New Brunswick is noted for its ethnic diversity. At one time, one-quarter of the Hungarian population of New Jersey resided in the city, and in the 1930s one out of three city residents was Hungarian. The Hungarian community continues as a cohesive community, with the 3,200 Hungarian residents accounting for 8% of the population of New Brunswick in 1992. Growing Asian and Hispanic communities have developed around French Street near Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital.
The area around present-day New Brunswick was first inhabited by the LenapeNative Americans, whose Minisink Trail intersected the Raritan River and followed a route that would be taken by later colonial roads. The first European settlement at the site of New Brunswick was made in 1681. The settlement here was called Prigmore's Swamp (1681–1697), then known as Inian's Ferry (1691–1714). In 1714, the settlement was given the name New Brunswick, after the city of Braunschweig (Brunswick in Low German), in the state of Lower Saxony, now located in Germany. Braunschweig was an influential and powerful city in the Hanseatic League and was an administrative seat for the Duchy of Hanover. Shortly after the first settlement of New Brunswick in colonial New Jersey, George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Elector of Hanover, became King George I of Great Britain. Alternatively, the city gets its name from King George II of Great Britain, the Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg.
The Trustees of Queen's College (now Rutgers University), founded in 1766, voted by a margin of ten to seven in 1771 to locate the young college in New Brunswick, selecting the city over Hackensack, in Bergen County, New Jersey. Classes began in 1771 with one instructor, one sophomore, Matthew Leydt, and several freshmen at a tavern called the 'Sign of the Red Lion' on the corner of Albany and Neilson Streets (now the grounds of the Johnson & Johnson corporate headquarters); Leydt would become the university's first graduate in 1774 when he was the only member of the graduating class. The Sign of the Red Lion was purchased on behalf of Queens College in 1771, and later sold to the estate of Jacob Rutsen Hardenbergh in 1791. Classes were held through the American Revolution in various taverns and boarding houses, and at a building known as College Hall on George Street, until Old Queens was completed and opened in 1811. It remains the oldest building on the Rutgers University campus. The Queen's College Grammar School (now Rutgers Preparatory School) was established also in 1766, and shared facilities with the college until 1830, when it located in a building (now known as Alexander Johnston Hall) across College Avenue from Old Queens. After Rutgers University became the state university of New Jersey in 1945, the Trustees of Rutgers divested itself of Rutgers Preparatory School, which relocated in 1957 to an estate purchased from the Colgate-Palmolive Company in Franklin Township in neighboring Somerset County.
The New Brunswick Theological Seminary, founded in 1784 in New York, moved to New Brunswick in 1810, sharing its quarters with the fledgling Queen's College. (Queen's closed from 1810 to 1825 due to financial problems, and reopened in 1825 as Rutgers College.) The Seminary, due to overcrowding and differences over the mission of Rutgers College as a secular institution, moved to a tract of land covering 7 acres (2.8 ha) located less than 1⁄2 mile (0.80 km) to the west, which it still occupies, although the land is now in the middle of Rutgers University's College Avenue Campus.
New Brunswick was formed by royal charter on December 30, 1730, within other townships in Middlesex and Somerset counties and was reformed by royal charter with the same boundaries on February 12, 1763, at which time it was divided into north and south wards. New Brunswick was incorporated as a city by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on September 1, 1784.
Old Queens, the oldest building at Rutgers University
The existence of an African American community in New Brunswick dates back to the 18th century, when racial slavery was a part of life in the city and the surrounding area. Local slaveholders routinely bought and sold African American children, women, and men in New Brunswick in the late-eighteenth and early-nineteenth century. In this period, the Market-House was the center of commercial life in the city. It was located at the corner of Hiram Street and Queen Street (now Neilson Street) adjacent to the Raritan Wharf. The site was a place where residents of New Brunswick sold and traded their goods which made it an integral part of the city's economy. The Market-House also served as a site for regular slave auctions and sales.: 101
By the late-eighteenth century, New Brunswick became a hub for newspaper production and distribution. The Fredonian, a popular newspaper, was located less than a block away from the aforementioned Market-House and helped facilitate commercial transactions. A prominent part of the local newspapers were sections dedicated to private owners who would advertise their slaves for sale. The trend of advertising slave sales in newspapers shows that the New Brunswick residents typically preferred selling and buying slaves privately and individually rather than in large groups.: 103 The majority of individual advertisements were for female slaves, and their average age at the time of the sale was 20 years old, which was considered the prime age for childbearing. Slave owners would get the most profit from the women who fit into this category because these women had the potential to reproduce another generation of enslaved workers. Additionally, in the urban environment of New Brunswick, there was a high demand for domestic labor, and female workers were preferred for cooking and housework tasks.: 107
The New Jersey Legislature passed An Act for the Gradual Abolition of Slavery in 1804. Under the provisions of this law, children born to enslaved women after July 4, 1804, would serve their master for a term of 21 years (for girls) or a term of 25 years (for boys), and after this term, they would gain their freedom. However, all individuals who were enslaved before July 4, 1804, would continue to be slaves for life and would never attain freedom under this law. New Brunswick continued to be home to enslaved African Americans alongside a growing community of free people of color. The 1810 United States Census listed 53 free Blacks and 164 slaves in New Brunswick.
African American spaces and institutions in the early 19th century
By the 1810s, some free African Americans lived in a section of the city called Halfpenny Town, which was located along the Raritan River by the east side of the city, near Queen (now Neilson) Street. Halfpenny Town was a place populated by free blacks as well as poorer whites who did not own slaves. This place was known as a social gathering for free blacks that was not completely influenced by white scrutiny and allowed free blacks to socialize among themselves. This does not mean that it was free from white eyes and was still under the negative effects of the slavery era.: 99 In the early decades of the nineteenth century, White and either free or enslaved African Americans shared many of the same spaces in New Brunswick, particularly places of worship. The First Presbyterian Church, Christ Church, and First Reformed Church were popular among both Whites and Blacks, and New Brunswick was notable for its lack of spaces where African Americans could congregate exclusively. Most of the time Black congregants of these churches were under the surveillance of Whites.: 113 That was the case until the creation of the African Association of New Brunswick in 1817.: 114–115
Both free and enslaved African Americans were active in the establishment of the African Association of New Brunswick, whose meetings were first held in 1817.: 112 The African Association of New Brunswick held a meeting every month, mostly in the homes of free blacks. Sometimes these meetings were held at the First Presbyterian Church. Originally intended to provide financial support for the African School of New Brunswick, the African Association grew into a space where blacks could congregate and share ideas on a variety of topics such as religion, abolition and colonization. Slaves were required to obtain a pass from their owner in order to attend these meetings. The African Association worked closely with Whites and was generally favored amongst White residents who believed it would bring more racial peace and harmony to New Brunswick.: 114–115
The African Association of New Brunswick established the African School in 1822. The African School was first hosted in the home of Caesar Rappleyea in 1823.: 114 The school was located on the upper end of Church Street in the downtown area of New Brunswick about two blocks away from the jail that held escaped slaves. Both free and enslaved Blacks were welcome to be members of the School.: 116 Reverend Huntington (pastor of the First Presbyterian Church) and several other prominent Whites were trustees of the African Association of New Brunswick. These trustees supported the Association which made some slave owners feel safe sending their slaves there by using a permission slip process.: 115 The main belief of these White supporters was that Blacks were still unfit for American citizenship and residence, and some trustees were connected with the American Colonization Society that advocated for the migration of free African Americans to Africa. The White trustees only attended some of the meetings of the African Association, and the Association was still unprecedented as a space for both enslaved and free Blacks to get together while under minimal supervision by Whites.: 116–117
The African Association appears to have disbanded after 1824. By 1827, free and enslaved Black people in the city, including Joseph and Jane Hoagland, came together to establish the Mount Zion African Methodist Episcopal Church and purchased a plot of land on Division Street for the purpose of erecting a church building. This was the first African American church in Middlesex County. The church had approximately 30 members in its early years. The church is still in operation and is currently located at 39 Hildebrand Way. The street Hildebrand Way is named after the late Rev. Henry Alphonso Hildebrand, who was pastor of Mount Zion AME for 37 years, which is the longest appointment received by a pastor at Mount Zion AME.
Records from the April 1828 census, conducted by the New Brunswick Common Council, state that New Brunswick was populated with 4,435 white residents and 374 free African Americans. The enslaved population of New Brunswick in 1828 consisted of 57 slaves who must serve for life and 127 slaves eligible for emancipation at age 21 or 25 due to the 1804 Act for the Gradual Abolition of Slavery. Free and enslaved African Americans accounted for 11% of New Brunswick's population in 1828, a relatively high percentage for New Jersey.: 94 By comparison, as of the 1830 United States Census, African Americans made up approximately 6.4% of the total population of New Jersey.
