 voters (2.1%) registered to other parties.[71]

In the 2008 United States presidential election, Barack Obama carried the county with over 60% of the vote, which he did so again in 2012. However, since then, the county has taken a shift to the right and voted for Hillary Clinton by 6.1% in 2016. Joe Biden won the county by a slightly smaller 6.0% in 2020 despite the fact that Democrats improved their national popular vote total by 3.2%.

United States presidential election results for Cumberland County, New Jersey[72]
Year Republican Democratic Third party
No.  % No.  % No.  %
2020 28,952 46.27% 32,742 52.32% 881 1.41%
2016 24,453 45.01% 27,771 51.11% 2,107 3.88%
2012 20,658 37.31% 34,055 61.51% 656 1.18%
2008 22,360 38.42% 34,919 60.00% 915 1.57%
2004 24,362 45.81% 27,875 52.41% 948 1.78%
2000 18,882 38.78% 28,188 57.90% 1,614 3.32%
1996 14,744 31.69% 25,444 54.68% 6,345 13.64%
1992 19,253 36.94% 22,220 42.64% 10,643 20.42%
1988 26,024 53.83% 21,869 45.23% 456 0.94%
1984 29,398 57.47% 21,141 41.33% 616 1.20%
1980 23,242 50.09% 19,356 41.71% 3,805 8.20%
1976 20,535 40.84% 29,165 58.00% 587 1.17%
1972 26,409 58.18% 18,692 41.18% 291 0.64%
1968 18,388 40.42% 21,661 47.62% 5,439 11.96%
1964 12,611 27.29% 33,593 72.69% 11 0.02%
1960 21,283 47.81% 23,199 52.12% 30 0.07%
1956 24,067 58.07% 17,309 41.76% 68 0.16%
1952 21,819 53.40% 18,929 46.33% 111 0.27%
1948 16,556 51.24% 15,195 47.02% 562 1.74%
1944 14,477 47.91% 15,674 51.87% 67 0.22%
1940 16,322 45.75% 19,251 53.95% 107 0.30%
1936 14,500 41.09% 20,492 58.06% 300 0.85%
1932 16,668 55.61% 12,371 41.28% 932 3.11%
1928 23,921 77.92% 6,694 21.81% 84 0.27%
1924 15,691 71.05% 4,780 21.64% 1,613 7.30%
1920 11,913 68.36% 4,487 25.75% 1,027 5.89%
1916 5,692 52.14% 4,573 41.89% 652 5.97%
1912 1,895 18.18% 3,858 37.01% 4,671 44.81%
1908 6,770 56.56% 4,521 37.77% 679 5.67%
1904 7,402 64.28% 3,317 28.81% 796 6.91%
1900 6,780 58.65% 4,036 34.91% 744 6.44%
1896 7,018 61.09% 3,877 33.75% 593 5.16%

In the 2009 gubernatorial election, Republican Chris Christie received 41.75% of the vote (14,079 votes) to Democratic Governor Jon Corzine's 50.69% (17,092 votes), while Independent Chris Daggett received 5.82% of the vote (1,962 votes), thus making Cumberland and nearby Camden County the only southern New Jersey counties to back the governor's re-election that year. In the 2013 gubernatorial election, Republican Governor Chris Christie received 56.7% of the vote (17,943 votes) to Democrat Barbara Buono's 41.4% (13,129 votes). In the 2017 gubernatorial election, Republican Kim Guadagno received 11,876 (41.8%) of the vote, and Democrat Phil Murphy received 15,686 (55.3%) of the vote. In the 2021 gubernatorial election, Republican Jack Ciattarelli received 55.6% of the vote (17,794 ballots cast) to Democratic Governor Phil Murphy's 43.6% (13,978 votes), making it one of three counties that Ciattarelli flipped.

