United Airlines, Inc.
IATA ICAO Callsign
FoundedApril 6, 1926; 95 years ago (1926-04-06)
(as Varney Air Lines)
Boise, Idaho, U.S.[1]
Commenced operationsMarch 28, 1931; 90 years ago (1931-03-28)[2]
AOC #CALA014A[3]
Frequent-flyer programMileagePlus
AllianceStar Alliance
List of subsidiaries[4]
  • Chelsea Food Services
  • Covia LLC
  • Kion de Mexico, S.A. de C.V.
  • MileagePlus, Inc.
  • MileagePlus Holdings, LLC
  • United Aviation Fuels Corporation
  • United Cogen, Inc.
  • United Vacations, Inc.
  • United Ground Express, Inc.
Fleet size854[5]
Parent companyUnited Airlines Holdings
HeadquartersWillis Tower, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
Key people
RevenueIncrease $43.259 billion (2019)[11]
Operating incomeIncrease $4.301 billion (2019)[11]
Net incomeIncrease $3.009 billion (2019)[11]
Total assetsIncrease $52.611 billion (2019)[11]
Total equityIncrease $11.531 billion (2019)[11]
Employees~96,000 (December 2019)[11]

United Airlines, Inc. (commonly referred to as United) is a major American airline headquartered in Willis Tower in Chicago, Illinois.[12][13][14] United operates a large domestic and international route network spanning cities large and small across the United States and all six inhabited continents.[15] Measured by fleet size and the number of routes, it is the third-largest airline in the world.

United has eight hubs, with Chicago–O'Hare being its largest in terms of passengers carried and the number of departures.[16] It is a founding member of the Star Alliance, the world's largest airline alliance with a total of 28 member airlines.[17] Regional service is operated by independent carriers under the brand name United Express. United was established by the amalgamation of several airlines in the late 1920s, the oldest of these being Varney Air Lines, which was founded in 1926.[1]


Main article: History of United Airlines

United Airlines' 1973–2010 logo
United Airlines' 1973–2010 logo

United traces its roots to Varney Air Lines (VAL), which Walter Varney founded in 1926 in Boise, Idaho. Continental Airlines is the successor to Speed Lanes, which Varney had founded by 1932 and whose name changed to Varney Speed Lines in 1934. VAL flew the first privately contracted air mail flight in the U.S. on April 6, 1926.[18][19][20]

In 1927, William Boeing founded Boeing Air Transport to operate air mail routes under contract with the United States Post Office Department.[21] In 1929, Boeing merged his company with Pratt & Whitney to form the United Aircraft and Transport Corporation (UATC) which then set about buying, in the space of just 28 months, Pacific Air Transport, Stout Air Services, VAL, and National Air Transport, as well as numerous equipment manufacturers at the same time.[22][23] On March 28, 1931, UATC formed United Air Lines, Inc. as a holding company for its airline subsidiaries.[24]

In late 2006, Continental Airlines and United had preliminary merger discussions.[25][26] On April 16, 2010, those discussions resumed.[27] The board of directors of Continental and UAL Corporation agreed on May 2, 2010, to combine operations, contingent upon shareholder and regulatory approval. On October 1, 2010, the UAL Corporation changed its name to United Continental Holdings, Inc.[28] The carriers planned to begin merging their operations in 2011.[29] The merged airline began operating under a single air operator's certificate from the Federal Aviation Administration on November 30, 2011.[30] On March 3, 2012, United and Continental merged their passenger service systems, frequent-flier programs, and websites, which virtually eliminated the Continental brand with the exception of its logo.[31] On June 27, 2019, the parent company's name changed from United Continental Holdings to United Airlines Holdings.[32]

In January 2021, Chief Executive Scott Kirby put forward the possibility for the company to mandate employees to receive the COVID-19 vaccine while cautioning the potential difficulties in implementing the mandate.[33] The company was the first major US airline to announce a vaccine mandate for all staff on Aug 6, at which point over 80% of flight attendants and 90% of pilots had been vaccinated, according to statements of the respective unions.[34] Days before the internal deadline of Sept 27, the company announced that more than 97% of the US based staff were vaccinated.[35]


Main articles: List of United Airlines destinations and List of United Express destinations

United operates to 238 domestic destinations and 118 international destinations in 48 countries or regions across five continents.[36] By spring 2021, United will once again fly regularly to all 6 inhabited continents following the reinstatement of scheduled year-round flights to Africa.[37]


As part of its hub-and-spoke business model, United currently operates eight hubs.[38]

Alliance and codeshare agreements

United Airlines is a member of the Star Alliance and has codeshare agreements with the following airlines:[53]


A United Airlines Boeing 787-9 with new livery at Beijing Capital International Airport.
A United Airlines Boeing 787-9 with new livery at Beijing Capital International Airport.

Current fleet

Main article: United Airlines fleet

As of May 2021, United Airlines operated a fleet of 834 aircraft with an additional 49 aircraft planned or on order; all of which are either Boeing or Airbus.[5]

Fleet strategy

On July 20, 2011, American Airlines announced an order for 460 narrowbody jets, including 260 Airbus A320s.[55] This order broke Boeing's monopoly with the airline and forced Boeing to proceed with plans for the re-engined 737 MAX.[56] The contract with American included a Most-Favoured-Customer Clause, which requires Airbus to refund to American any difference between the price paid by American and the price paid by United or another airline, if lower. The clause acts to perpetuate United having a Boeing-skewed fleet.[57]

On September 22, 2012, United became the first American airline to take delivery of Boeing 787 aircraft.[58] United is also the North American launch customer for the Boeing 787-9[59] and 787-10 aircraft,[60] which are stretched versions of the base 787-8 model, delivered at launch.