Jail and curfew in the 19th century
In 1824, the New Brunswick Common Council adopted a curfew for free people of color. Free African Americans were not allowed to be out after 10 PM on Saturday night. The Common Council also appointed a committee of white residents who were charged with rounding up and detaining free African Americans who appeared to be out of place according to white authorities.: 98
New Brunswick became a notorious city for slave hunters, who sought to enforce the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850. Strategically located on the Raritan River, the city was also a vital hub for New Jersey's Underground Railroad. For runaway slaves in New Jersey, it served as a favorable route for those heading to New York and Canada. When African Americans tried to escape either to or from New Brunswick, they had a high likelihood of getting discovered and captured and sent to New Brunswick's jail, which was located on Prince Street, which by now is renamed Bayard Street.: 96
New Brunswick has been described as the nation's "most Hungarian city", with Hungarian immigrants arriving in the city as early as 1888 and accounting for almost 20% of the city's population in 1915. Hungarians were primarily attracted to the city by employment at Johnson & Johnson factories located in the city. Hungarians settled mainly in what today is the Fifth Ward and businesses were established to serve the needs of the Hungarian community that weren't being met by mainstream businesses. The immigrant population grew until the end of the immigration boom in the early 20th century.
During the Cold War, the community was revitalized by the decision to process the tens of thousands refugees who came to the United States from the failed 1956 Hungarian Revolution at Camp Kilmer, in nearby Edison. Even though the Hungarian population has been largely supplanted by newer immigrants, there continues to be a Hungarian Festival in the city held on Somerset Street on the first Saturday of June each year; the 44th annual event was held in 2019. Many Hungarian institutions set up by the community remain and are active in the neighborhood, including: Magyar Reformed Church, Ascension Lutheran Church, St. Ladislaus Roman Catholic Church, St. Joseph Byzantine Catholic Church, Hungarian American Athletic Club, Aprokfalva Montessori Preschool, Széchenyi Hungarian Community School & Kindergarten, Teleki Pál Scout Home, Hungarian American Foundation, Vers Hangja, Hungarian Poetry Group, Bolyai Lecture Series on Arts and Sciences, Hungarian Alumni Association, Hungarian Radio Program, Hungarian Civic Association, Committee of Hungarian Churches and Organizations of New Brunswick, and Csűrdöngölő Folk Dance Ensemble.
Several landmarks in the city also testify to its Hungarian heritage. There is a street and a park named after Lajos Kossuth, one of the leaders of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848. The corner of Somerset Street and Plum Street is named Mindszenty Square where the first ever statue of Cardinal József Mindszenty was erected. A stone memorial to the victims of the 1956 Hungarian Revolution stands nearby.
In the 2010 Census, about 50% of New Brunswick's population is self-identified as Hispanic, the 14th highest percentage among municipalities in New Jersey. Since the 1960s, many of the new residents of New Brunswick have come from Latin America. Many citizens moved from Puerto Rico in the 1970s. In the 1980s, many immigrated from the Dominican Republic, and still later from Guatemala, Honduras, Ecuador and Mexico.
New Brunswick is one of nine cities in New Jersey designated as eligible for Urban Transit Hub Tax Credits by the state's Economic Development Authority. Developers who invest a minimum of $50 million within a half-mile of a train station are eligible for pro-rated tax credit.
New Brunswick contains a number of examples of urban renewal in the United States. In the 1960s–1970s, the downtown area became blighted as middle class residents moved to newer suburbs surrounding the city, an example of the phenomenon known as "white flight." Beginning in 1975, Rutgers University, Johnson & Johnson and the city's government collaborated through the New Jersey Economic Development Authority to form the New Brunswick Development Company (DevCo), with the goal of revitalizing the city center and redeveloping neighborhoods considered to be blighted and dangerous (via demolition of existing buildings and construction of new ones). Johnson & Johnson announced in 1978 that they would remain in New Brunswick and invest $50 million to build a new world headquarters building in the area between Albany Street, Amtrak's Northeast Corridor, Route 18, and George Street, requiring many old buildings and historic roads to be removed. The Hiram Market area, a historic district that by the 1970s had become a mostly Puerto Rican and Dominican-American neighborhood, was demolished to build a Hyatt hotel and conference center, and upscale housing. Johnson & Johnson guaranteed the investment made by Hyatt Hotels, as they were wary of building an upscale hotel in a run-down area.
Christ Church, originally built in 1742, was the tallest building at the time of construction. A steeple was added in 1773 and replaced in 1803.
The six-story First Reformed Church, built in 1812 was long the city's tallest structure. One of the earliest tall commercial buildings in the city was the eight-story 112.5 ft (34.29 m) National Bank of New Jersey built in 1908. The 4 nine-story 125 ft (38 m) buildings of the New Brunswick Homes housing project, originally built in 1958, were demolished by implosion in 2000 and largely replaced by low-rise housing.
While there no buildings over 330 feet (100 meters) in the city, since the beginning of the new millennium, a number of high-rise residential buildings clustered around the New Brunswick station have joined those built in the 1960s on the city's skyline.
Of the 14,119 households, 31.0% had children under the age of 18; 29.2% were married couples living together; 17.5% had a female householder with no husband present and 45.1% were non-families. Of all households, 25.8% were made up of individuals and 7.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.36 and the average family size was 3.91.
21.1% of the population were under the age of 18, 33.2% from 18 to 24, 28.4% from 25 to 44, 12.2% from 45 to 64, and 5.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 23.3 years. For every 100 females, the population had 105.0 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 105.3 males.
The Census Bureau's 2006–2010 American Community Survey showed that (in 2010 inflation-adjusted dollars) median household income was $44,543 (with a margin of error of +/− $2,356) and the median family income was $44,455 (+/− $3,526). Males had a median income of $31,313 (+/− $1,265) versus $28,858 (+/− $1,771) for females. The per capita income for the borough was $16,395 (+/− $979). About 15.5% of families and 25.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.4% of those under age 18 and 16.9% of those age 65 or over.
There were 13,057 households, of which 29.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 29.6% were married couples living together, 18.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 44.8% were non-families. 24.3% of all households were made up of individuals, and 8.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.23 and the average family size was 3.69.
20.1% of the population were under the age of 18, 34.0% from 18 to 24, 28.1% from 25 to 44, 11.3% from 45 to 64, and 6.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 24 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.8 males.
The median household income in the city was $36,080, and the median income for a family was $38,222. Males had a median income of $25,657 versus $23,604 for females. The per capita income for the city was $14,308. 27.0% of the population and 16.9% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total people living in poverty, 25.9% were under the age of 18 and 13.8% were 65 or older.
Portions of the city are part of an Urban Enterprise Zone (UEZ), one of 32 zones covering 37 municipalities statewide. New Brunswick was selected in 2004 as one of two zones added to participate in the program. In addition to other benefits to encourage employment and investment within the Zone, shoppers can take advantage of a reduced 3.3125% sales tax rate (half of the 6+5⁄8% rate charged statewide) at eligible merchants. Established in December 2004, the city's Urban Enterprise Zone status expires in December 2024.
Arts and culture
Three neighboring professional venues, Crossroads Theatre designed by Parsons+Fernandez-Casteleiro Architects from New York. In 1999, the Crossroads Theatre won the prestigious Tony Award for Outstanding Regional Theatre. Crossroads is the first African American theater to receive this honor in the 33-year history of this special award category.George Street Playhouse (founded in 1974) and the State Theatre (constructed in 1921 for vaudeville and silent films) also form the heart of the local theatre scene. Crossroad Theatre houses American Repertory Ballet and the Princeton Ballet School. Rutgers University has student-run companies such as Cabaret Theatre, The Livingston Theatre Company, and College Avenue Players which perform everything from musicals to dramatic plays to sketch comedy.
Looking north from the corner of New and George Streets. The Heldrich Center is on the left.
Owing in part to its abundance of Rutgers University graduates, New Brunswick has developed a rich history in homegrown journalism over the years. One current news outlet is New Brunswick Today a print and digital publication launched in 2011 by Rutgers journalism alumnus Charlie Kratovil which uses the tagline "Independent news for the greater New Brunswick community". The publication has covered issues with the city's water utility among others and was featured on Full Frontal with Samantha Bee.
The "Grease Trucks" at Rutgers University's College Avenue campus
The "Grease trucks" were a group of truck-based food vendors located on the College Avenue campus of Rutgers University. They were known for serving "Fat Sandwiches," sub rolls containing several ingredients such as steak, chicken fingers, French fries, falafel, cheeseburgers, mozzarella sticks, gyro meat, bacon, eggs and marinara sauce. In 2013 the grease trucks were removed for the construction of a new Rutgers building and were forced to move into various other areas of the Rutgers-New Brunswick Campus.
New Brunswick's bar scene has been the home to many original rock bands, including some which went on to national prominence such as The Smithereens and Bon Jovi, as well as a center for local punk rock and underground music. Many alternative rock bands got radio airplay thanks to Matt Pinfield who was part of the New Brunswick music scene for over 20 years at Rutgers University radio station WRSU. Local pubs and clubs hosted many local bands, including the Court Tavern until 2012 (since reopened), and the Melody Bar during the 1980s and 1990s. As the New Brunswick basement scene grows in popularity, it was ranked the number 4 spot to see Indie bands in New Jersey. The independent record label Don Giovanni Records originally started to document the New Brunswick basement scene. In March 2017, NJ.com wrote that "even if Asbury Park has recently returned as our state's musical nerve center, with the brick-and-mortar venues and infrastructure to prove it, New Brunswick remains as the New Jersey scene's unadulterated, pounding heart."
