The vast majority of passenger travel in the United States occurs by automobile for shorter distances and airplane or railroad for longer distances. Most cargo in the U.S. is transported by, in descending order, railroad, truck, pipeline, or boat; air shipping is typically used only for perishables and premium express shipments. Transportation is the largest source of greenhouse gas emissions in the United States.

Ownership and jurisdiction

The overwhelming majority of roads in the United States are owned and maintained by state and local governments. Federally maintained roads are generally found only on federal lands (such as national parks) and at federal facilities (like military bases). The Interstate Highway System is partly funded by the federal government but owned and maintained by individual state governments. There are a few private highways in the United States, which use tolls to pay for construction and maintenance. There are many local private roads, generally serving remote or insular residences.

Passenger and freight rail systems, bus systems, water ferries, and dams may be under either public or private ownership and operation. Civilian airlines are all privately owned. Most airports are owned and operated by local government authorities, but there are also some private airports. The Transportation Security Administration has provided security at most major airports since 2001.

The U.S. Department of Transportation and its divisions provide regulation, supervision, and funding for all aspects of transportation, except for customs, immigration, and security, which are the responsibility of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Each state has its own Department of Transportation, which builds and maintains state highways, and depending upon the state, may either directly operate or supervise other modes of transportation.

Aviation law is almost entirely the jurisdiction of the U.S. federal government, and automobile traffic laws are enacted and enforced by state and local authorities except on highways or roads on federal property or in unorganized territories. Economic jurisdiction over tidelands is shared between the state and federal governments, while the United States Coast Guard is the primary enforcer of law and security on U.S. waterways.

Mode share

In most but not all American cities, the majority of work commutes are made by singly occupied automobiles.

Passenger

Mode of passenger transport Passenger-miles
(millions)
Percent
Highway — total 4,273,876 86.93%
Passenger vehicles, motorcycles 3,692,760 75.11%
Trucks 268,318 5.46%
Buses 312,797 6.36%
Air Carriers 580,501 11.81%
Rail — total 37,757 0.77%
Transit 19,832 0.40%
Commuter 11,121 0.23%
Intercity/Amtrak 6,804 0.14%
All other modes (e.g., ferryboats) 4,156 0.08%
Source: 2012 estimates by the Bureau of Transportation Statistics[1]

Passenger transportation is dominated by a network of over 3.9 million miles of highways[2] which is pervasive and highly developed by global standards. Passenger transportation is dominated by passenger vehicles (including cars, trucks, vans, and motorcycles), which account for 86% of passenger-miles traveled. The remaining 14% was handled by planes, trains, and buses.[3][4] Public transit use is highly concentrated in large older cities, with only six above 25% and only New York City above 50% of trips on transit. Airlines carry almost all non-commuter intercity traffic, except the Northeast Corridor where Amtrak carries more than all airlines combined.

The world's second largest automobile market,[5] the United States has the highest rate of per-capita vehicle ownership in the world, with 865 vehicles per 1,000 Americans.[6]

Bicycle usage is minimal with the American Community Survey reporting that bicycle commuting had a 0.61% mode share in 2012 (representing 856,000 American workers nationwide).[7][8]

Cargo

Mode of Freight Shipments 2011 Ton miles
(billions)
Percent of Total
Truck 2,337 40.24%
Rail 1,518 26.13%
Water 434 7.47%
Air & Air/Truck 11 0.19%
Pipeline 1,018 17.53%
Multiple modes 489 8.43%
Other & Unknown 93 1.60%
Total 5,807 100%
Source: 2011 estimates by the Bureau of Transportation Statistics[9]

Freight transportation is carried by a variety of networks. The largest percentage of US freight is carried by trucks (60%), followed by pipelines (18%), rail (10%), ship (8%), and air (0.01%).[10] Other modes of transportation, such as parcels and intermodal freight accounted for about 3% of the remainder. Air freight is commonly used only for perishables and premium express shipments. The difference in percentage of rail's share by ton-miles and by weight (10% vs 38%) is accounted for by the extreme efficiency of trains. A single railroad locomotive may pull fifty boxcars full of freight while a truck only pulls one. Trucks surpass trains in the weight category due their greater numbers, while trains surpass trucks in the ton-miles category due to the vast distances they travel carrying large amounts of freight.