In May 2018, United planned to replace its 51 Boeing 767s in a deal potentially worth $14 billion at list prices, and was in talks with both Airbus and Boeing, for their A330neo and 787.[61] United operates 128 757s and 767s (77 B757s and 51 B767s), the second-largest combined fleet after Delta Air Lines with 206 (127 757s and 79 767s). Both have to replace them; they could be replaced by 737 MAX 10s, A321neos, Boeing NMAs, 787-8s or A330-800s.[62]

On June 3, 2021, United announced that a deal had been confirmed with Boom Supersonic to purchase at least 15 of their Overture supersonic airliners & potentially up to 50 in total. These aircraft will be flown on 100% sustainable fuels. The aircraft are intended to enter service with United in 2029 & are expected to be the first supersonic airliners to fly domestically for a airline since the Concorde was retired with British Airways & Air France in 2003.[63]

On June 29, 2021 United announced an order for 270 aircraft which includes, 150 737 MAX 10 aircraft, 50 737 MAX 8 aircraft, and 70 A321neo aircraft. As new aircraft arrive, the airline also announced these will include AVOD (Audio and Video On Demand) screens on every seat, as well as the retrofit of all mainline aircraft to include AVOD screens by 2025. United has also announced the retirement of older mainline aircraft and at least 200 single-class regional aircraft. The 737 MAX 8 aircraft debuts with the airline this summer while 737 MAX 10 and A321neo aircraft start delivery in 2023.[64] United also expects to create 25,000 union jobs, mostly in United States hubs locations, by 2026.[65] The order would be valued at $35.4 billion based on the listed price of the jets.[66]


United Polaris business class seat on the Boeing 777-300ER
United Polaris business class seat on the Boeing 777-300ER
United Premium Plus seat on the Boeing 787-8
United Premium Plus seat on the Boeing 787-8
Economy plus seats on a Boeing 767
Economy plus seats on a Boeing 767
New slimline economy seats on an Airbus A320-200
New slimline economy seats on an Airbus A320-200
United Polaris Business

On June 2, 2016, United introduced its new, redesigned international business class seat that will replace current business class seats. The Polaris seat converts into a 6' 6" flatbed in a 1-2-1 configuration or a 1-1-1 configuration, providing all-aisle access for every seat. The seat boasts multiple storage areas, mood lighting, multiple charging ports, lumbar support, and improved dining and amenity services.[67]

These seats can be found on select Boeing 787 aircraft, Boeing 767 aircraft, and Boeing 777 aircraft.

United Polaris Business passengers check in at separate counters and can use priority security screening where available. In-flight services include pre-departure beverages, table linens and multi-course meals designed in partnership with Charlie Trotter-affiliated chefs via the airline's partnership with the Trotter Project.[68] Passengers are also given priority with boarding and baggage handling and access to the United Polaris Lounge where available, as well as the United Club and partner airline lounges. All Polaris Business seats recline 180 degrees into a full flatbed, all seats face forward.[69]

Other domestic routes, especially hub-to-hub service and certain non "United p.s." transcontinental flights, may see internationally configured aircraft with United Polaris Business seating for operational reasons (such as transferring international aircraft from one hub to another or high demand). While the physical seats and entertainment are the same as on international flights, the service, catering and other amenities are the same as in domestic first class. Unlike routes marketed as United Business, these flights are eligible for complimentary premier upgrades.[70]

United Premium Plus

United Premium Plus is United's premium economy product, that is being retrofitted on wide-body international aircraft. United Premium Plus seating offers more space, comfort and amenities compared to United Economy or Economy Plus, and offers upgraded dining on china dinnerware, free alcoholic beverages, a Saks Fifth Avenue blanket and pillow, an amenity kit and more. The first aircraft with these seats were flying in mid-2018, and the full service launched in 2019. During the interim period, these seats were sold as part of Economy Plus.[71]

These seats can be found on select Boeing 787 aircraft, Boeing 767 aircraft, and Boeing 777 aircraft.

Domestic routes, especially hub-to-hub service may see internationally configured aircraft with United Premium Plus seating for operational reasons. Premium Plus seats are sold as Economy Plus seats. While the physical seats and entertainment are the same as on international flights, the service catering and other amenities are the same as in Economy Plus.[71]


United premium transcontinental service is offered on transcontinental flights between Newark and Los Angeles or San Francisco and between Boston and San Francisco. Previously branded as p.s. (short for "Premium Service") when initially launched in 2004, through 2017, these flights utilize primarily Boeing 757-200s, with 180-degrees-flat Business class seats. The premium cabin also features international-style catering, while all seats have access to inflight wi-fi, on-demand entertainment, and power outlets. Business-class passengers also have access to the United Club at Newark, Boston, Los Angeles, and San Francisco.[72]

All premium transcontinental flights were moved from New York JFK to Newark Liberty Airport on October 25, 2015.[73]

These routes are not eligible for Complimentary Premier upgrades, although MileagePlus members can upgrade using Regional Premier Upgrades, Global Premier Upgrades, or MileagePlus award miles.[74]

United First

United First is offered on all domestically configured aircraft. When such aircraft are used on international services such as services to Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean (excluding Puerto Rico) destinations, this cabin is branded as United Business. United First seats on narrowbody aircraft have a 38-inch (97 cm) seat pitch, while United First seats on re-configured domestic Boeing 777-200 aircraft feature fully-flat-bed seats. Passengers receive priority boarding and baggage handling, pre-departure beverages, complimentary meals and separate check-in desks.[75]

In 2015, United released its new domestic first-class seat design. The new leather seats feature cradling headrests, granite cocktail tables, and a tablet stand. These seats debuted on Airbus A319 and Airbus A320 aircraft, and will eventually be installed on all domestic aircraft.[76]

In 2019, It was announced that United is increasing first and business class seats "by 1,600" across all their aircraft in their fleet, to include the Bombardier CRJ550 for which United is the launch customer of.[77]

Economy Plus

United Economy Plus is available on all aircraft. Economy Plus seats are located in the front few rows and exit rows of the economy cabin and have 2 inches (5.1 cm) more recline and at least 5 to 6 inches (13 to 15 cm) of additional seat pitch totaling 4 to 7 inches (10 to 18 cm) of recline (aircraft dependent) and 35 to 37 inches (89 to 94 cm) of pitch. Economy Plus is complimentary for all MileagePlus Premier members. Premier 1K, Platinum and Gold members may select an Economy Plus seat when booking, while silver members can select an Economy Plus seat at check-in.[78] It can also be purchased depending upon availability by other passengers. Prior to the merger between United and Continental, United Airlines aircraft offered Economy Plus, while Continental did not. Following the merger, Economy Plus was rolled out across the combined fleet.[79]