Gubernatorial election results
Year Republican Democratic
2021 55.6% 17,794 43.6% 13,978
2017 41.8% 11,876 55.3% 15,686
2013 56.7% 17,943 41.4% 13,129
2009 41.8% 14,079 50.7% 17,092
2005 39.0% 12,692 57.2% 18,580
2001 40.3% 13,583 57.7% 19,445
1997 36.5% 13,651 53.5% 19,997
1993 47.0% 50.2%
1989 35.2% 13,304 63.4% 23,906
1985 66.4% 21,017 31.8% 10,065
1981 46.0% 16,109 52.8% 18,460
1977 44.5% 14,980 49.7% 16,741
1973 44.6% 15,515 54.2% 18,884

Municipalities

Index map of Cumberland County Municipalities (click to see index key)
1862 map
Map
Interactive map of municipalities in Cumberland County.

The 14 municipalities in Cumberland County (with most 2010 Census data for population, housing units and area) are:[74]

Municipality
(with map key)
Map key Municipal
type
Population Housing
Units
Total
Area
Water
Area
Land
Area
Pop.
Density
Housing
Density
Communities
Bridgeton 3 city 25,349 6,782 6.43 0.25 6.18 4,102.5 1,097.6
Commercial Township 13 township 5,178 2,115 34.44 2.31 32.13 161.2 65.8 Buckshutem
Laurel Lake (2,929)
Mauricetown
Port Norris (1,377)
Deerfield Township 9 township 3,119 1,143 16.80 0.03 16.76 186.1 68.2 Rosenhayn (1,098)
Downe Township 12 township 1,585 996 54.27 5.66 48.61 32.6 20.5 Dividing Creek
Fortescue
Newport
Fairfield Township 10 township 6,295 2,058 43.95 2.69 41.26 152.6 49.9 Fairton (1,264)
Sea Breeze
Greenwich Township 6 township 804 369 18.83 1.00 17.84 45.1 20.7 Othello
Springtown
Hopewell Township 7 township 4,571 1,741 30.83 0.95 29.87 153.0 58.3 Bowentown
Lawrence Township 11 township 3,290 1,221 38.33 1.41 36.92 89.1 33.1 Cedarville (776)
Maurice River Township 14 township 7,976 1,506 95.76 2.65 93.11 85.7 16.2 Cumberland
Delmont
Dorchester
Heislerville
Hesstown
Leesburg
Port Elizabeth
Millville 2 city 28,400 11,435 44.49 2.49 42.00 676.2 272.3
Shiloh 4 borough 516 214 1.21 0.00 1.21 427.3 177.2
Stow Creek Township 5 township 1,431 568 18.85 0.55 18.30 78.2 31.0 Jericho
Roadstown
Upper Deerfield Township 8 township 7,660 3,025 31.27 0.18 31.10 246.3 97.3 Deerfield
Seabrook
Seabrook Farms (1,484)
Vineland 1 city 60,724 22,661 69.03 0.61 68.42 887.5 331.2
Cumberland County county 156,898 55,834 677.62 193.92 483.70 324.4 115.4

Transportation

Airports

The following public-use airports are located in Cumberland County:

Roads and highways

As of 2010, the county had a total of 1,271.74 miles (2,046.67 km) of roadways, of which 643.65 miles (1,035.85 km) were maintained by the local municipality, 539.14 miles (867.66 km) by Cumberland County and 88.95 miles (143.15 km) by the New Jersey Department of Transportation.[75]

Cumberland is served only by state and county routes. Major county routes that pass through include County Route 540, County Route 548 (only in Maurice River Township), County Route 550, County Route 552, County Route 553 and County Route 555.

State routes include Route 47, Route 49, Route 55, Route 56, Route 77, and Route 347. Route 55 is the only limited access road in the county which provides access to Interstate 76, Interstate 295, and the Philadelphia area to the north.

Parks and recreation

The only YMCA in the county is the Cumberland Cape Atlantic YMCA in Vineland.[76] In 2001, the board of directors of what was the Vineland YMCA changed the name to include Atlantic County and Cape May County as the members wanted the Vineland YMCA to reflect a wider group of communities.[77]

Wineries

Education

School districts include:[78][79][80]