Usually cargo, apart from petroleum and other bulk commodities, is imported in containers through seaports, then distributed by road and rail. The quasi-governmental United States Postal Service has a monopoly on letter delivery (except for express services) but several large private companies such as FedEx and UPS compete in the package and cargo delivery market.

Safety

Further information: Transportation safety in the United States

A transport truck in Eastern Washington

The U.S. government's National Center for Health Statistics reported 33,736 motor vehicle traffic deaths in 2014. This exceeded the number of firearm deaths, which was 33,599 in 2014.

In 2020 there was 115% more road fatalities in the US than in the European Union, or 53% less in the EU than in the US, with nearly 38,680 in the US,[11] and nearly 18,800 in the EU.[12]

U.S. passenger fatalities per billion passenger-miles
2002-2007[13]
Mode Passenger
fatalities
Passenger-miles
(millions)
Fatalities
per billion
miles
Passenger ​car 127,124 15,958,620 M 7.97
Light rail 79 9,980 M 7.92
Motor bus 399 117,982 M 3.38
Commuter ​rail 105 59,736 M 1.76
Heavy rail ​(subway) 106 86,900 M 1.22
Railroad ​(intercity) 36 33,234 M 1.08
Airline 113 3,326,286 M 0.03
Road fatalities, comparison with Europe
Graphs are unavailable due to technical issues. There is more info on Phabricator and on MediaWiki.org.
  • UE: Source UE[14][15]
  • United-States: Source OCDE/ITF[16] for 1990, 2000 and 2010-2015 period (killed after 30 days)

History

A 1921 illustration of deer, oxen, dog, alpaca, horse, railroad, and automobile transport

18th century

In the late 18th century, overland transportation was by horse, while water and river transportation was primarily by sailing vessel. The United States population was centered on its Atlantic coast, with all major population centers located on a natural harbor or navigable waterway. Low population density between these centers resulted in a heavy reliance on coastwise and riverboat shipping. The first government expenditures on highway transportation were funded to speed the delivery of overland mail, such as the Boston Post Road between New York City and Boston. Due to the distances between these population centers and the cost to maintain the roads, many highways in the late 18th century and early 19th century were private turnpikes. Other highways were mainly unimproved and impassable by wagon at least some of the year. Economic expansion in the late 18th century to early 19th century spurred the building of canals to speed goods to market, of which the most prominently successful example was the Erie Canal.

19th century

Numerous modes of transportation fought for supremacy throughout the Industrial revolution of the 19th century. Canals swiftly took the role of turnpikes, stagecoaches, and wagon routes, which in turn were shortly replaced by steam-powered riverboats. During this period, the advancement in transportation inspired many artists to display the grand contrast from the past to the new. Taking a look at Samuel Colman's work, one piece in particular, Storm King on the Hudson (1866)[1] displayed both the older sailboats and the grand steamboats that were overtaking the Hudson River.

Access to water transportation shaped the geography of early settlements and boundaries. For example, the Erie Canal escalated the boundary dispute called the Toledo War between Ohio and Michigan in the 1830s. The disputed Erie Triangle was awarded to Pennsylvania, giving that state access to Lake Erie. Most of West Florida was given to Mississippi and Alabama to guarantee their access to the Gulf of Mexico.

Development of the mid-western and southern states drained by the Mississippi River system (Mississippi, Ohio and Missouri Rivers) was accelerated by the introduction of steamboats on these rivers in the early 19th Century. These three rivers (among others) also form the borders of several states. Prior to the introduction of steamboats, transit upstream was impractical because of strong currents on parts of these waterways. Steamboats provided both passenger and freight transportation until the development of railroads later in the 19th Century gradually reduced their presence.