The City of New Brunswick is governed within the Faulkner Act, formally known as the Optional Municipal Charter Law, under the Mayor-Council system of municipal government. The city is one of 71 municipalities (of the 564) statewide governed under this form. The governing body is comprised of the Mayor and the five-member City Council, all of whom are elected at-large on a partisan basis to four-year terms of office in even-numbered years as part of the November general election. The City Council's five members are elected on a staggered basis, with either two or three seats coming up for election every other year and the mayor up for election at the same time that two council seats are up for vote. As the legislative body of New Brunswick's municipal government, the City Council is responsible for approving the annual budget, ordinances and resolutions, contracts, and appointments to boards and commissions. The Council President is elected to a two-year term by the members of the Council at a reorganization meeting held after election and presides over all meetings.
As of 2022[update], Democrat James Cahill is the 62nd mayor of New Brunswick; he was sworn in as mayor on January 1, 1991, and is serving a term that expires on December 31, 2022. Members of the City Council are Council President Suzanne M. Sicora Ludwig (D, 2024), Council Vice President Rebecca H. Escobar (D, 2022), John A. Andersen (D, 2024), Kevin P. Egan (D, 2022) and Glenn J. Fleming Sr. (D, 2024).
The New Brunswick Police Department has received attention for various incidents over the years. In 1991, the fatal shooting of Shaun Potts, an unarmed black resident, by Sergeant Zane Grey led to multiple local protests. In 1996, Officer James Consalvo fatally shot Carolyn "Sissy" Adams, an unarmed prostitute who had bit him. The Adams case sparked calls for reform in the New Brunswick Police Department, and ultimately was settled with the family. Two officers, Sgt. Marco Chinchilla and Det. James Marshall, were convicted of running a bordello in 2001. Chinchilla was sentenced to three years and Marshall was sentenced to four. In 2011, Officer Brad Berdel fatally shot Barry Deloatch, a black man who had run from police (although police claim he struck officers with a stick); this sparked daily protests from residents.
Following the Deloatch shooting, sergeant Richard Rowe was formally charged with mishandling 81 Internal Affairs investigations; Mayor Cahill explained that this would help "rebuild the public's trust and confidence in local law enforcement."
The current professional city fire department was established in 1914, but the earliest volunteer fire company in the city dates back to 1764. The department operates out of three stations, with a total of approximately 90 officers and firefighters.
Federal, state and county representation
New Brunswick is located in the 6th Congressional District and is part of New Jersey's 17th state legislative district.
Middlesex County is governed by a Board of County Commissioners, whose seven members are elected at-large on a partisan basis to serve three-year terms of office on a staggered basis, with either two or three seats coming up for election each year as part of the November general election. At an annual reorganization meeting held in January, the board selects from among its members a commissioner director and deputy director. As of 2022[update], Middlesex County's Commissioners (with party affiliation, term-end year, and residence listed in parentheses) are
Commissioner Director Ronald G. Rios (D, Carteret, term as commissioner ends December 31, 2024; term as commissioner director ends 2022),
Commissioner Deputy Director Shanti Narra (D, North Brunswick, term as commissioner ends 2024; term as deputy director ends 2022),
Claribel A. "Clary" Azcona-Barber (D, New Brunswick, 2022),
Charles Kenny (D, Woodbridge Township, 2022),
Leslie Koppel (D, Monroe Township, 2023),
Chanelle Scott McCullum (D, Piscataway, 2024) and
Charles E. Tomaro (D, Edison, 2023).
Constitutional officers are
County Clerk Nancy Pinkin (D, 2025, East Brunswick),
Sheriff Mildred S. Scott (D, 2022, Piscataway) and
Surrogate Claribel Cortes (D, 2026; North Brunswick).
As of March 23, 2011, there were a total of 22,742 registered voters in New Brunswick, of which 8,732 (38.4%) were registered as Democrats, 882 (3.9%) were registered as Republicans and 13,103 (57.6%) were registered as Unaffiliated. There were 25 voters registered to other parties.
In the 2016 presidential election, Democrat Hillary Clinton received 81.9% of the vote (8,779 cast), ahead of Republican Donald Trump with 14.1% (1,516 votes), and other candidates with 4.0% (426 votes), among the 10,721 ballots cast. In the 2012 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama received 83.4% of the vote (9,176 cast), ahead of Republican Mitt Romney with 14.3% (1,576 votes), and other candidates with 2.2% (247 votes), among the 11,106 ballots cast by the township's 23,536 registered voters (107 ballots were spoiled), for a turnout of 47.2%. In the 2008 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama received 83.3% of the vote (10,717 cast), ahead of Republican John McCain with 14.8% (1,899 votes) and other candidates with 1.1% (140 votes), among the 12,873 ballots cast by the township's 23,533 registered voters, for a turnout of 54.7%. In the 2004 presidential election, Democrat John Kerry received 78.2% of the vote (8,023 ballots cast), outpolling Republican George W. Bush with 19.7% (2,018 votes) and other candidates with 0.7% (143 votes), among the 10,263 ballots cast by the township's 20,734 registered voters, for a turnout percentage of 49.5.
In the 2013 gubernatorial election, Democrat Barbara Buono received 66.5% of the vote (2,604 cast), ahead of Republican Chris Christie with 31.2% (1,220 votes), and other candidates with 2.3% (92 votes), among the 3,991 ballots cast by the township's 23,780 registered voters (75 ballots were spoiled), for a turnout of 16.8%. In the 2009 gubernatorial election, Democrat Jon Corzine received 68.2% of the vote (4,281 ballots cast), ahead of Republican Chris Christie with 20.9% (1,314 votes), Independent Chris Daggett with 6.2% (387 votes) and other candidates with 2.0% (128 votes), among the 6,273 ballots cast by the township's 22,534 registered voters, yielding a 27.8% turnout.
Rutgers University has three campuses in the city: College Avenue Campus (seat of the university), Douglass Campus, and Cook Campus, which extend into surrounding townships. Rutgers has also added several buildings downtown in the last two decades, both academic and residential.
The Raritan River Railroad ran to New Brunswick, but is now defunct along this part of the line. The track and freight station still remain. Proposals have been made to use the line as a light rail route that would provide an option for commuters now driving in cars on Route 18.
On April 18, 1872, at New Brunswick, William Cameron Coup developed the system of transporting circus equipment, staff and animals from city to city using railroad cars. This system would be adopted by other railroad circuses and used through the golden age of railroad circuses until the 2017 closure of the Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus.
The play and movie 1776 discusses the Continental Army under General George Washington being stationed at New Brunswick in June 1776 and being inspected by John Adams, Benjamin Franklin and Samuel Chase of Maryland as members of the War Committee.
Buccleuch Mansion in Buccleuch Park. Built in 1739 by Anthony White as part of a working farm and home overlooking Raritan Landing, the house and its adjoining 79 acres (32 ha) of land were deeded to the City of New Brunswick to be used as a park in 1911.
The Henry Guest House, added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1976, is a Georgian stone farmhouse built in 1760 by Henry Guest at Livingston Avenue and Morris Street that was moved in 1924 next to the New Brunswick Free Public Library after plans were made to demolish the building at its original site.
William H. Johnson House is an example of Italianate architecture built c. 1870, when New Brunswick experienced a post-Civil War economic boom. Architectural components including the tall narrow windows with arched tops, double bays, cornice brackets and low pitched roofs exemplify the Italianate style. The house was added to the National Register of Historic Places in July 2006.
St. Peter the Apostle Church, built in 1856 based on a designed by Patrick Keeley, is located at 94 Somerset Street.
Delaware and Raritan Canal – Completed in 1834, the canal reached its peak in the 1860s and 1870s, when its primary use was to transport coal from Pennsylvania to New York City. Accessing the canal at Bordentown on the Delaware River, the main route covered 44 miles (71 km) to New Brunswick on the Raritan River.
Birthplace of poet Joyce Kilmer – Located on Joyce Kilmer Avenue, the building is where the poet and essayist was born on December 6, 1886. Acquired by a local American Legion post, the building and its second-floor memorial to Kilmer was sold to the state in the 1960s, which then transferred it to the ownership of the City of New Brunswick.
Elmer B. Boyd Park, a park running along the Raritan River, covering 20 acres (8.1 ha) adjacent to Route 18, the park went through an $11 million renovation project and reopened to the public in 1999.
Places of worship
Abundant Life Family Worship Church – founded in 1991.
William H. Johnson (1829–1904), painter and wallpaper hanger, businessman and local crafts person, whose home (c. 1870) was placed on the State of New Jersey and National Registers of Historic Places in 2006
^Leslie Zeledón Appointed as New City Clerk, City of New Brunswick. Accessed December 11, 2019. "New Brunswick City Council appointed Leslie R. Zeledón as the new City Clerk at its 2019 Reorganization Meeting at City Hall. Zeledón has served as Deputy Clerk for the City of New Brunswick since September 2011. She replaces longtime City Clerk Daniel A. Torrisi, who was appointed by Mayor Cahill to serve as City Administrator."
