|Coordinates: 39°20′N 75°08′W / 39.33°N 75.13°WCoordinates: 39°20′N 75°08′W / 39.33°N 75.13°W|
|Named for||Prince William, Duke of Cumberland|
|Largest municipality||Vineland (population)|
Maurice River Township (area)
|• Director of the Board of County Commissioners||Darlene Barber (D, term ends December 31, 2022)|
|• Total||677.62 sq mi (1,755.0 km2)|
|• Land||483.70 sq mi (1,252.8 km2)|
|• Water||193.92 sq mi (502.3 km2) 28.62%|
| • Estimate |
|• Density||318.9/sq mi (123.1/km2)|
Cumberland County is a coastal county located on the Delaware Bay in the U.S. state of New Jersey. As of the 2020 census, the county was the state's 16th-most-populous county, with a population of 154,152, a decrease of 2,746 (−1.8%) from the 2010 census count of 156,898. Its county seat is Bridgeton. Cumberland County is named for Prince William, Duke of Cumberland. The county was formally created from portions of Salem County on January 19, 1748.
The most populous municipality is Vineland, which had a 2020 population of 60,780; the largest municipality by area is Maurice River Township, which covered 95.76 square miles (248.0 km2).
This county is part of the Vineland-Bridgeton metropolitan statistical area, as well as the Delaware Valley Combined Statistical Area. Geographically, the county is part of the South Jersey region.
The county is named for Prince William, Duke of Cumberland who is best remembered for his role in putting down the Jacobite Rising at the Battle of Culloden in 1746, which made him immensely popular throughout parts of Britain.
The first people to populate Cumberland County were early descendants of the Lenape, also known as the Delaware, who include all Native American people who have lived in New Jersey  Water sources such as the Cohansey River and Maurice River made Cumberland County a resourceful environment for early native groups to utilize. Archaeological materials such as stone tools and pottery have been excavated in sites in Bridgeton, Fairfield, Greenwich and Stow Creek. Some of the earliest cultures that inhabited Cumberland County utilized clovis spear points which date to the Paleoindian period (10,000 BC to 8000 BC). As the climate switched from a tundra to woodlands during the archaic period (8000 BC to 1000 BC), ancestors of the Lenape developed axe technology, and later pottery during the woodland period (1000 BC to 1600 AD). The prehistoric period ended when European conquest arrived in the area bringing with it disease and warfare which ultimately killed or displaced much of the Native populations. Today, many Lenape people still reside in Cumberland County, such as the Nanticoke tribe who make up the Native American people from Southern New Jersey and the Delmarva Peninsula.
Early European settlement began with the Swedish who called what is now New Jersey New Sweden during the first half of the 17th century. Prior to the United States gaining its independence from Great Britain, Cumberland County was deemed separate from Salem County, and was named after the Duke of Cumberland in 1748. Cumberland County’s economic exploits were agricultural and manufacturing, more specifically the county focused on fruits and vegetables, as well as glassware and preserved foods.
America’s early successes in glassmaking began in Southern New Jersey during the 18th century and eventually led to John Landis Mason of Vineland New Jersey to invent the mason jar for storing and preserving food at home during the 1850s. Cumberland County’s population has historically been “majority-minority”. Cumberland County went from holding one hundred and twenty enslaved people in 1790, to two by 1830. Cumberland County included several towns settled by Black Americans many of whom escaped slavery. Parts of the county were used for the Underground Railroad, and housed Harriet Tubman and William Still.
Along with agriculture and glassware, Cumberland County is also known for its maritime industries. Cumberland County’s main maritime export was oysters until the 1950s when disease destroyed the oyster population. With the oyster industry came shipbuilding in 1780. Later, the industrial revolution and railroad development increased the number of ships and the types of ships being made. By the late 19th century, ships switched from the sloop model to the schooner to be more useful for oystering. Whaling was also an industry in Cumberland County until 1775 when settlers turned to raising, farming, and trapping. Caviar was a short-lived industry in the area from the 1860’s to 1925 when sturgeon had been overfished. 19th and 20th century maritime related artifacts such as ship models, building plans, tools, and rigging equipment can be viewed at the John Dubois Maritime Museum in Bridgeton, New Jersey.