United Economy is available on all aircraft, and usually have a pitch of 31 inches (30 inches on aircraft refurbished with Slimline seats, and 32 inches on Boeing 787s) and a recline of 2–5 inches. All economy seats feature an adjustable headrest and some form of entertainment, ranging from AVOD, inflight wi-fi, personal device entertainment, or DirecTV. Economy seats on Boeing 767, Boeing 777 (except domestic 777-200s), Boeing 787, and 757-200 aircraft feature a personal 7-inch (18 cm) touchscreen television at the back of each seat with United Private Screening. On Airbus A319, A320, Boeing 737, Boeing 757-300, and domestically configured Boeing 777 aircraft feature personal device entertainment and WiFi. Some Boeing 737 aircraft feature DirecTV.[80]

Food and snacks are available for purchase on domestic, Caribbean, and some Latin America flights. These include snacks, fresh meals, and snack boxes, depending on flight time and distance.[81] Meals are complimentary on all other international flights. Beverages and small snacks are complimentary in economy class on North America flights. Alcoholic beverages are available for purchase on North America flights but are complimentary on long-haul international flights.[82] On flights where meals are served, a cocktail snack with a beverage is served shortly after takeoff, followed by a main course and dessert. Longer international flights feature a pre-arrival meal, which usually consists of a light breakfast or snack.

Basic Economy

Basic Economy is available on select routes and in addition to standard fares. Intended to be United's lowest fare, Basic Economy fares provide most of the same inflight services and amenities with standard United Economy Class.[83] With Basic Economy, group/family seating, seat selection/upgrades and bringing full-sized carry-on bags are not allowed. When booking online, it is clearly marked - with a user prompt to confirm the user is booking a Basic Economy fare. Users also have the option to pay a small fee to upgrade their booking to a regular Economy. Also, certain MileagePlus and Premier member benefits are not available.[84]

Reward services

MileagePlus is the frequent flyer program for United Airlines.[85]

United Club is the airline lounge associated with United Airlines and United Express carriers. The United Club replaced the former United Red Carpet Club and Continental Airlines Presidents Club prior to United Airlines' merger with Continental.[86]

Corporate affairs

Ownership and structure

United Airlines, Inc. is publicly traded through its parent company, United Airlines Holdings. Inc, which is a Delaware corporation,[87] on the New York Stock Exchange NYSEUAL, with a market capitalization of over US$21 billion as of January 2018.[88] United's operating revenues and operating expenses comprise nearly 100% of the holding company's revenues and operating expenses.[87]

Headquarters and other facilities

United Airlines Holdings World Headquarters, Willis Tower
United Airlines Holdings World Headquarters, Willis Tower

United Airlines headquarters are located at the Willis Tower, 233 South Wacker Drive, Chicago, Illinois.[89]

In 2007, United had moved its headquarters from Elk Grove Township, a suburb of Chicago, to 77 West Wacker Drive in the Chicago Loop[90] after receiving US$5.5 million in incentives from the City of Chicago.[91]

Then in 2010, United accepted the City of Chicago's offer of US$35 million in incentives, including a US$10 million grant, for United to move its remaining 2,500 employees out of Elk Grove Township to the Willis Tower (formerly the Sears Tower) in the Chicago Loop.[91] On May 31, 2012, United opened its operations center, which occupied twelve floors there.[92] In 2019 United renewed its lease at Willis Tower, originally ending in 2028 and now set to expire in 2033, and plans to construct a roof deck and a 30,000 sq ft (2,800 m2) dining hall on the fourth floor.[93]

The former headquarters campus at Elk Grove Township was gradually annexed into the Village of Mount Prospect,[94][95] and serves as an IT operations facility, with a new 172,000 sq ft (16,000 m2) data center constructed in 2013.[96]

United maintains a large presence in downtown Houston, having leased 225,000 sq ft (20,900 m2) of space (seven floors) for occupancy in 2017.[97]

United has training facilities for its flight crews in Denver and Houston, a major aircraft maintenance center in San Francisco, and call centers in Houston and Chicago.

On September 24, 2020, United Airlines announced that it will roll out a new COVID-19 testing program for passengers from October 15 that year. Initially, testing was only available for passengers traveling to Hawaii from San Francisco International Airport.[98]

Corporate identity

Brand image

See also: United Airlines brand history

The pre-merger United logo, commonly nicknamed the "tulip", was developed in the early 1970s by the designer Saul Bass as part of a new brand image.[99] The logo represented the airline's monogram as well as a modernized version of the airline's shield logo[100] which had been adopted in the 1930s, but fell out of use by the late 1960s. The ribbon-like rendering has also been said to symbolize the motion of flight.[101]

Marketing themes

Further information: History of United Airlines § Slogans

United's earliest slogan, "The Main Line Airway", emphasized its signature New York-Chicago-San Francisco route, and was replaced in 1965 with "Fly the Friendly Skies", which was in use until 1996 in its first iteration.[102] The "It's time to fly" slogan was created in 2004. After the merger of United and Continental in October 2010, the slogan changed to "Let's fly together" until September 2013,[102] when United announced a return of the "Fly the Friendly Skies" slogan in an ad campaign to start the following day.[103] The resurrected slogan would be accompanied by the 1924 George Gershwin song "Rhapsody in Blue" as its theme song, and a voiceover provided by Matt Damon.[102]

United had licensed its theme song, "Rhapsody in Blue", from Gershwin's estate for US$500,000 (equivalent to $2,273,977 in 2020) in 1976.[104] "Rhapsody" would have entered the public domain in 2000, but the Copyright Term Extension Act of 1998 extended its copyright another 20 years until January 1, 2020 when it officially entered on the Public Domain.[105][106] United announced that it would continue to use "Rhapsody in Blue" as its theme song following the merger with Continental.[107]

Environmental initiatives

Because over 98 percent of United's greenhouse gas emissions are from jet fuel, its environmental strategy has focused on operational fuel efficiency initiatives and investments in sustainably produced, low-carbon alternative fuels.[108]

On August 23, 2011, United Continental Holdings, Inc. announced a conversion to paperless flight decks and projected that by the end of the year, 11,000 iPads will have been deployed to all United and Continental pilots. Each iPad, which weighs less than 1.5 pounds (0.68 kg), will replace approximately 38 pounds (17 kg) of paper operating manuals, navigation charts, reference handbooks, flight checklists, logbooks, and weather information. The green benefits include reductions in paper use, printing, and fuel consumption.[109]