^"A wet day in the Hub City", Home News Tribune, September 23, 1999. "A few days short of 60 years, on Wednesday, Sept. 16, a dreary, drizzly day just ahead of the deluge of Hurricane Floyd, the Home News Tribune sent 24 reporters, 9 photographers, and one artist into the Hub City, as it is known, to take a peek into life in New Brunswick as it is in 1999."
^ abZinsmeister, James A. "New Brunswick Journal; Where Hungarian Pride Lives On", The New York Times, June 28, 1992. Accessed December 12, 2019. "On one corner, a statue of Josef Cardinal Mindszenty, the late, beloved primate of Hungary, rises amid flowers before a large blue spruce. Across the way, a small granite monument bears a newly burnished bronze plaque that commemorates the Hungarian revolution.... While it is difficult to determine precisely how many Hungarian-Americans live in New Brunswick, Dr. August Molnar, director of the Hungarian Heritage Center, estimates that 3,200 do. That represents about 8 percent of the city's population, down from nearly 10 percent in 1980."
^Brennan, Ray. "Rutgers Historical Background", Rutgers Rarities. Accessed December 12, 2019. "According to Virtual Field Trip, New Brunswick was '...the place where the very important Native American Minisink Trail crossed the Raritan River. This later, as was the case with many other Native American routeways, became one of the most important colonial roads – the main overland route between New York and Philadelphia'"
^Staff. "New-Jersey.; Miscellaneous Notes about New-Brunswick.", The New York Times, July 27, 1854. Accessed December 11, 2019. "If the 'desperately hot' weather permit, I purpose to give you a few items of general interest respecting this ancient Dutch settlement. However, with the mercury ranging from 78° to 98° in the shade, during the sixteen hours of sunshine, you will not expect much exertion on my part. Daniel Cooper (says Gordon,) was the first recorded inhabitant of 'Prigmore's Swamp.'"
^Lee, Eunice. "Statue of New Brunswick Revolutionary War figure planned", The Star-Ledger, July 31, 2011. Accessed August 18, 2013. "New Brunswick Public Sculpture, a nonprofit, is commissioning a life-size bronze statue of Col. John Neilson, a New Jersey native who gave one of the earliest readings of the Declaration of Independence on July 9, 1776, while standing before a crowd in New Brunswick."
^Did You Know Answer 2, City of New Brunswick. Accessed December 11, 2019. "The 3rd public reading of the Declaration of Independence took place outside a tavern on Albany Street on July 9, 1776. The document was en route from Philadelphia to New York when Col. John A. Neilson stood outside a tavern, atop a table, and read it to the townspeople!"
^Makin, Cheryl. "Revolutionary moment comes to life, 241 years later", Courier News, July 10, 2017. Accessed December 11, 2019. "Neilson was born March 11, 1745 in the city that now bears a street with his name, in addition to Neilson Hall on the Rutgers University campus and, as of Sunday, a sculpture depicting a defining moment in his life and the country's history. It also is the only statue depicting a reading of the Declaration of Independence in the U.S., Ritter said."
^"A Historical Sketch of Rutgers University: Section 1", Rutgers University Libraries. Accessed December 11, 2019. "With an adequate charter obtained and the governing board assembled, the trustees turned to select a site for Queen's College. The members were split on whether to locate the college in Hackensack or New Brunswick... The Reverend John H. Goetschius, an early advocate for the college, claimed that the academy he began in Hackensack served as an advantage for establishing the college in Bergen County. But the supporters of New Brunswick reminded their colleagues that the Reverend John Leydt of New Brunswick had joined with Hardenbergh and other members of that community to establish a Grammar school in 1768. Four years passed before the trustees met in May 1771 to present their subscriptions and choose the location for the college. A vote of ten to seven placed the college in New Brunswick."
^Our History, Rutgers University. Accessed December 11, 2019. "1771 – The first class is held A handful of students attend class at a converted tavern, the Sign of the Red Lion, at the corner of Albany and Neilson streets in New Brunswick. Today, original stones from the building are incorporated into a bench near the center of Voorhees Mall on the College Avenue Campus, a 40th reunion gift from the Class of 1939. 1774 – The first commencement Matthew Leydt is the only graduate in the first commencement class."
^Paths to Historic Rutgers: A Self-Guided Tour, Rutgers University Libraries. Accessed December 11, 2019. "Old Queen's, the home of the administrative officers of Rutgers University, was originally known as the Queens College building. Designed in 1808–09 by the noted architect, John McComb, who also designed City Hall in New York, the building is one of the finest examples of Federal architecture in the United States. When first occupied in 1811, Old Queens housed the academic work of the College, the New Brunswick Theological Seminary, and the Rutgers Preparatory School, then known as the Grammar School."
^History, Rutgers University. Accessed July 13, 2016. "In 1945 and 1956, state legislative acts designated Rutgers as The State University of New Jersey, a public institution."
^Rutgers College Grammar School, Rutgers University Common Repository. Accessed August 18, 2013. "The Rutgers Preparatory School remained in New Brunswick until 1957, when it moved to its current location in Somerset, N.J."
^ ab2016–17 Academic Catalog, New Brunswick Theological Seminary. Accessed August 29, 2017. "In 1796, the school moved to Brooklyn and in 1810 to New Brunswick, to serve better the church and its candidates for ministry. Since 1856, New Brunswick Seminary has carried on its life and work on its present New Brunswick campus."
^Heyboer, Kelly. "New Brunswick Theological Seminary sells part of historic campus to Rutgers for a fresh start", NJ Advance Media for NJ.com, September 8, 2013, updated March 30, 2019. Accessed December 12, 2019. "In a complex deal that will transform part of downtown New Brunswick, the nation's oldest Protestant seminary is selling most of its hilltop campus to neighboring Rutgers University. The seminary is using the cash to build a new state-of-the-art building at the base of the hill on the corner of College Avenue. New Brunswick Theological Seminary officials say the radical decision to sell and demolish 10 buildings on one of New Jersey's most historic campuses is an answer to their prayers."
^ abcdefghijklmnoArmstead, Shaun; Sutter, Brenann; Walker, Pamela; Wiesner, Caitlin (2016). ""And I Poor Slave Yet": The Precarity of Black Life in New Brunswick, 1766–1835". In Fuentes, Marisa; White, Deborah Gray (eds.). Scarlet and Black: Slavery and Dispossession in Rutgers History. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. pp. 91–122. ISBN9780813591520. JSTORj.ctt1k3s9r0.9.
^New Jersey's African American Tour Guide, New Jersey Commerce and Economic Growth Commission. Accessed December 17, 2014. "At the southern edge of the Gateway Region is New Brunswick, a town with much culture to offer and African American history to explore. African Americans were living here as far back as 1790, and by 1810, the Census listed 53 free Blacks—and 164 slaves—out of the 469 families then living in town. One of the state's oldest Black churches, Mt. Zion A.M.E., at 25 Division Street, was founded in 1825."
^Makin, Cheryl. "AME churches celebrate spirituality, longevity", Courier News, October 27, 2017. Accessed December 12, 2019. "The historic Mount Zion A.M.E. Church-New Brunswick is the oldest African American church in Middlesex County. Now at 39 Hildebrand Way, the church began with a small plot of land on Division Street in 1827. The church was founded by a mix of 'enslaved and free people,' 36 years prior to the Emancipation Proclamation, said Eric Billips, pastor since 2013 at Mount Zion A.M.E. Church-New Brunswick.... In 1827, records show that Joseph and Jane Hoagland, along with other black men and women in the New Brunswick area, were founders of the church."
^"New Brunswick Walk, 2003", Rutgers University. Accessed December 12, 2019. "New Brunswick has been called 'the most Hungarian city in the US' because proportionately it once had more Hungarians than any other city. In 1915, out of a total population of 30,013, there were 5,572 Hungarians. The first immigrants came in 1888 and there followed, in the early twentieth century, many skilled workers who found employment in the former cigar factory on Somerset Street and at J and J."
^Gurowitz, Margaret. "Hungarian University", Kilmer House, June 19, 2008. Accessed December 12, 2019. "Large numbers of Hungarians settled in New Jersey and especially in New Brunswick, which had lots of industry to provide employment. Besides Johnson & Johnson, there was a cigar box manufacturer (which explains why many of our early medicated plasters were in cigar-box packaging…we bought the boxes from the neighboring factory), a button factory, a wallpaper factory, and more."
^"Magyar Bank – New Brunswick, New Jersey", Hungarian Free Press, November 10, 2018. Accessed December 12, 2019. "Magyar Bank has an interesting history. Originally it was founded in 1922 as the Magyar Building and Loan Association by local Hungarian immigrants. Most of these Hungarian Americans settled in the city's Fifth Ward and the bank provided loans for their families."
