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Texas International Airlines
IATA ICAO Callsign
TI TIA TEXAS
Founded1944 (as Aviation Enterprises)
Ceased operationsOctober 31, 1982 (merged into Continental Airlines)
Hubs
Parent companyTexas Air Corporation
HeadquartersHouston, Texas
Key peopleFrank Lorenzo

Texas International Airlines Inc. was a United States airline, known from 1940 until 1947 as Aviation Enterprises,[1] until 1969 as Trans-Texas Airways (TTa), and as Texas International Airlines until 1982, when it merged with Continental Airlines. It was headquartered near William P. Hobby Airport in Houston, Texas.[2]

Trans-Texas Airways (TTa) was a "local-service" airline as designated by the federal Civil Aeronautics Board in Texas and surrounding states.[3] In August 1953, it scheduled flights to 36 airports from El Paso to Memphis; in May 1968, TTa flew to 48 U.S. airports plus Monterrey, Tampico and Veracruz in Mexico. The airline changed its name to Texas International and continued to grow.

When Texas International was merged into Continental Airlines in 1982, it had grown to reach Baltimore, Colorado Springs, Denver, Fort Lauderdale, Hartford, Kansas City, Los Angeles,Ontario CA., Mexico City, Milwaukee, Minneapolis/St. Paul, Omaha, Phoenix, St. Louis, Salt Lake City, Tucson, and Washington, DC, and had an all-DC-9 jet fleet.[4][5] In 2010, Continental merged into United Airlines.

History

Revenue passenger traffic, in millions of passenger-miles (scheduled flights only, domestic plus international)
Year Pax-Miles
1951 17
1955 35
1960 70
1965 209
1970 659
1975 580[6]

In 1949, all Trans-Texas Airways flights were in Texas with Douglas DC-3s that the airline called "Starliners".[7] In November 1949, it served Alpine, Beaumont/Port Arthur, Beeville, Brownsville, Brownwood, Carrizo Springs/Crystal City, Coleman, Dallas (Love Field), Del Rio, Eagle Pass, El Paso, Fort Stockton, Fort Worth, Galveston, Harlingen, Houston (Hobby Airport), Laredo, Lufkin, Marfa, McAllen, Palestine, San Angelo, San Antonio, Uvalde, Van Horn, and Victoria.[8]

The network expanded to Memphis and Marshall in 1953, Lafayette in 1956, New Orleans and Jackson in 1959, Santa Fe and Albuquerque in 1963, into Mexico in 1967, and to Denver in 1969.

About April 1961, Convair 240s formerly operated by American Airlines began carrying Trans-Texas passengers; the airline later converted them to Convair 600s, replacing the piston engines with Rolls-Royce Dart turboprop engines. First scheduled CV600 flights were in March 1966. Small Beechcraft C99 commuter turboprops were later added to serve the smaller cities of Longview, Lufkin, Galveston, Tyler and Victoria (the last DC-3 flight was in 1968).

A Texas International Airlines DC-9-15 at Los Angeles International Airport
A Texas International Airlines DC-9-15 at Los Angeles International Airport

In October 1966, Trans-Texas Airways introduced the Douglas DC-9-10 (the "Pamper-jet");[9] the DC-9 fleet expanded to nineteen DC-9-10s and seven McDonnell Douglas DC-9-30s. By 1968, TTa was flying DC-9s to Beaumont/Port Arthur; Harlingen; Hot Springs, Arkansas, Lake Charles, Louisiana; Roswell, New Mexico, and Santa Fe, New Mexico in addition to larger cities in its route system.[10] DC-9's briefly flew to Clovis, New Mexico, Carlsbad, New Mexico, and Hobbs, New Mexico in 1977.[11]

Trans-Texas was derisively called "Tree Top Airlines," "Tinker Toy Airlines", and "Teeter-Totter Airlines"[12] by competitors and cynical customers. When it changed its name to Texas International Airlines in April 1969,[13] the company ran newspaper ads showing a Tinker Toy airplane flying along treetops. The copy read "No More Tinker Toys. No More Treetops. We are now Texas International Airlines." As Texas International, the airline standardized on the DC-9 and Convair 600. The last Convair 600 flights were in 1979 and Texas International became all-jet with DC-9-10s and DC-9-30s.

In 1970, Texas International served: Abilene, Amarillo, Austin, Beaumont/Port Arthur, Big Spring, Brownwood, Bryan/College Station, Corpus Christi, Dallas/Ft. Worth, El Paso, Galveston, Harlingen, Houston, Laredo, Longview, Lubbock, Lufkin, McAllen, Midland/Odessa, San Angelo, San Antonio, Temple, Tyler, Victoria, Waco, and Wichita Falls, Texas.[14]

Outside of Texas in 1970, Texas International flew to Arkansas (El Dorado, Hot Springs, Jonesboro, Little Rock, Pine Bluff and Texarkana); California (Los Angeles); Colorado, (Denver); Louisiana (Alexandria, Baton Rouge, Fort Polk, Lafayette, Lake Charles, Monroe, New Orleans and Shreveport); Mississippi (Jackson); New Mexico (Albuquerque, Carlsbad, Clovis, Hobbs, Roswell and Santa Fe); Tennessee (Memphis); and Utah (Salt Lake City). In Mexico flights reached Monterrey, Tampico, Mérida and Veracruz.[15] The airline had several "milk run" flights like flight 904, a DC-9-10 that left Los Angeles at 11:00am and stopped in Albuquerque, Roswell, Midland/Odessa, Dallas/Ft. Worth, Houston and Beaumont/Port Arthur before arriving Lafayette at 8:34pm.[16]

After suffering annual losses up to $3 million, Texas International was acquired in 1972 by Jet Capital Corporation headed by 32-year-old Frank Lorenzo. The airline quickly realized a $6 million profit, largely due to wage cuts spearheaded by Lorenzo and sharp marketing efforts.