On November 7, 2011, United flew the world's first commercial aviation flight on a microbially-derived biofuel. The aircraft was fueled with 40 percent Solajet, which is Solazyme's algae-derived renewable jet fuel, and 60 percent petroleum-derived jet fuel. This flight was operated by the Eco-Skies Boeing 737-800 aircraft from Houston to Chicago-O'Hare.[110]

On January 15, 2013, Aviation Partners Boeing (APB), a joint venture between Aviation Partners Inc. and Boeing, announced that United had agreed to replace the Blended Winglets on its Boeing Next Generation 737 aircraft with APB's Split Scimitar Winglet (SSW), significantly reducing drag. Once the SSWs are installed, it is estimated that APB's winglet technology will save United more than $250 million annually in fuel costs.[111]

On June 30, 2015, United invested US$30 million in Fulcrum BioEnergy, an alternative fuel company. Fulcrum's alternative fuel is produced through a clean and efficient thermochemical process and reduces lifecycle carbon emissions by more than 80 percent. As part of its investment, United will work with Fulcrum to develop up to five alternative fuel refineries near its U.S. hubs. These refineries will produce up to 180 million U.S. gallons (680 million liters) of sustainable aviation alternative fuel per year, and United will have the opportunity to purchase at least 90 million U.S. gallons (340 million liters) per year for a minimum of 10 years, making it the largest aviation alternative fuel commitment to date.[112]

On March 11, 2016, United became the first airline in the world to fly on commercial-scale quantities of such fuels on a continuous basis, which were procured from AltAir Fuels. This fuel was produced from sustainable feedstocks such as non-edible natural oils and agricultural wastes and is expected to provide a greater than 60 percent reduction in carbon dioxide emissions on a lifecycle basis when compared to traditional jet fuel. United has agreed to purchase up to 15 million U.S. gallons (57 million liters) of sustainable alternative fuel from AltAir Fuels for use in Los Angeles over a three-year period.[113]

In 2016, United began partnering with Clean the World to repurpose items from the airline's international premium class amenity kits and donate the hygiene products to those in critical need. Clean the World provides hygiene education and soap to promote handwashing, which helps prevent hygiene-related deaths. During the first year of this partnership, United expected to divert 60,000 pounds (27,200 kg) of material that otherwise would have gone to landfills.[114]

In 2017 United started a partnership with Audubon International to protect raptors—including hawks, ospreys and owls—in and around New York-area airports and resettle the birds-of-prey at suitable golf course habitats where the species are more likely to thrive.[115]

Worker relations

All United Airlines pilots are represented by the Air Line Pilots Association. A new Joint Collective Bargaining Agreement was ratified by a majority of the United/Continental pilots on December 15, 2012,[116][117] which struck down a scope clause that disallowed Continental from outsourcing the flying of regional jets with 70 or more passenger seats.[118]

In January 2021, as a plan to reduce its costs in 2023, United Airlines offered its employees voluntary leave options with pay or health benefits.[119]

In April 2021, United Airlines announced that within the next decade, half its pilots would be female or people of color.[120]

Concerns and conflicts

Animal transport

In 2013, after pressure from PETA, United announced that it would no longer transport monkeys to laboratories. United was the last North American passenger airline to transport these animals to laboratories.[121][122] United flies more animals and has longer flight stage length than any other US airline, and accounted for one third of animal deaths of US airlines between 2012 and 2017.[123]

Effective March 20, 2018, the PetSafe program was suspended with no new reservations for cargo transport of pets accepted.[124] This came after United announced plans to mark pet carriers in the passenger cabin with bright tags[125] and legislation was introduced in the United States House of Representatives[126] and United States Senate banning the placement of pets in overhead compartments.[127] This was in response to a dog death after a passenger placed it in the overhead compartment following flight attendant instructions, but the flight attendant denied knowing that the luggage contained a dog.[128]

Cyber security issues

United awarded airline miles as "bug bounties" to hackers who could identify gaps in the carrier's web security. Two hackers have each been rewarded with 1 million miles of air travel as of July 15, 2015. This cybersecurity program was announced a few weeks after the company experienced two software glitches. The first incident delayed 150 United flights on June 2 due to a problem with its flight dispatching system. Six days later, United's reservation system delayed flights by not allowing passengers to check-in. In addition to the "bug bounty" program, United said it tests systems internally and engages cybersecurity firms.[129][130]

Privacy concerns

In February 2019, privacy concerns arose after it emerged that United had installed cameras in some seat backs. United said that the cameras were "not activated", but journalists reported that malicious hackers could still potentially enable the cameras to spy on passengers.[131][132][133][134][135]

Mail-scan fraud

In February 2021, United Airlines was fined $49 million by the Department of Justice on charges of fraud on postal service contracts for transportation of international mail. According to investigators, between 2012 and 2015 United submitted delivery scan data to make it appear that United and its partner airlines complied with International Commercial Air requirements with accurate delivery times when in fact they were automated delivery scans with aspirational delivery time. Some employees within United worked to hide this fact from the USPS.[136][137][138]

Accidents and incidents

1930s NC13304 NC13357 Flight 6 Flight 4[139] NC13323[140] NC13355[141]
1940s 41-24027 Flight 521 Flight 608 Flight 624
1950s Flight 129[142] Flight 610 Flight 615 Flight 409 Flight 629 Flight 718 Flight 736
1960s Flight 826 Flight 859 Flight 297 Flight 823 Flight 389 Flight 227 Flight 266
1970s Flight 553 Flight 2860 Flight 696 Flight 173
1980s Flight 811 Flight 232 Flight 2885 Flight 2415
1990s Flight 585 Flight 6291 Flight 5925 Flight 826 Flight 863 Flight 1448
2000s Flight 175 Flight 93
2010s Flight 3411 Flight 627 Flight 1175
2020s Flight 328

United 976

Main article: United Airlines Flight 976

Before takeoff on the October 19–20, 1995, overnight flight from Buenos Aires to New York's John F. Kennedy International Airport, investment banker Gerard Finneran attempted to pour his own drinks, against airline and federal regulations, when he grew impatient waiting for more. When cabin crew informed him, after takeoff, that they were no longer going to serve him due to his apparent intoxication, Finneran threatened one and pushed another. He then climbed atop a drinks cart, lowered his pants and defecated in full view of staff and other passengers, after which he wiped himself with napkins and smeared them on the walls, tracking excrement around the cabin as he went to the lavatory and locked himself in.[143]