^Coriden, Guy E. "Report on Hungarian Refugees", Central Intelligence Agency. Accessed December 12, 2019. "As of 1 September 1957, approximately 35,000 of these refugees had accepted asylum in the US. In early November 1956, when it became apparent that a massive influx of Hungarians was going to have to be resettled, it was decided that Camp Kilmer, New Jersey, would be the processing center for all of the refugees.... From the arrival of the first refugees on 21 November 1956 until early May 1957, when Camp Kilmer was closed, transportation was provided by 214 MATS flights, 5 military Sea Transport Service (MSTS) ocean voyages, and 133 flights chartered by the Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration (ICEM)."
^Picard, Joseph. "New Brunswick Plan Debates", The New York Times, June 28, 1987. Accessed December 12, 2019. "Johnson & Johnson, the multinational medical-supplies giant based here since 1886, set the redevelopment in motion in 1973 by calling in consultants to consider its feasibility. One, the American City Corporation of Columbia, Md., has been credited with setting the direction for the revitalization. By 1975, New Brunswick Tomorrow (N.B.T.) and the New Brunswick Development Corporation (Devco) had started up, the former as the revitalization's promotional arm and the latter as its chief developer. They have, from the beginning, shared in and promoted Johnson & Johnson's vision for New Brunswick's future."
^Waggoner, Walter H. "Johnson & Johnson Expanding in New Jersey; Planning $50 Million Headquarters in Downtown New Brunswick", The New York Times, April 7, 1978. Accessed December 12, 2019. "Johnson & Johnson Inc. announced today that would construct a new $50 million worldwide corporate headquarters in down town New Brunswick. The medical-supplies company, already, the major taxpayer in this Middlesex County urban center, said it had spurned temptations to move its headquarters to suburban sites and that it was committed to the revitalization of this city of 40,000.... The whole complex will be located just south of Johnson & Johnson's red brick Georgian colonial headquarters structure, bounded by George Street on the east, the Amtrak railroad tracks on the north, Albany Street, or Route 27, on the south, and Peace and Water Streets on the west.
^Rangel, Jesus. "Raids by Housing Inspectors Anger Jersey Neighborhood", The New York Times, March 12, 1988. Accessed December 12, 2019. "When city officials, acting on a tip, found that illegal immigrants were crowding into houses in a poor neighborhood here, they began a campaign to crack down on building-code violations.... But to many residents of Ward 2, particularly its Mexicans, Dominicans, Central Americans and Puerto Ricans, the inspections have been raids aimed at the neighborhood because it lies in the path of New Brunswick's urban-renewal plans.... The site of the hotel and conference center used to be the Hiram Street market area, a predominantly Puerto Rican and Dominican neighborhood."
^ abCourtney, Marian. "Corporate Offices: New State Image", The New York Times October 23, 1983. Accessed December 12, 2019. "When Johnson & Johnson decided to build its new world headquarters in the city where it had been lodged for almost 100 years, it assumed a leadership role in New Brunswick Tomorrow, the government-industry alliance that is rebuilding a deteriorating central business district."
^Peet, Judy. "Private company's redevelopment of New Brunswick could be model for Atlantic City revamp", The Star-Ledger, August 29, 2010, updated April 1, 2019. Accessed December 12, 2019. "Currently in the works are a 632,000-square-foot 'transit village' adjacent to the train station and $165 million research tower. Devco now owns 2 million square feet of space in the city, including the Middlesex County courthouse, according to Devco records. Unlike redevelopment in Newark and Camden, the Devco model didn't try to revitalize multiple neighborhoods with individual projects, but instead concentrated on a small, extremely dense corridor within approximately 10 blocks of the New Brunswick train station."
^Miller, Paige. "In New Brunswick, one development tackles multiple community needs"Archived June 11, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, Smart Growth America, May 7, 2012. Accessed December 13, 2019. "When Smart Growth America's coalition partner New Jersey Future announced its 2012 Smart Growth Award winners in April, it was no surprise that New Brunswick's Gateway Transit Village received the award for Transit-Oriented Development Partnership. The Gateway Transit Village is a new development in downtown New Brunswick that includes parking, retail, office and residential space. Gateway is known as a transit-oriented development because it is located across from a train station, easily connecting the building's tenants and patrons to transit."
^ abcNurin, Tara. "Explainer: How Downtown New Brunswick Has Emerged from Its Doldrums", NJ Spotlight, January 13, 2015. Accessed December 13, 2019. "Now, however, Rutgers, the New Brunswick Development Corp. (Devco), the mayor's office, and influential private firms are redrawing the residential, academic and commercial landscape of the greater downtown area. They're building on the success of earlier urban-renewal projects; Rutgers’ rise in national academic and athletic standings; millennials’ desire for transit-friendly live-work-play destinations; and powerful economic incentives."
^History of Christ Church, Christ Church, New Brunswick, New Jersey. Accessed December 13, 2019. "The demand was such that a group gathered in 1742 to construct another church, to be called Christ Church, on the New Brunswick side of the River. Although construction began in 1742, title to the land was not obtained until 1745."
^Christ Church, New Brunswick NJ , Rutgers University, backed up by the Internet Archive as of August 20, 2008. Accessed March 27, 2014. "The original building was 55 feet wide, 45 feet deep, and 20 feet high...A steeple, consisting of a tower and spire, was added in 1773. The steeple design was based on that of St. Martin-in-the-Fields in London. At the time it was constructed, the steeple was the highest point in town. Unfortunately, it seems that the original construction of the steeple was not altogether sound as the congregation began taking subscriptions for steeple repair in 1786. Following the first repair job, the steeple was struck by lightning in 1803 and it burned to the ground. It was rebuilt the same year through new subscriptions, and the tower portion of the steeple (as opposed to the spire) still stands."
^Rabinowitz, Richard. "George Street Closed Due to Partial Collapse of Historic Building", New Brunswick Today, September 9, 2013. Accessed December 13, 2019. "The historic building at 390 George Street is eight stories tall and was built in 1908, according to Emporis. Originally it was one of the tallest buildings in the city and the home to the National Bank of New Jersey, which left the downtown area in the 1970s."
^Rabinowitz, Richard. "22-Story Highrise Apartment Complex Approved For New Street", New Brunswick Today, June 1, 2014. Accessed December 13, 2019. "22-story tower is set to rise over New Street, the latest in a neighborhood full of recent housing developments, such as Rockoff Hall, The Heldrich and The George."
^"New Brunswick, NJ Is America's '5th-Most Exciting Small City'. Why?", Walkable Princeton, January 5, 2014. Accessed December 13, 2019. "The height of the new buildings in New Brunswick (up to 23 levels in the newest luxury tower) would clearly be out-of-scale for Princeton, but for a city like New Brunswick, they offer a way to capture value from desirable locations close to university facilities, downtown amenities and a direct rail connection to New York."
^Rothman, Carly. "$275 million cultural center planned in New Brunswick", The Star-Ledger, March 12, 2008, updated April 2, 2019. Accessed December 13, 2019. "Rendering of the new New Brunswick Cultural Center project, to be unveiled on 3/12/08. This rendering is an overall look at the project, which will rise 34 stories on the site of what is now the George Street Playhouse, Crossroads Theater and a surface parking lot behind them.... Wednesday night, New Brunswick Mayor Jim Cahill will unveil plans for a New Brunswick Cultural Center – a $275 million project that will connect the historic State Theatre to a new building featuring two state-of-the-art theaters, rehearsal studios and classrooms, 10 floors of office space and a 200-unit condominium tower."
^Lustig, Jay. "Plan unveiled for new performing arts center in New Brunswick", NJ Arts, February 7, 2017. Accessed December 13, 2019. "New Brunswick's Theater Row — the only one of its kind in New Jersey — is getting a major facelift. The side-by-side buildings housing the George Street Playhouse and the Crossroads Theatre Company on Livingston Avenue in downtown New Brunswick will be razed, and a new tower will be built that will be their home, among other things.... 'In 2019, our residents and visitors will be able to enjoy two brand new state-of-the-art theater spaces complete with a new parking facility and a mixed use tower containing 25 floors of office space and residential units,' said New Brunswick mayor James Cahill at a press conference, today at the Crossroads Theatre."
^Clark, Adam. "Rutgers to partner with New Brunswick on downtown arts theater", NJ Advance Media for NJ.com, April 6, 2017, updated January 16, 2019. Accessed December 13, 2019. "In a deal that will allow Rutgers University to launch a new musical theater program, the university plans to contribute $17 million to a performing arts theater in downtown New Brunswick, pending approval from its Board of Governors. The board is scheduled to vote Thursday on a partnership between the university, the New Brunswick Development Corporation and the New Brunswick Cultural Center. If approved, the plan will lead to the long-awaited $60 million, 60,000-square-foot New Brunswick Performing Arts Center opening in 2019."
^Makin, Cheryl. "New Brunswick redevelopment: Hub City is renewing, reinventing, reinvesting", Courier News, March 23, 2018. Accessed December 13, 2019. "Owned by the city and managed by its nonprofit New Brunswick Development Corp., the site is approved for up to 4 million square feet of commercial development that can complement local residential, retail, and entertainment growth in proximity to corporate, medical, and academic research activity and public transportation. While still years in development, The Hub now is the subject of a planning and implementation study by the state Economic Development Authority, which also has a bioscience incubation station in nearby North Brunswick. Murphy said that the EDA will recruit partners for The Hub."