In the mid-1970s, in response to competition from Southwest Airlines, Texas International successfully petitioned the Civil Aeronautics Board to allow discounted fares. These fares become a staple of the airline and were advertised as "Peanuts Fares".[17] In spring 1978, the airline was flying nonstop between Dallas/Ft. Worth (DFW) and both Houston Intercontinental Airport (IAH) and Houston Hobby Airport (HOU), up to 18 round trip DC-9 flights a day, all with "Peanut Fares".[18] The Texas International March 15, 1978 timetable advertised "Peanut Fares" in other markets as well.[19]

The first modern frequent-flyer program was created at Texas International Airlines in 1979.[20] Lacking the computer resources of their larger competitors, Texas International was overtaken by American's introduction of AAdvantage in May, 1981.

On June 11, 1980, Lorenzo established a holding company, Texas Air Corporation, for Texas International.[21] Texas Air then acquired Continental Airlines in 1982 and merged Continental and Texas International on October 31, 1982, with TI assuming the former's name. The last Texas International aircraft were seen in 1983.

Today's successor to Trans-Texas Airways and Texas International is United Airlines, which merged with Continental in 2010. The airline has a large hub at George Bush Intercontinental Airport, a former hub for Texas International. DFW was a hub for Texas International before its merger with Continental.[22] TTA also served the Gregg County air port in the late 50's to mid 60's. The had the only terminal gate in the airport building at the time.

Fleet

A Texas International Airlines Convair CV-600 at Dallas/Fort Worth, 1973
A Texas International Airlines Convair CV-600 at Dallas/Fort Worth, 1973

Livery

Following the name change to Texas International, the airline's early livery consisted of a dark purple cheatline above the windows leading up into three branches on the tail, which in 1973 was changed to a thick red cheatline across the windows on a white fuselage, along with a Columbia blue cheatline with a large white star on a blue tail.

Destinations

Main article: List of Texas International Airlines destinations

Destination information includes Trans-Texas Airways (TTa) and Texas International scheduled passenger service from 1949 to 1982.

Accidents

See also

References

  1. ^ "Aviation Enterprises". Airline History. Retrieved 8 April 2020.
  2. ^ World Airline Directory. Flight International. March 20, 1975. "505. "Head Office: PO Box 12788. 8437 Lockheed, Houston, Texas 77017, USA."
  3. ^ timetableimages.com, August 1968 Trans-Texas Airways system timetable
  4. ^ departedflights.com; April 1, 1981 Official Airline Guide (OAG), North American edition
  5. ^ departedflights.com, June 1, 1982 Continental/Texas International joint timetable
  6. ^ Shut down by strike until 4 April; sched RPMs were 947 million in 1976.
  7. ^ timetableimages.com, Nov. 1, 1949 Trans-Texas timetable
  8. ^ timetableimages.com, Nov. 1, 1949 Trans-Texas route map
  9. ^ timetableimages.com, Oct. 20, 1966 Trans-Texas timetable
  10. ^ timetableimages.com, August 1968 Trans-Texas timetable
  11. ^ Texas International June 1, 1977 timetable
  12. ^ Michelle C (March 23, 2014). "Trans Texas Airlines service (1949)". Retrieved May 11, 2016.
  13. ^ Nock Komos (August 1989). Air Progress: 76. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  14. ^ departedflights.com, July 1, 1970 Texas International route map
  15. ^ departedflights.com, July 1, 1970 Texas International route map
  16. ^ Feb. 1, 1976 Official Airline Guide, North American edition
  17. ^ departedflights.com, July 15, 1981 Texas International route map
  18. ^ http://www.departedflights.com, March 15, 1978 Texas International timetable
  19. ^ http://www.departedflights.com, March 15, 1978 Texas International timetable
  20. ^ David M Rowell (August 13, 2010). "A History of US Airline Deregulation Part 4 : 1979 - 2010 : The Effects of Deregulation - Lower Fares, More Travel, Frequent Flier Programs". The Travel Insider. Retrieved September 21, 2010.
  21. ^ Thomas Petzinger (1995). "Hard Landings:the epic contest for power and profits that plunged the airlines into chaos". Times Business. Missing or empty |url= (help)
  22. ^ departedflights.com, July 15, 1981 Texas International timetable map
  23. ^ Accident description for N1304T at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 2014-12-11.
  24. ^ Accident description for N9104 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 2014-12-11.
  25. ^ Accident description for N9103 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 2014-12-11.