According to the 2010 census, the county had a total area of 677.62 square miles (1,755.0 km2), including 483.70 square miles (1,252.8 km2) of land (71.4%) and 193.92 square miles (502.3 km2) of water (28.6%). Cumberland is a low-lying, generally featureless coastal county, with many salt marshes near the Delaware Bay. The highest elevation is at one of 12 areas in Upper Deerfield Township that stand approximately 140 feet (43 m) above sea level; the lowest elevation is sea level.
|Bridgeton, New Jersey|
|Climate chart (explanation)|
In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Bridgeton have ranged from a low of 25 °F (−4 °C) in January to a high of 87 °F (31 °C) in July, although a record low of −13 °F (−25 °C) was recorded in January 1985 and a record high of 101 °F (38 °C) was recorded in July 1966. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.94 inches (75 mm) in February to 4.30 inches (109 mm) in March. Cumberland has a humid subtropical climate (Cfa).
|Historical sources: 1790-1990|
1970-2010 2010 2020
As of the 2020 United States census, the county's had 154,152 people, 51,360 households, and 34,309 families. The population density was 318.7 inhabitants per square mile (123.1/km2). There were 57,119 housing units at an average density of 118 per square mile (45.6/km2). The racial makeup was 45.4% White, 18.0% African American, 0.9% Native American, 1.2% Asian, and 2.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 34.4% of the population.
Of the 51,360 households, of which 26.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.9% were married couples living together, 18.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 9.3% had a male householder with no wife present and 33.2% were non-families, and 12.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.68 and the average family size was 3.30.
About 23.8% of the population was under age 18, 7.5% was from age 18 to 24, 39.3% was from age 15 to 44, and 15.7% was age 65 or older. The median age was 38.1 years. The gender makeup was 51.7% male and 48.3% female. For every 100 females, there were 107.1 males.
The median household income was $54,587, and the median family income was $65,022. About 13.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.1% of those under age 18 and 10.4% of those age 65 or over.
The 2010 United States census counted 156,898 people, 51,931 households, and 36,559 families in the county. The population density was 324.4 per square mile (125.3/km2). There were 55,834 housing units at an average density of 115.4 per square mile (44.6/km2). The racial makeup was 62.74% (98,430) White, 20.23% (31,741) Black or African American, 1.11% (1,746) Native American, 1.22% (1,907) Asian, 0.04% (59) Pacific Islander, 11.15% (17,492) from other races, and 3.52% (5,523) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 27.06% (42,457) of the population.
Of the 51,931 households, 31.4% had children under the age of 18; 45.2% were married couples living together; 18.6% had a female householder with no husband present and 29.6% were non-families. Of all households, 24% were made up of individuals and 10.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.79 and the average family size was 3.26.
24% of the population were under the age of 18, 9.5% from 18 to 24, 28.5% from 25 to 44, 25.3% from 45 to 64, and 12.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36.5 years. For every 100 females, the population had 106.2 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 106.9 males.
Based on data from the Bureau of Economic Analysis, Cumberland County had a gross domestic product (GDP) of $6.1 billion in 2018, which was ranked 17th in the state and represented an increase of 1.6% from the previous year.
Cumberland County is governed by a Board of County Commissioners which is comprised of seven members who are elected at large by the citizens of Cumberland County in partisan elections and serve staggered three-year terms in office, with either two or three seats coming up for election each year in a three-year cycle. Each Commissioner is assigned responsibility for one of the county's departments. In 2016, freeholders were paid $15,000 and the freeholder director was paid an annual salary of $16,000.
As of 2022[update], members of the Cumberland County Board of County Commissioners (with terms for director and deputy director ending every December 31) are:
|Commissioner||Party, Residence, Term|
|Director Darlene R. Barber||D, Upper Deerfield Township, 2022|
|Deputy Director Donna M. Pearson||D, Bridgeton, 2023|
|Douglas A. Albrecht||R, Vineland, 2022|
|George Castellini||D, Vineland, 2023|
|Carol Musso||D, Deerfield Township, 2023|
|Antonio Romero||R, Vineland, 2024|
|Joseph V. Sileo||R, Vineland, 2024|
Pursuant to Article VII Section II of the New Jersey State Constitution, each county in New Jersey has have three elected administrative officials known as "constitutional officers." These officers are the County Clerk and County Surrogate (both elected for five-year terms of office) and the County Sheriff (elected for a three-year term). Cape May's Constitutional offers are:
|County Clerk||Celeste Riley (D, Bridgeton, 2024)|
|Sheriff||Robert A. Austino (D, Vineland, 2023)|
|Surrogate||Douglas M. Rainear (D, Upper Deerfield Township, 2023).|
The Cumberland County Prosecutor is Jennifer Webb-McRae of Vineland. First nominated by Governor of New Jersey Jon Corzine in January 2010, Webb-McRae was nominated for a second five-year term by Chris Christie in November 2016 and sworn into office after confirmation in January 2017. Cumberland County is a part of Vicinage 15 of the New Jersey Superior Court (along with Gloucester County and Salem County), seated in Woodbury in Gloucester County; the Assignment Judge for the vicinage is Benjamin C. Telsey. The Cumberland County Courthouse is in Bridgeton.