^Martin, Antoinette. "In New Brunswick, a Mixed-Use Project Is Bustling", The New York Times, February 11, 2011. Accessed August 18, 2013. "The 624,000-square-foot building will have a public parking structure at the core of its first 10 stories; that core is to be wrapped in commercial and office space. A glass residential tower 14 stories tall will sit atop the parking structure ... As for the residences – 10 floors of rentals and 4 levels of penthouse condos – they are scheduled to be complete by April 2012."
^Martin, Antoinette. "At Two Extremes of a Housing Market", The New York Times, March 6, 2005. Accessed December 16, 2019. "Boraie Development, founded by Omar Boraie, an Egyptian immigrant who came to New Brunswick 40 years ago to get his Ph.D. in chemistry before hearing the siren call of real estate, is putting up a New York-style apartment tower at One Spring Street downtown. 'This is going to be super-high-end,' said Wasseem Boraie, one of two Boraie sons who are partners in the company."
^Lissner, Caren. "New Brunswick Opens Its $172 Million Performing Arts Center", Jersey Digs, September 9, 2019. Accessed December 16, 2019. "The 23-story New Brunswick Performing Arts Center (NBPAC) complex opened on September 4 with an event drawing 450 guests to celebrate the long-awaited $172 million project, which includes two theaters, office space, and 207 apartments for artists and performers."
^Comm, Caryl. "J&J Worldwide Headquarters Nears CompletionKimmerle Newman Architect Designs Flexible Mobile Workforce Spaces", Morristown, NJ Patch, May 19, 2017. Accessed May 5, 2021. "Kimmerle Group – a Harding-based multifaceted architectural/design organization – announced that Johnson & Johnson (J&J) is currently building out the final two projects in the redesign of its world headquarters in New Brunswick, NJ. The pharmaceutical giant retained Kimmerle Newman Architects (KNA) last year to address its new master plan project at its 449,000-square-foot headquarters located at 1 Johnson & Johnson Plaza through nine separate projects, seven of which are now complete."
^Rockoff Hall, Devco. Accessed December 16, 2019. "Year Completed: 2005... Rockoff Hall encompasses 186 apartment suites, a significant street level retail presence with national retailers, and additional space for Rutgers to utilize for student life activities."
^Raum, John O. The History of New Jersey: From Its Earliest Settlement to the Present Time, Volume 1, p. 246, J. E. Potter and company, 1877. Accessed August 18, 2013. "New Brunswick is divided into six wards. Its population in 1850 was 10,008; in 1860, 11,156; and in 1870, 15,058. It was incorporated as a city in 1784. Rutgers College built of a dark red freestone and finished in 1811 is located here." Census 1850 lists total population of 10,019.
^We Are the Healthcare City, City of New Brunswick. Accessed December 13, 2019. "To be a distinguished center of medicine, you need the winning combination of the best research, human talent, and teaching. Leading in all three, New Brunswick has earned the reputation of being the region's "Healthcare City." The city has five nationally-recognized hospitals, global biotechnology and pharmaceutical corporations, internationally-recognized medical research facilities, and is part of the country's largest medical school."
^Capuzzo, Jill C. "Education; When High School Is Much More", The New York Times, January 21, 2001. Accessed December 13, 2019. "When they are not at the hospital, students are taking classes, many of which integrate health science-related themes, at the modular three-story building down the block. Touted as New Jersey's first 'option school' affiliated with a teaching hospital and medical school, the Health Sciences Technology School, opened last May for New Brunswick high school students interested in exploring careers in health care."
^Theatre History, Crossroads Theatre. Accessed December 13, 2019. "Crossroads Theatre Company, recipient of the 1999 Tony Award® for Outstanding Regional Theatre in the United States, is the nation's premiere African American theater. The American Theatre Critics Association together with the American Theatre Wing and the League of Regional Theatres and Producers presented the prestigious Tony Award® to Crossroads in recognition of its 22-year history of artistic accomplishment and excellence. Crossroads is the first African American theater to receive this honor in the 33-year history of this special award category."
^Our History and Mission, George Street Playhouse. Accessed December 13, 2019. "Founded in 1974 by former Rutgers faculty member Eric Krebs, George Street Playhouse started life in a repurposed supermarket on George Street in New Brunswick, NJ."
^History, Missian and Values, American Repertory Ballet and the Princeton Ballet School. Accessed December 13, 2019. "Founded in 1963, ARB's rich history of repertory includes established masterpieces by distinguished American choreographers such as George Balanchine, Gerald Arpino, Alvin Ailey, Paul Taylor and Twyla Tharp... The organization was founded by Audrée Estey in 1954 as the Princeton Ballet Society. At the time, it was only a school – Princeton Ballet School."
^About the Museum, Zimmerli Art Museum at Rutgers University. Accessed August 29, 2017. "Founded in 1966 as the Rutgers University Art Gallery, the Jane Voorhees Zimmerli Art Museum was established in 1983 in response to the growth of the permanent collection."
^About Us, Rutgers University Geology Museum. Accessed August 29, 2017. "The Rutgers Geology Museum, one of the oldest collegiate geology collections in the United States, was founded by state geologist and Rutgers professor George Hammell Cook in 1872."
^Vostell – I disastri della pace/The Disasters of Peace. Varlerio Dehò, Edizioni Charta, Milano 1999, ISBN88-8158-253-8.
^City Council, City of New Brunswick. Accessed December 12, 2019. "The City Council has five members elected at large to staggered four-year terms. The Council President, elected to a 2-year term by the Council presides over all meetings."
^History of the Department, City of New Brunswick. Accessed April 1, 2023. "The New Brunswick Fire Department was formally organized in 1764 when the first Bucket Company was put into service.... The paid department was installed on July 1, 1914 which ended volunteer service in New Brunswick after 150 years.... As of August 2020, the New Brunswick Fire Department is comprised of one Director, four Deputy Chiefs, eight Captains, 11 Lieutenants, 67 Firefighters and 1 Secretary. The Division of Fire Safety is comprised of one Fire Official and three Fire Prevention Specialists."
^Biography of Bob Menendez, United States Senate, January 26, 2015. "Menendez, who started his political career in Union City, moved in September from Paramus to one of Harrison's new apartment buildings near the town's PATH station.."
^Board of County Commissioners, Middlesex County, New Jersey. Accessed May 1, 2022. "The residents of Middlesex County’s 25 municipalities elect seven (7) persons to serve as members of the Board of County Commissioners. The Commissioners are elected at large to staggered three-year terms in the November general election. In January of each year, the Board reorganizes, selecting one Commissioner to be County Commissioner Director and another to be County Commissioner Deputy Director."
^New Brunswick Board of Education District Policy 0110 – Identification, New Brunswick Public Schools. Accessed March 27, 2022. "Purpose: The Board of Education exists for the purpose of providing a thorough and efficient system of free public education in grades Pre-Kindergarten through twelve and Adult Education in the New Brunswick School District. Composition: The New Brunswick School District is comprised of all the area within the municipal boundaries of the City of New Brunswick."
^What We Do: History, New Jersey Schools Development Authority. Accessed March 1, 2022. "In 1998, the New Jersey Supreme Court ruled in the Abbott v. Burke case that the State must provide 100 percent funding for all school renovation and construction projects in special-needs school districts. According to the Court, aging, unsafe and overcrowded buildings prevented children from receiving the "thorough and efficient" education required under the New Jersey Constitution.... Full funding for approved projects was authorized for the 31 special-needs districts, known as 'Abbott Districts'."
^About Us, Greater Brunswick Charter School. Accessed December 15, 2019. "The Greater Brunswick Regional Charter School is defined by the broad themes of child-directed learning in the vein of constructivism, Howard Gardner's 'unschooled mind,' and Montessori instruction; multi-age groupings of students; a unique degree of parental and community involvement; and a region of residence serving the entire and contiguous school districts of New Brunswick, Edison, Highland Park, and Milltown."
^Heyboer, Kelly. "How to get your kid a seat in one of N.J.'s hardest-to-get-into high schools", NJ Advance Media for NJ.com, May 2017. Accessed November 18, 2019. "Middlesex County has two stand-alone career academies for high-achieving students: the Academy for Science, Math and Engineering Technology, located on the campus of Middlesex County College in Edison, and the Academy for Allied Health and Biomedical Sciences in Woodbridge. How to apply: Students must attend a mandatory information session and submit an application by November of their 8th grade year."
^Munoz, Daniel. "The Trolleys and Trains That Made New Brunswick the Hub City", New Brunswick Today, January 4, 2015. Accessed December 16, 2019. "The Public Service Railway operated a number of state-wide projects, including the Newark Public Service Terminal, the Hoboken Inclined Cable Railway, and the Newark-Trenton Fast Line.... The line ended up stretching 72 miles, and connecting Jersey City, Trenton, and many other points along the way including New Brunswick. A round-trip could be completed in 11 hours, or 5.5 hours one way."