A request to divert to Luis Muñoz Marín International Airport in San Juan, Puerto Rico, was denied as Portuguese president Mário Soares and Argentinian foreign minister Guido di Tella were aboard; the presence of foreign dignitaries on a flight creates extra security risks. Finneran was arrested by the FBI after landing in New York and charged with interfering with a flight crew and threatening a flight attendant. He later pleaded guilty to the latter charge and was fined $5,000 (having previously agreed to reimburse the airline for its cleanup costs and all the other passengers their airfare, which amounted to nearly $50,000) and given two years' probation[144] The incident has been recalled in later years as the worst case of air rage ever.[145][146]

United 3411

Main article: United Express Flight 3411 incident

On the evening of April 9, 2017, a passenger was forcibly removed by law enforcement from United Airlines flight 3411 at Chicago-O'Hare, bound for Louisville.[147] United announced that it needed four seats for airline staff on the sold-out flight.[148] When no passengers volunteered after being offered vouchers worth $800, United staff selected four passengers to leave. Three of them did so, but the fourth, a doctor named David Dao, declined as he said that he had patients to treat the following morning. He was pulled from his seat by Chicago Department of Aviation security officers and dragged by his arms down the aisle. Dao sustained a concussion, broken teeth and a broken nose among other injuries.[149] The incident was captured on smartphone cameras and posted on social media, triggering angry public backlash. Afterwards, United's then-chief executive officer, Oscar Munoz, described Dao as "disruptive and belligerent", apologized for "re-accommodating" the paying customers, and defended and praised staff for "following established procedures". He was widely criticized as "tone-deaf".[150] Munoz later issued a second statement calling what happened a "truly horrific event" and accepting "full responsibility" for it.[151] After a lawsuit, Dao reached an undisclosed settlement with United and airport police. In the aftermath, United's board of directors decided that Munoz would not become its chairman and that executive compensation would be tied to customer satisfaction.[152] Following this incident, passenger complaints increased by 70 percent.[153]