New Jersey's 2nd congressional district includes all of Cumberland County. For the 118th United States Congress, New Jersey's Second Congressional District is represented by Jeff Van Drew (R, Dennis Township).
|1st||Mike Testa (R)||Antwan McClellan (R)
Erik K. Simonsen (R)
|Commercial Township, Downe Township, Fairfield Township, Greenwich Township, Hopewell Township,
Lawrence Township, Maurice River Township, Millville, Shiloh Borough, Stow Creek Township and Vineland.
The remainder of this district includes portions of Gloucester County & Salem County.
|3rd||Edward Durr (R)||Bethanne McCarthy Patrick (R)
Beth Sawyer (R)
|Bridgeton, Deerfield Township and Upper Deerfield Township.
The remainder of this district includes portions of Gloucester County & Salem County.
The New Jersey Department of Corrections operates three correctional facilities in the county: Bayside State Prison, South Woods State Prison, and Southern State Correctional Facility. The three facilities employ 1,500 people and house one of every three state prisoners. In 2007, while the state was preparing to close Riverfront State Prison in Camden, it considered establishing a fourth state prison in Cumberland County.
Cumberland County tends to lean towards the Democratic party. As of October 1, 2021, there were a total of 97,440 registered voters in Cumberland County, of whom 34,401 (35.3%) were registered as Democrats, 22,814 (23.4%) were registered as Republicans and 38,217 (39.2%) were registered as unaffiliated. There were 2,008 voters (2.1%) registered to other parties.
In the 2008 United States presidential election, Barack Obama carried the county with over 60% of the vote, which he did so again in 2012. However, since then, the county has taken a shift to the right and voted for Hillary Clinton by 6.1% in 2016. Joe Biden won the county by a slightly smaller 6.0% in 2020 despite the fact that Democrats improved their national popular vote total by 3.2%.
In the 2009 gubernatorial election, Republican Chris Christe received 41.75% of the vote (14,079 votes) to Democratic Governor Jon Corzine's 50.69% (17,092 votes), while Independent Chris Daggett received 5.82% of the vote (1,962 votes), thus making Cumberland and nearby Camden counties the only southern New Jersey county to back the governor's re-election that year. In the 2013 gubernatorial election, Republican Governor Chris Christe received 56.7% of the vote (17,943 votes) to Democrat Barbara Buono's 41.4% (13,129 votes). In the 2017 gubernatorial election, Republican Kim Guadagno received 11,876 (41.8%) of the vote, and Democrat Phil Murphy received 15,686 (55.3%) of the vote. In the 2021 gubernatorial election, Republican Jack Ciattarelli received 55.6% of the vote (17,794 ballots cast) to Democrat Phil Murphy's 43.6% (13,978 votes), making it one of three counties that Ciattarelli flipped.
The 14 municipalities in Cumberland County (with most 2010 Census data for population, housing units and area) are:
(with map key)
Laurel Lake (2,929)
Port Norris (1,377)
|Deerfield Township||9||township||3,119||1,143||16.80||0.03||16.76||186.1||68.2||Rosenhayn (1,098)|
|Downe Township||12||township||1,585||996||54.27||5.66||48.61||32.6||20.5||Dividing Creek|
|Fairfield Township||10||township||6,295||2,058||43.95||2.69||41.26||152.6||49.9||Fairton (1,264)|
|Lawrence Township||11||township||3,290||1,221||38.33||1.41||36.92||89.1||33.1||Cedarville (776)|
|Maurice River Township||14||township||7,976||1,506||95.76||2.65||93.11||85.7||16.2||Cumberland|
|Stow Creek Township||5||township||1,431||568||18.85||0.55||18.30||78.2||31.0||Jericho|
|Upper Deerfield Township||8||township||7,660||3,025||31.27||0.18||31.10||246.3||97.3||Deerfield|
Seabrook Farms (1,484)
The following public-use airports are located in Cumberland County:
As of 2010[update], the county had a total of 1,271.74 miles (2,046.67 km) of roadways, of which 643.65 miles (1,035.85 km) were maintained by the local municipality, 539.14 miles (867.66 km) by Cumberland County and 88.95 miles (143.15 km) by the New Jersey Department of Transportation.
Cumberland is served only by state and county routes. Major county routes that pass through include County Route 540, County Route 548 (only in Maurice River Township), County Route 550, County Route 552, County Route 553 and County Route 555.
State routes include Route 47, Route 49, Route 55, Route 56, Route 77, and Route 347. Route 55 is the only limited access road in the county which provides access to Interstate 76, Interstate 295, and the Philadelphia area to the north.
The only YMCA in the county is the Cumberland Cape Atlantic YMCA in Vineland.
School districts include:
Kathy Farinaccio, second vice president/secretary, commented, "The YMCA's value is priceless for providing families in Cumberland, Cape May, and Atlantic Counties a healthy, active, and vibrant environment."