^Preserving Rail Rights of Way in Middlesex CountyArchived October 16, 2020, at the Wayback Machine, Middlesex County, New Jersey. Accessed December 3, 2019. "On this basis the following rail lines may merit future investigation on their feasibility for accommodating a light rail and/or busway type of passenger service. Raritan River Railroad. South Amboy, Sayreville, South River, East Brunswick, Milltown, North Brunswick, New Brunswick – This corridor could address some of the east-west travel needs in the central area of the County providing a transit way that would link the City of South Amboy and the City of New Brunswick. This could also provide a viable commuter travel alternative to the heavily used Route 18 Corridor."
^We Are the Healthcare City, City of New Brunswick. Accessed December 13, 2019. "To be a distinguished center of medicine, you need the winning combination of the best research, human talent, and teaching. Leading in all three, New Brunswick has earned the reputation of being the region's "Healthcare City." The city has five nationally-recognized hospitals, global biotechnology and pharmaceutical corporations, internationally-recognized medical research facilities, and is part of the country's largest medical school."
^Middleton, William D.; Morgan, Rick; and Diehl, Roberta L. Encyclopedia of North American Railroads, p. 243. Indiana University Press, 2007. ISBN9780253027993. Accessed December 15, 2019. "W.C. Coup has long been credited with putting the circus on rails. Coup was the first to organize the labor and equipment to move efficiently from town to town and to convince the railroad that the trains must arrive on time so that the show could give its scheduled performances.... On April 18, 1872, the Barnum show, in New Brunswick, New Jersey, made its debut as a railroad show with Pennsylvania Railroad Cars on Pennsy rails."
^Charles Be DeMille, Charles in Charge, Season 5, Prod. Michael Jacobs, Dir. Scott Baio, Writers, Jennifer Burton, David Lang, Perf. Scott Baio, Syndication, December 22, 1990. At about 7'35" into the episode, Charles says in a telephone conversation that someone will come "here to New Brunswick" to visit him.
^Morris, Wesley. "'Harold & Kumar' aims low, but achieves a high", The Boston Globe, July 30, 2004. Accessed January 11, 2015. "When they can't find a White Castle in their New Brunswick, N.J., neighborhood, a simple jaunt for sliders stretches into a Garden State odyssey that ends up capturing the feeling of being bored and nonwhite in New Jersey."
^Richman, Steven M. The Bridges of New Jersey: Portraits of Garden State Crossings, p. 24. Accessed December 15, 2019. "Originally built in 1892, the Albany Street Bridge in New Brunswick was altered in 1924, widened in 1929 and 1954, and fitted with a new deck and railings in 1985.... The seven spans of this 595-foot-long bridge carry Albany Street, with its portion of Route 27 (also known as the Lincoln Highway), through New Brunswick and across the Raritan River to Highland Park."
^Buccleuch Mansion, Jersey Blue Chapter National Society Daughters of the American Revolution. Accessed December 15, 2019. "The house had several owners between 1739 and 1911 when it was deeded to the city of New Brunswick, along with 79 acres of parkland, by its last occupant and owner, Anthony Dey. By designation of Dey, the mansion's contents and furnishings were entrusted to the Jersey Blue Chapter National Society Daughters of the American Revolution."
^Buccleuch Mansion History, Jersey Blue Chapter National Society Daughters of the American Revolution. Accessed December 15, 2019. "Buccleuch Mansion was built circa 1739 by a wealthy Englishman, Anthony White, upon his marriage to Elizabeth Morris, daughter of Lewis Morris, royal governor of New York and New Jersey. To reflect his new bride's social status, the home was named White House Farm and included a working farm and formal garden, ideally situated on a hill overlooking the busy colonial port of Raritan Landing."
^Garden and GraveyardArchived December 22, 2019, at the Wayback Machine, Christ Church, New Brunswick, New Jersey. Accessed December 15, 2019. "The earliest documented burial in the Christ Church graveyard is of Catherine Harrison who died at the age of 2 in 1754. Her well preserved headstone is near the west side of the cloister. The oldest person buried here is Dinah (1760?–1866). She is believed to have been a slave of the Dore family."
^The 1760 Henry Guest House, New Brunswick Free Public Library. Accessed December 15, 2019. "Built in 1760 by Henry Guest, one of the city's most prominent early citizens, it bore witness to the American Revolution and was almost demolished in 1924. Since 1925 it has been under the care of the library and has served as a museum, art center and meeting space. In 1976 it was placed on the National Register of Historic Places."
^Home Page, Friends of The William H. Johnson House. Accessed December 15, 2019.
^Saint Peter the Apostle Church, New Jersey Historic Trust. Accessed December 15, 2019. "St. Peter The Apostle Church in New Brunswick was designed in 1856 by Patrick Keeley, prolific architect of Roman Catholic Churches and known for his design of Albany Cathedral and St. Joseph's Church in Rhode Island. This grand, Gothic-revival, brownstone church, convent (ca.1870), and Greek-revival rectory, face the historic lawn of Rutgers University and Old Queens."
^Lawlor, Julia. "No More Barges but Plenty of Beauty", The New York Times, July 29, 2010. Accessed December 16, 2019. "The D&R, as it is commonly known, opened in 1834, nine years after the official debut of the Erie Canal, to speed the transport of coal from northeastern Pennsylvania to New York City. The main canal ran from the Delaware River at Bordentown, N.J., to the Raritan River in New Brunswick, while a feeder canal stretched from Bull's Island, just upriver from Stockton, to the main canal in Trenton. The feeder was built to supply water from the Delaware to the main canal, though it was later used to transport goods as well."
^New Brunswick Historical Association. "Visit Joyce Kilmer birthplace Dec. 6", Courier News, December 4, 2014. Accessed December 16, 2019. "The Kilmer birthplace house, on Joyce Kilmer Avenue at its juncture with Welton Street, was acquired by Joyce Kilmer Post #25 of the American Legion in the 1920s, shortly after the war, and used for the post's office and activities, as well as a 2nd-floor shrine to Kilmer. The post sold the building to the state of New Jersey in 1969 for a historic site. The state, in turn, turned the house over to the city for partial use for municipal offices and maintenance of the Kilmer shrine."
^History, Willow Grove Cemetery, New Brunswick. Accessed December 16, 2019. "The Willow Grove Cemetery Association at New Brunswick was officially incorporated on April 4, 1850. Special legislation granted a formal Charter to the Association which was approved by the Governor of New Jersey on February 12, 1851. The Majority of the land on which the cemetery is now situated was purchased between 1847 and 1849 from Ann Croes and Ira C. Voorhees."
^"Weird NJ: Mary Ellis' final parking place", Asbury Park Press, June 28, 2014. Accessed December 16, 2019. "Stranded high and dry in the market parking lot, Mary's 4-foot-high grave remained adrift in a sea of tarmac and bargain hunter-mobiles. For most of that time, the small, grassy island was enclosed by a chain-link fence and sporadically maintained by Mary's descendants.... The top of the mound offered a panoramic view of the Raritan, which must have been truly magnificent in Mary's day before the Route 1 Bridge was built."
^What We Do, Lawrence Brook Watershed Partnership. Accessed November 15, 2019. "The Lawrence Brook Watershed Partnership, Inc. (LBWP) is a not-for-profit organization with the mission to protect the water in a 48-square-mile area, the Lawrence Brook watershed (USGSHUC code: 02030105130); this area extends over parts of 5 municipalities: New Brunswick, East Brunswick, North Brunswick, South Brunswick, and Milltown; it also covers most of Rutgers University's Cook Campus."
^About ALFWC, Abundant Life Family Worship Church. Accessed September 9, 2015. "The Abundant Life Family Worship Church was established in February 1991 and has become a place of inspiration and spiritual revitalization for many people in New Brunswick and surrounding communities."
^HistoryArchived September 25, 2015, at the Wayback Machine, Anshe Emeth Memorial Temple. Accessed August 29, 2017. "Anshe Emeth Memorial Temple, the fourth Jewish congregation founded in New Jersey, was established in New Brunswick on October 11, 1859."
^Varga, Emil, et al. "History of Ascension Evangelical Lutheran Church"Archived September 30, 2015, at the Wayback Machine, Lutherans Online. Accessed September 9, 2015. "What persistence the original founders of the Hungarian Lutheran Church (now Ascension Lutheran Church) of New Brunswick had, who, in spite of many difficulties in securing a minister to be their pastor kept on having meetings, trying to find ways of making their religious dreams become a reality. They were immigrants from Hungary – most of them quite young- who brought with them their religious faith."
^David Abeel 1804 ~ 1846Archived August 5, 2015, at the Wayback Machine, Biographical Dictionary of Chinese Christianity. Accessed January 11, 2015. "Born in New Brunswick, New Jersey, Abeel had begun medical studies when a religious conversion turned him toward the Christian ministry."
^Schneider, Dan. "The Dan Schneider Interview 16: James Berardinelli", Cosmoetica.com, December 12, 2008. Accessed July 14, 2016. "I was born in New Brunswick, lived in Old Bridge for a year, then spent my childhood in Morristown and my teenage years in Cherry Hill."