See also


  1. ^ a b Marvin E. Berryman. "A History of United Airlines". United Airlines Historical Foundation. Archived from the original on September 3, 2013. Retrieved December 3, 2014.
  2. ^ "The Boeing Logbook: 1927-1932". Boeing. Archived from the original on January 7, 2015. Retrieved December 3, 2014.
  3. ^ "Airline Certificate Information – Detail View". av-info.faa.gov. Federal Aviation Administration. August 11, 1938. Certificate Number CALA014A
  4. ^ "2009 Form 10-K Subdocument 8 – EX-21 – List of UAL Corporation and United Air Lines, Inc. subsidiaries". ir.united.com. UAL Corporation. February 26, 2010. Archived from the original on July 24, 2011. Retrieved January 13, 2011. UAL Corporation and United Air Lines, Inc. Subsidiaries...
  5. ^ a b "United Airlines Fleet Details and History". Planespotters. May 10, 2021.
  6. ^ "United's New CEO Eyes Union Cooperation to Avoid Staff Cuts in Pandemic Crisis". CNBC. May 20, 2020. Retrieved May 20, 2020.
  7. ^ Whyte, Patrick (December 5, 2019). "United Promotes Scott Kirby to CEO, Munoz Becomes Executive Chairman". Skift. Retrieved April 23, 2020.
  8. ^ Zumbach, Lauren. "United taps FAA trailblazer as airline's first female board chairman". chicagotribune.com.
  9. ^ "Brett J. Hart Named President of United Airlines".
  10. ^ "News Releases". Newsroom.united.com.
  11. ^ a b c d e f "United Airlines, Inc. 2019 Annual Report (Form 10-K)". sec.gov. U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. February 2020. Retrieved March 17, 2020.
  12. ^ "United Technical Operations". www.unitedtechops.com. Retrieved January 11, 2016.
  13. ^ "United Mainline Fleet - The United Airlines Fleet Website". google.com. Retrieved April 3, 2015.
  14. ^ Destinations Served. United Airlines Official Statistics.
  15. ^ "Star Alliance Facts and Figures" (PDF). Star Alliance. March 31, 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 16, 2015. Retrieved April 4, 2014.
  16. ^ "The Fleet and Hubs of United Airlines, by the Numbers". USA Today. January 26, 2017. Retrieved January 26, 2017.
  17. ^ Olmsted, Larry. "Best & Worst Of Aviation 2017: Airlines And Alliances". Forbes. Retrieved March 12, 2018.
  18. ^ "Walter T. Varney". Nevada Aerospace Hall of Fame. 2011. Archived from the original on February 20, 2018. Retrieved February 19, 2018.
  19. ^ Darold Fredericks (November 29, 2010). "Walter Varney Airfield and United Airlines". San Mateo Daily Journal. Archived from the original on December 20, 2010. Retrieved February 19, 2018.
  20. ^ David Fuscher; Bill Garvey. "History of Flight in the US – Seventy-Five Years United". Archived from the original on January 16, 2013. Retrieved February 19, 2018.
  21. ^ "The Boeing Logbook: 1927–1932". Boeing. Archived from the original on August 4, 2012. Retrieved February 19, 2018.
  22. ^ "History of UAL Corporation". FundingUniverse. Retrieved December 12, 2012.
  23. ^ Davies Air Enthusiast January/February 2007, page 74
  24. ^ "Timeline (entry for March 28, 1931)". United Airlines. Archived from the original on March 15, 2004.
  25. ^ S. Carey; M. Trottman; D. K. Berman (December 13, 2006). "UAL, Continental Discuss Merger As AirTran Presses Bid for Midwest". The Wall Street Journal.(subscription required)
  26. ^ Andrew Ross Sorkin; Jeff Bailey (December 12, 2006). "United and Continental Discussing Possible Merger". The New York Times. Retrieved February 19, 2018.
  27. ^ Mouawad, Jad; Sorkin, Andrew Ross (April 15, 2010). "Continental and United Are in Merger Talks Again". The New York Times. Retrieved December 20, 2012.
  28. ^ Thomas J. Sabatino Jr. "Form 8-K Continental Airlines Inc". sec.org. United States Securities and Exchange Commission. Retrieved November 19, 2015.
  29. ^ "United, Continental to merge operations in 2011". The San Francisco Chronicle. September 20, 2010.
  30. ^ Linda Blachly (December 1, 2011). "FAA approves single operating certificate for United, Continental merger". Air Transport World. Archived from the original on February 5, 2012. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
  31. ^ Paul Riegler. "United and Continental Complete Computer System and Web Site Merger". Frequent Business Traveler.
  32. ^ "United Airlines Strips 'Continental' from parent company's name". Bloomberg News. Retrieved June 29, 2019.
  33. ^ Sider, Alison (January 22, 2021). "United Airlines Looks to Require Employees to Get Covid-19 Vaccines". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved January 23, 2021.
  34. ^ Josephs, Leslie (August 6, 2021). "United will require its U.S. employees to be vaccinated, a first for country's major airlines". CNBC. Retrieved September 27, 2021.
  35. ^ Agustin, Francis. "United employees sue the airline over exemptions to the COVID-19 vaccine mandate, as the company announces 97% of workers have gotten the shot". Business Insider. Retrieved September 27, 2021.
  36. ^ "Corporate Fact Sheet". Hub. United Airlines. Retrieved November 10, 2018.
  37. ^ "United Airlines Strengthens Global Network, Adding New Nonstops to Africa, India and Hawaii" (Press release). United Airlines. September 9, 2020. Retrieved July 28, 2021.
  38. ^ a b "Airports and Terminal Maps". United Airlines. Retrieved July 30, 2019.
  39. ^ "Airport Fact Sheets, Chicago O'Hare International Airport". United Airlines. Retrieved June 22, 2015.
  40. ^ "Airport Fact Sheets, Denver International Airport". United Airlines. Retrieved June 22, 2015.
  41. ^ "RITA | BTS | Transtats". Transtats.bts.gov. February 24, 2016. Retrieved November 26, 2017.
  42. ^ "Airport Fact Sheets, Houston George Bush Intercontinental Airport". United Airlines. Retrieved June 22, 2015.
  43. ^ "Spirit Airlines makes a new push from Houston adding some new competition for United and Southwest". Centre for Aviation. Retrieved June 22, 2015.
  44. ^ "Airport Fact Sheets, Los Angeles International Airport". United Airlines. Retrieved June 22, 2015.
  45. ^ "Los Angeles International Airport Top 10 Carriers January 2015 through March 2015" (PDF). Los Angeles World Airports. Retrieved June 22, 2015.
  46. ^ "Airport Fact Sheets, Liberty International Airport". United Airlines. Retrieved June 22, 2015.
  47. ^ "Issues Raised by the Proposed Merger of American Airlines and US Airways" (PDF). GAO. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 9, 2015. Retrieved June 22, 2015.
  48. ^ "The Port Authority of NY & NJ July 2014 Traffic Report" (PDF). The Port Authority of NY & NJ. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 24, 2015. Retrieved June 22, 2015.
  49. ^ "Airport Fact Sheets, San Francisco International Airport". United Airlines. Retrieved June 22, 2015.
  50. ^ "SFO Announces New Record for Passenger Traffic in 2013". San Francisco International Airport. Retrieved June 22, 2015.
  51. ^ "Airport Fact Sheets, Washington Dulles International Airport". United Airlines. Retrieved June 22, 2015.
  52. ^ "Air Traffic Statistics January 2014" (PDF). metwashairport.com. Retrieved June 22, 2015.
  53. ^ "Profile on United Airlines". Centre for Aviation. Archived from the original on October 30, 2016. Retrieved October 30, 2016.