K-12
Secondary
Elementary

See also

References

  1. ^ a b New Jersey County Map, New Jersey Department of State. Accessed December 22, 2022.
  2. ^ a b 2020 Census Gazetteer File for Counties in New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed April 1, 2023.
  3. ^ a b c d e QuickFacts Cumberland County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed May 3, 2023.
  4. ^ a b c d Total Population: Census 2010 - Census 2020 New Jersey Municipalities, New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development. Accessed December 1, 2022.
  5. ^ a b Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Counties in New Jersey: April 1, 2020 to July 1, 2023, United States Census Bureau, released March 2024. Accessed March 15, 2024.
  6. ^ Table1. New Jersey Counties and Most Populous Cities and Townships: 2020 and 2010 Censuses, New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development. Accessed December 1, 2022.
  7. ^ a b c d e DP1 - Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data for Cumberland County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed March 26, 2016.
  8. ^ Baehr, Judy. "Cumberland – A County Born of Hope, Optimism", Cumberland County, New Jersey. Accessed June 5, 2023. "The county was named for William Augustus, the second son of King George II. As the Duke of Cumberland in 1746, he had defeated the Stuart Pretender, Charles Edward (Bonnie Prince Charlie), at the battle of Culloden and established the House of Hanover on the British throne."
  9. ^ The Origin of New Jersey Place Names: C, GetNJ.com. Accessed December 13, 2007.
  10. ^ Snyder, John P. The Story of New Jersey's Civil Boundaries: 1606-1968, Bureau of Geology and Topography; Trenton, New Jersey; 1969. p. 78. Accessed September 30, 2013.
  11. ^ Willis, David P. "'This is how wars start': Does Central Jersey include both Ocean and Union counties?", Asbury Park Press, February 20, 2023. Accessed March 31, 2024. "North Jersey is defined as Sussex, Warren, Morris, Passaic, Bergen, Essex and Hudson counties; South Jersey would be Burlington, Camden, Gloucester, Atlantic, Salem, Cumberland and Cape May counties. But for Central, things get a little tricky. It would include Hunterdon, Somerset, Union, Middlesex, Mercer, Monmouth, and Ocean counties."
  12. ^ a b New Jersey: 2010 - Population and Housing Unit Counts; 2010 Census of Population and Housing, p. 6, CPH-2-32. United States Census Bureau, August 2012. Accessed August 29, 2016.
  13. ^ New Jersey: 2020 Core Based Statistical Areas and Counties, United States Census Bureau. Accessed December 22, 2022.
  14. ^ Revised Delineations of Metropolitan Statistical Areas, Micropolitan Statistical Areas, and Combined Statistical Areas, and Guidance on Uses of the Delineations of These Areas, Office of Management and Budget, February 28, 2013. Accessed October 3, 2013.
  15. ^ a b g. "Prehistorical Museum". Cumberland County Historical Society. Retrieved November 15, 2022.
  16. ^ Skinner, Alanson and Max Schrabisch, 1913. A Preliminary Report of the Archeological Survey of the State of New Jersey. Bulletin 9, Geological Survey of New Jersey, Trenton. p. 54-57.
  17. ^ Kraft, Herbert (2001). The Lenape-Delaware Indian Heritage 10,000 BC to AD 2000. Lenape Books.
  18. ^ "About Us – Nanticoke Lenni-Lenape Tribal Nation". Retrieved November 15, 2022.
  19. ^ Veit, Richard; Lurie, Maxine (2012). New Jersey: A History of the Garden State. Rutgers University Press. ISBN 978-0813554099.
  20. ^ Cumberland County is Born, Cumberland County, New Jersey. Accessed June 5, 2023. "The Colonial Legislature, at a session held January 30, 1748, passed an Act stipulating the east side of Salem County as a new county to be known as Cumberland."
  21. ^ "Cumberland | county, New Jersey, United States | Britannica". www.britannica.com. Retrieved November 15, 2022.
  22. ^ Matchar, Emily. "A Brief History of the Mason Jar". Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved November 15, 2022.
  23. ^ a b Watson, Penelope (2020). "Cumberland County, New Jersey". The Encyclopedia of Greater Philadelphia. Rutgers University.
  24. ^ Baehr, Judy. "County's Towns Are What Makes the Region Tick", Cumberland County, New Jersey. Accessed June 5, 2023.
  25. ^ "A Journey to Springtown". mycitypaper.com. Retrieved November 15, 2022.
  26. ^ "VIMS study uncovers new cause for intensification of oyster disease". Virginia Institute of Marine Science. Retrieved November 15, 2022.
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