^"Where PJ Feels At Home: An Interview With PJ Bond Part 2", Define the Meaning, January 7, 2011. Accessed September 9, 2015. "Once Out Smarting Simon stopped touring I started to live in New Brunswick permanently. It wasn't until 2008–2009 that I actually moved out of New Brunswick. I was pretty much there for about ten years on and off. That to me is why I call it home."
^Fitzgerald's Legislative Manual, 1984, p. 219. J.A. Fitzgerald, 1984. Accessed April 19, 2020. "James W. Bornheimer, Dem., East Brunswick – Senator Bornheimer was born in New Brunswick Oct. 19, 1933."
^Makin, Bob. "Hub City Music Fest commissions '48 Hour Musicals'", Courier News, April 5, 2015. Accessed August 29, 2017. "Producer-DJ Derrick 'Drop' Braxton, a New Brunswick native and lifelong resident, not only has created several songs within 48 hours with Red Giant partner, Chelsea 'Foxanne' Gohd, but also with nationally known Chicago rapper Lupe Fiasco."
^Tynes, Tyler. "Villanova recruit Jalen Brunson has basketball in his blood", SB Nation, April 3, 2015. Accessed September 9, 2015. "The Brunsons' level of winning isn't restricted to the hardwoods of Lincolnshire, Illinois, or the mean streets of New Brunswick, New Jersey, where Jalen was born, but their triumphs in athletics do tell part of their story."
^Jordan, Chris. "Hello, Goodbye", Asbury Park Press, January 11, 2004. Accessed January 26, 2023, via Newspapers.com. "The precocious and thoughtful Hallie, born in 1992 in New Brunswick, has handled everything that's come her way since appearing in a commercial for Nickelodeon's Blue's Clues show when she was 4."
^"Bishop Flake Dies", p. 3. The Living Church, January 21, 1942. Accessed December 1, 2020. "Bishop Fiske, son of William H. and Mary Houghton Fiske, was born in New Brunswick, N. J. in 1868."
^Hannan, Caryn. New Jersey Biographical Dictionary, p. 249. State History Publications, 2008. ISBN9781878592453 Accessed March 14, 2022. "Fiske, Haley (1852–1929) — Insurance official, lawyer, was born March 18, 1852, at New Brunswick, New Jersey, a son of William Henry and Sarah Ann (Blakeney) Fiske, and a brother of Stephen Fiske."
^Uhlar, Janet. Liberty's Martyr: The Story of Dr. Joseph Warren, p. 320. Dog Ear Publishing, 2009. ISBN9781608440122. Accessed January 23, 2018. "Margaret Kemble Gage was born and reared in New Brunswick, New Jersey. After marrying British General Thomas Gage, she found her loyalties to be divided. Though no evidence exists that she informed Joseph Warren of her husband's plans the night of April 18, 1775, circumstantial evidence points to her indiscretion."
^"Dr. Vera Mae Green", The New York Times, January 18, 1982. Accessed January 23, 2018. "Dr. Vera Mae Green, an associate professor of anthropology at Rutgers University, died Saturday at the Princeton (N.J.) Medical Center after a long illness. She was 53 years old and lived in New Brunswick, N.J."
^Lawler, Sylvia. "Mel Harris Mindful Of What's Meaningful", The Morning Call, September 27, 1992. Accessed April 1, 2023. "She told me she was Mary Ellen Donegan ('very Irish'); that she'd left Bethlehem when she was six months old and was raised in New Brunswick, N.J., but that she still got back to Bethlehem because she had nearly a dozen cousins there."
^Susan Hendricks, CNN. Accessed May 11, 2020. "Raised in New Brunswick, New Jersey, Hendricks attended the Hun School of Princeton and earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in journalism from Arizona State University."
^Feitl, Steve. "UFC 218 fighter Sabah Homasi got athletic start in East Brunswick", Asbury Park Press, November 30, 2017. Accessed January 22, 2018. "While Sabah Homasi only spent the first decade of his life in East Brunswick, he has vivid memories of growing up in the Garden State. ... The New Brunswick-born Homasi will be in Detroit on Saturday, competing for the Ultimate Fighting Championship in a preliminary bout on the UFC 218 event in the Motor City."
^Lawson, Edward. "In the News Columns", p. 119 in Opportunity: A Journal of Negro Life, Volumes 17–18. Accessed January 23, 2018. "When Governor A. Harry Moore of New Jersey recently reappointed Mrs. Christine Moore Howell of New Brunswick as one of the five commissioners on the State Board of Cosmetology, he paid tribute to a woman whose tireless energy and keen business acumen have won for her a unique place in American life."
^Home Page, Friends of the William H. Johnson House. Accessed January 11, 2015. "William H. Johnson was a prosperous New Brunswick businessman who owned a wallpaper hanging and house painting company, with business addresses on Church Street and Morris Street in New Brunswick."
^Staff. "Obituary: Robert Wood Johnson", p. 145. National Druggist, Volume 40. Accessed June 25, 2015. "Robert Wood Johnson, one of the founders and president of the well-known firm of Johnson & Johnson died after a brief illness at his home in New Brunswick, N. J., February 7, 1910."
^Scientific Director Frederick B. Kilmer, Johnson & Johnson. Accessed July 21, 2020. "Over the course of his prolific career at the company, Frederick Barnett Kilmer defined Johnson & Johnson, influencing virtually every aspect of the business. Before joining the company, he was a retail pharmacist, scientist, writer, and public health pioneer who moved to New Brunswick, New Jersey, in 1879."
^"Joyce Kilmer House Open to the Public on December 6 for Birthday Observation", City of New Brunswick, November 25, 2022. Accessed April 1, 2023. "The Joyce Kilmer birthplace house, located at 17 Joyce Kilmer Avenue, will be open on Tuesday, December 6 for the City’s open house observance of this local historical figure’s birth date. Alfred Joyce Kilmer, author of the poem 'Trees' and many other poems and essays, was born in New Brunswick on December 6, 1886 in the upper rooms of his parents’ home, located at what was then 17 Codwise Avenue."
^Baltin, Will. "Roy Mack – Another New Brunswick Boy Who Has Made Good", The Central Jersey Home News, May 23, 1937. Accessed August 10, 2020, via Newspapers.com. "Folks don't know him as Leroy McClure in the entertainment world, but rather as Roy Mack.... But few know that Roy is a New Brunswick boy who has really accomplished much in the world of make-believe."
^Hasan Piker, The Young Turks. Accessed March 14, 2022. "Born in New Brunswick, New Jersey, and raised in Istanbul, Turkey, Hasan Piker is an American journalist, producer, activist, and political commentator, best known as the creator behind The Breakdown for The Young Turks on Facebook."
^Olivier, Bobby. "Midtown reunion just part of NJ revival at Skate and Surf this weekend", NJ Advance Media for NJ.com, May 16, 2014. Accessed June 25, 2015. "Gabe Saporta could only dodge the discussion for so long. For years, the singer and his former bandmates were asked to reunite Midtown, their daring New Brunswick foursome that burned alongside pop-punk's brightest incendiaries in the early 2000s, only to smolder and disband in 2005."
^Brian David Sicknick, Demaine Funeral Home. Accessed January 31, 2021. "Brian David Sicknick was born on July 30, 1978, in New Brunswick, NJ, the youngest of three sons to Gladys and Charles Sicknick."
^Bosso, Joe. "Ron 'Bumblefoot' Thal on DIY music distribution, Guns N' Roses and more", MusicRadar.com, April 22, 2011. Accessed March 24, 2013. "As a member of Guns N' Roses, Ron 'Bumblefoot' Thal has spent the better part of two years crisscrossing the globe on the Chinese Democracy tour and playing to packed enormodomes. But, for time being, the New Jersey resident, who has called the city of New Brunswick his home for the past 12 years, is enjoying a bit of normalcy in the Garden State."
^Staff. "The Story of His Life", The New York Times, December 9, 1885. Accessed March 24, 2013. "William H. Vanderbilt was the eldest son of Commodore Vanderbilt. He was born in New-Brunswick, N.J., in the old house where the Commodore lived a good part of his time at that period of his life, on May 8, 1821."
^Guetti, Mike. "Vega is hottest star on area racing scene", Home News Tribune, March 7, 2018. Accessed January 21, 2020, via Newspapers.com. "Balance on a horse is what it's all about for successful race-riding but, for apprentice rider Tony Vega, finding his balance on a horse was the easiest part. Vega, a former Home News delivery boy who was born in New Brunswick and attended New Brunswick High School, is the hottest star on the New Jersey horse racing scene as he leads the current jockey standings at Monmouth Park by more than 20 wins."
^"Young signs with Rangers", The Star-Ledger, August 12, 2006. "Young, out of Rutgers and New Brunswick, has played in 15 major- league seasons, including 2004 for the Rangers when they were in contention for the AL West title until the final week of the regular season."
^Miller, Randy. "Angels' Eric Young Jr., shares sad story of losing his 'angel'", NJ Advance Media for NJ.com, June 9, 2017. Accessed July 5, 2017. "Shortly after joining the club in an Aug. 31, trade, the Yankees were in Baltimore for a Labor Day weekend series when the New Brunswick native and Piscataway High alum learned he was going to be a first-time father."