  54. ^ Liu, Jim (January 20, 2020). "United resumes Lufthansa codeshare to Russia from Feb 2020". Routesonline. Retrieved January 20, 2020.
  55. ^ "AMR Corporation Announces Largest Aircraft Order in History With Boeing and Airbus" (Press release). American Airlines. July 20, 2011.
  56. ^ "American Orders 460 Narrow Jets from Boeing and Airbus". The New York Times. July 20, 2011.
  57. ^ Edward Russell (October 4, 2017). "United goes airframer 'agnostic' on future orders". Flightglobal.
  58. ^ "Boeing Delivers United Airlines' First 787 Dreamliner". MediaRoom. Retrieved April 29, 2019.
  59. ^ "Boeing Delivers First North American 787-9 Dreamliner to United Airlines". Boeing. September 4, 2014.
  60. ^ "Boeing Launches 787-10 Dreamliner". Boeing. June 18, 2013.
  61. ^ Tim Hepher, Alana Wise (May 8, 2018). "Exclusive: United Airlines in talks to buy wide-body jets - sources". Reuters.
  62. ^ Edward Russell (June 11, 2018). "United weighs timing on 757 and 767 replacements". Flightglobal.
  63. ^ "Transport - Supersonic Flight. The Bigger Picture: Boom Supersonic XB-1". Engineering & Technology. 15 (11): 14–15. December 1, 2020. doi:10.1049/et.2020.1130. ISSN 1750-9637. S2CID 242355223.
  64. ^ "United Adds 270 Boeing and Airbus Aircraft to Fleet, Largest Order in Airline's History and Biggest by a Single Carrier in a Decade". United Hub. Retrieved June 29, 2021.
  65. ^ Muller, Joann (June 29, 2021). "United bets on travel with the biggest airplane order in its history". Axios. Axios Media. Retrieved June 29, 2021.
  66. ^ "United Airlines ready for post-covid win! Orders 270 new Boeing & Airbus aircraft". AVIATION A2Z. June 29, 2021. Retrieved July 3, 2021.
  67. ^ Airlines, United. "United Airlines Unveils Reimagined International Travel Experience - United Polaris Business Class". www.prnewswire.com. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
  68. ^ "The Trotter Project: A culinary partnership takes flight".
  69. ^ "United Polaris FAQ". United Airlines. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
  70. ^ "United - Complimentary Premier Upgrades". United Airlines. Archived from the original on May 23, 2019. Retrieved May 23, 2019.
  71. ^ a b "United plans premium economy launch in 2019". Flightglobal.com. April 19, 2018. Retrieved April 21, 2018.
  72. ^ "United Airlines Revamps Cabins, Adds Flat-Bed Seating on "p.s." Flights". united.com. March 18, 2013. Archived from the original on September 4, 2015. Retrieved January 30, 2014.
  73. ^ "We're Bringing Premium Transcontinental Service to our New York/Newark Hub" (Press release). United Airlines. June 16, 2015. Archived from the original on September 5, 2015. Retrieved August 20, 2015.
  74. ^ "Upgrades Overview". united.com. Retrieved January 30, 2014.
  75. ^ TripAdvisor. "United Airlines Information". seatguru.com. Retrieved December 7, 2012.
  76. ^ Introducing the new United aircraft cabin design. YouTube. Archived from the original on January 1, 2016. Retrieved October 9, 2015.
  77. ^ "Photos: First United Airlines CRJ-550 Spotted in Chicago". Airways. August 8, 2019. Retrieved October 11, 2019.
  78. ^ "Economy Plus". United Airlines.
  79. ^ "United Airlines to Retain Economy Plus, Expand to Continental Aircraft Beginning in 2012". Yahoo! Finance. March 6, 2011. Archived from the original on March 6, 2011. Retrieved April 10, 2017.
  80. ^ "DirectTV - United Airlines".
  81. ^ Fottrell, Quentin (December 11, 2015). "United joins this very short list of airlines that still give you 'free' snacks". MarketWatch. Retrieved January 29, 2016.
  82. ^ "United Beverage Service". United.com.
  83. ^ "United Airlines Launches New Basic Economy Fare for Twin Cities Travel". Yahoo! Finance. February 22, 2017. Archived from the original on February 23, 2017. Retrieved February 22, 2017 – via PR Newswire.
  84. ^ "Basic Economy". United. Retrieved February 22, 2017.
  85. ^ "Mileage Plus". United.com. United Airlines. Retrieved April 29, 2019.
  86. ^ "United Club Changes". United Airlines web site. United Airlines. Archived from the original on December 17, 2012. Retrieved October 5, 2012.
  87. ^ a b "Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018". February 28, 2019. Retrieved October 17, 2019.
  88. ^ "United Airlines Reports Fourth-Quarter and Full-Year 2017 Performance". newsroom.united.com. January 23, 2018. Retrieved January 23, 2018.
  89. ^ "Headquarters Location". Retrieved October 20, 2019.
  90. ^ Thomas A. Corfman; Greg Hinz (July 13, 2006). "United HQ heading for Chicago". Crain's Chicago Business. Retrieved February 18, 2018.
  91. ^ a b Monica Davey (May 4, 2010). "Chicago Wins Prize as Home of Big Carrier". The New York Times. Retrieved February 18, 2018.
  92. ^ Emily Morris (June 18, 2012). "United shows off new downtown operations center". Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on June 23, 2012. Retrieved February 18, 2018.
  93. ^ Ori, Ryan. "Column: United Airlines extends HQ lease at Willis Tower until 2033". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved April 24, 2019.
  94. ^ "Mount Prospect annexes part of United campus". Daily Herald (Arlington Heights, Illinois). May 16, 2012. Retrieved July 8, 2017.
  95. ^ "Mount Prospect annexes United property, 44 more acres". Daily Herald (Arlington Heights, Illinois). January 19, 2017. Retrieved July 8, 2017.
  96. ^ Richard Mayer, ed. (August 14, 2013). "What Future Holds For Near-Empty United Site". Journal & Topics. Journal & Topics Online Media Group. Archived from the original on August 17, 2013. Retrieved July 8, 2017.
  97. ^ Mulvaney, Erin (February 25, 2016). "United to lease space in new downtown high-rise". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved July 8, 2017.
  98. ^ "United Airlines to be first U.S. airline with COVID-19 testing program for passengers". CBS News. Retrieved September 24, 2020.
  99. ^ Mouawad, Jad (December 23, 2011). "On Jet Exteriors, a Parade of Vanilla". The New York Times. pp. 1–2. Archived from the original on January 5, 2013. Retrieved January 4, 2013.
  100. ^ "Fifteen Years of Flying United". Pentagram.com. Archived from the original on May 3, 2014. Retrieved April 27, 2014.
  101. ^ "How Saul Bass changed design". Csmonitor.com.
  102. ^ a b c Levere, Jane L. (September 20, 2013). "Old Slogan Returns as United Asserts It Is Customer-Focused". The New York Times.
  103. ^ "United Plans Return to the "Friendly Skies"". frequentbusinesstraveler.com. Retrieved April 3, 2015.
  104. ^ Eldred v. Ashcroft, 01 U.S. 618, p. 67 (Supreme Court January 15, 2003) ("Even the $500,000 that United Airlines has had to pay for the right to play George Gershwin's 1924 classic Rhapsody in Blue represents a cost of doing business, potentially reflected in the ticket prices of those who fly.").
  105. ^ "1924 Copyrighted Works To Become Part Of The Public Domain". NPR. December 30, 2019. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
  106. ^ "Public Domain Day 2020". Duke Law School's Center for the Study of the Public Domain. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
  107. ^ Rosenthal, Phil (January 8, 2012). "'Rhapsody' remains familiar refrain at United". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on July 29, 2018. Retrieved January 5, 2013.
  108. ^ "United Airlines is flying on biofuels. Here's why that's a really big deal". The Washington Post. March 11, 2016. Retrieved May 23, 2019.
  109. ^ "United Airlines Launches Paperless Flight Deck With iPad" (Press release). United Continental Holdings. August 23, 2011. Archived from the original on February 16, 2013. Retrieved February 21, 2018.
  110. ^ "Solazyme Announces First U.S. Commercial Passenger Flight on Advanced Biofuel" (Press release). Solazyme. November 7, 2011. Archived from the original on October 18, 2012. Retrieved December 17, 2012.
  111. ^ Aviation Partners, Inc. (January 15, 2013). "Aviation Partners Boeing Launches Split Scimitar Winglet Program". PR Newswire. Retrieved February 18, 2018.
  112. ^ "United Airlines Purchases Stake in Fulcrum BioEnergy with $30 Million Investment" (Press release). United Airlines. June 30, 2015. Retrieved December 1, 2017.
  113. ^ "United Airlines Makes History with Launch of Regularly Scheduled Flights Using Sustainable Biofuel" (Press release). United Airlines. March 11, 2016. Retrieved December 1, 2017.
  114. ^ "United Airlines and Clean the World Partner to Assemble Hygiene Kits For Hub-Based Charities" (Press release). United Airlines. October 26, 2016. Retrieved February 19, 2018.
  115. ^ "United Airlines and Audubon International Team Up to Protect Raptors at New York-Area Airports" (Press release). United Airlines. July 24, 2017. Retrieved December 1, 2017.
  116. ^ "Form 10-K Filing". United Airlines SEC filings. United Continental Holdings, Inc. p. 13. Retrieved January 6, 2013.[permanent dead link]
  117. ^ Ranson, Lori (September 2, 2011). "Scope uncertainty pushes SkyWest to study large turboprops". Washington, D.C.: Flightglobal.com. Archived from the original on March 25, 2019. Retrieved January 4, 2013.
  118. ^ Susan Carey (December 15, 2012). "United Continental Pilots Approve Pact". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on January 18, 2013. Retrieved August 16, 2013.
  119. ^ Rucinski, Tracy (January 22, 2021). "United Airlines launches new employee exit deals with pay, memo shows". Reuters. Retrieved January 22, 2021.
  120. ^ D'Angelo, Bob (April 8, 2021). "United Airlines sets new diversity goal for pilot training". KIRO-7.
  121. ^ Wadman, Meredith (January 8, 2013). "United Airlines ends transport of research primates". Nature. Retrieved January 28, 2015.
  122. ^ Stuart, Hunter (January 9, 2013). "PETA: United Airlines Will No Longer Fly Monkeys For Use In Lab Experiments". Huffington Post. Retrieved January 28, 2015.
  123. ^ Jansen, Bart (April 26, 2017). "United Airlines accounted for a third of animal deaths on U.S. flights in last 5 years". USA Today. Retrieved July 23, 2017.
  124. ^ Smith, Aaron (March 20, 2018). "United suspends pet cargo flights". Money.cnn.com. Retrieved May 5, 2018.
  125. ^ "United Airlines to use special tags for pet carriers after dog death". WGN-TV. Associated Press. March 15, 2018. Retrieved May 5, 2018.
  126. ^ "Donovan, Cohen Introduce Bipartisan Bill Banning Pets from Overhead Compartments | Congressman Steve Cohen". Cohen.house.gov. March 15, 2018. Retrieved May 5, 2018.
  127. ^ "Senator plans to file bill prohibiting airlines from putting pets in overhead bins". The Boston Globe. Retrieved May 5, 2018.
  128. ^ Liam Stack (March 13, 2018). "United Airlines Apologizes After Dog Dies in Overhead Compartment". The New York Times. Retrieved May 5, 2018.
  129. ^ Dastin, Jeffrey (July 16, 2015). "United Airlines awards hackers millions of miles for revealing risks". Reuters. Archived from the original on December 1, 2015. Retrieved July 16, 2015.
  130. ^ Bogage, Jacob (July 16, 2015). "Why United Airlines is rewarding hackers with millions of free miles". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 16, 2015.
  131. ^ Porter, Jon (February 22, 2019). "Discovery of cameras built into airlines' seats sparks privacy concerns". The Verge. Retrieved February 23, 2019.
  132. ^ "People Are Worried About Singapore Airlines' Entertainment System Cameras. Turns Out, American Airlines Has Cameras, Too". BuzzFeed News. Retrieved February 23, 2019.
  133. ^ "Airlines admit to having cameras in their seat entertainment screens". Evening Standard. February 23, 2019. Retrieved February 23, 2019.
  134. ^ "Singapore Airlines says seatback cameras are "disabled"". Boing Boing. Retrieved February 23, 2019.
  135. ^ Reilly, Claire. "Airplane seat cameras could be your new spy in the sky". CNET. Retrieved February 23, 2019.
  136. ^ "United Airlines to Pay $49 Million to Resolve Criminal Fraud Charges and Civil Claims". www.justice.gov. February 26, 2021. Retrieved March 2, 2021.
  137. ^ Snyder, Tanya. "United agrees to $49M fine for mail scan fraud". POLITICO. Retrieved March 2, 2021.
  138. ^ Dabaie, Michael (February 26, 2021). "United Airlines Agrees to Pay $49 Million to Resolve Mail-Related Charges". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved March 2, 2021.
  139. ^ F. Robert Van der Linden (December 1, 1991). The Boeing 247: The First Modern Airliner. University of Washington Press. p. 174. ISBN 9780295970943. Retrieved May 3, 2010.
  140. ^ F. Robert Van der Linden (December 1, 1991). The Boeing 247: The First Modern Airliner. University of Washington Press. p. 175. ISBN 9780295970943. Retrieved May 3, 2010.
  141. ^ F. Robert Van der Linden (December 1, 1991). The Boeing 247: The First Modern Airliner. University of Washington Press. p. 186. ISBN 9780295970943. Retrieved May 3, 2010.
  142. ^ Accident description for N16088 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on April 10, 2017.
  143. ^ Stasi, Linda (November 2, 1995). "Boorish biz flier rode no class". New York Daily News. Retrieved October 13, 2020.
  144. ^ Borg, Gary (May 15, 1996). "Unruly Air Passenger Gets Fine, Probation". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on December 1, 2017. Retrieved October 13, 2020.
  145. ^ Reed, Dan (February 5, 2015). "Conrad Hilton III's Meltdown at 35,000 Feet Renews Talk Of The Perplexing Phenomenon of Air Rage". Forbes. Retrieved October 13, 2020.
  146. ^ Frauenfelder, Mark (November 25, 2015). ""Worst ever" air rage passenger jailed for drunken rampage". Boing Boing. Retrieved October 13, 2020.
  147. ^ "United Airlines: Passenger forcibly removed from flight". BBC.com. April 10, 2017.
  148. ^ John Bacon (April 11, 2017). "United Airlines now says flight that sparked uproar was not overbooked". USA TODAY. Retrieved April 11, 2017.
  149. ^ Mitch Smith. "United Airlines Passenger May Need Surgery, Lawyer Says". The New York Times. Retrieved April 20, 2017.
  150. ^ Todd Venezla (April 11, 2017). "Tone-deaf United CEO thinks things are going just fine". New York Post. Retrieved April 17, 2017.
  151. ^ John Ostrower (April 12, 2017). "United CEO apologizes for 'truly horrific' passenger incident". CNN Money. Retrieved April 17, 2017.
  152. ^ "United Airlines to tie executive pay to customer satisfaction". BBC News. April 22, 2017. Retrieved April 23, 2017.
  153. ^ Phil LeBeau (June 14, 2017). "Airline customer complaints soar following terrible April". CNBC.