The rapid expansion of Railroads brought the canal boom to a sudden end, providing a quick, scheduled and year-round mode of transportation that quickly spread to interconnect the states by the mid-19th century. During the industrialization of the United States after the Civil War, railroads, led by the transcontinental rail system in the 1860s, expanded quickly across the United States to serve industries and the growing cities. During the late 19th century, railroads often had built redundant routes to a competitor's road or built through sparsely populated regions that generated little traffic. These marginal rail routes survived the pricing pressures of competition, or the lack of revenue generated by low traffic, as long as railroads provided the only efficient economical way to move goods and people across the United States. In addition to the intercity passenger network running on Class I and II railroads, a large network of interurban (trolley or "street running") rail lines extended out from the cities and interchanged passenger and freight traffic with the railroads and also provided competition.

20th century

Further information: Great American streetcar scandal

The Jane Byrne Interchange in downtown Chicago

The advent of the automobile signaled the end of railroads as the predominant transportation for people and began a new era of mobility in the United States. The early 20th century Lincoln Highway and other auto trails gave way in the 1920s to an early national highway system making the automobile the primary mode of travel for most Americans. Interurban rail service declined, followed by trolley cars due in part to the advent of motorized buses and the lack of dedicated rights-of-way but also by deliberate efforts to dismantle urban rail infrastructure.

The scarcity of industrial materials during World War II slowed the growth of automobile manufacturing briefly and contributed to the nation's declining rail network. In the 1950s, however, the United States renewed building a network of high-capacity, high-speed highways to link its vast territory. The most important element is the Interstate Highway system, first commissioned in the 1950s by President Dwight D. Eisenhower and modeled partly after the Italian autostrada and the German Autobahn system.

By 1945, after the end of World War II, nearly every city in America had at least one electric tram company providing intra-city transportation. There were an estimated 36,377 light rail vehicles in operation. Increased automobile ownership cut this number by 1/3 by 1965.[17]

The airline industry began to successfully compete with intercity rail as a result of government investment, which suffered a loss of ridership. As the civil air transportation network of airports and other infrastructure expanded, air travel became more accessible to the general population. Technological advances ushered in the jet age, which increased airline capacity, while decreasing travel times and the cost of flights. The costs of flying rapidly decreased intercity rail ridership by the late 1960s to a point where railroads could no longer profitably operate networks of passenger trains.[clarification needed] By the early 1970s almost all passenger rail operation and ownership had been transferred to various federal, municipal and state agencies.

Freight railroads continued to decline as motor freight captured a significant portion of the less-than-carload business. This loss of business, when combined with the highly regulated operating environment and constrained pricing power, forced many railroads into receivership and the nationalization of several critical eastern carriers into the Consolidated Rail Corporation (Conrail). Deregulation of the railroads by the Staggers Act in 1980 created a regulatory environment more favorable to the economics of the railroad industry.

In the 1990s, the increase in foreign trade and intermodal container shipping led to a revival of the freight railroads, which have effectively consolidated into two eastern and two western private transportation networks: Union Pacific and BNSF in the west, and CSX and Norfolk Southern in the east. Canadian National Railway took over the Illinois Central route down the Mississippi River valley.

21st century

In 2014, freight transportation establishments serving for-hire transportation and warehousing operations employed nearly 4.6 million workers and comprised 9.5 percent of the Nation's economic activity as measured by GDP. Truck driving is by far the largest freight transportation occupation, with approximately 2.83 million truck drivers. About 57.5 percent of these professional truck drivers operate heavy or Tractor-trailer trucks and 28.2 percent drive light or delivery service trucks.[18]

According to Freight Facts and Figures 2015, U.S. freight transportation system handled a record amount of freight in 2014. A daily average of approximately 55 million tons of freight valued at $49.3 billion moved across the transportation system in 2014 to meet the needs of the nation's 122.5 million households, 7.5 million business establishments, and 90,056 Government units.[18]

Wartime expediency encouraged long distance pipeline transport of petroleum and natural gas, which was greatly expanded in the middle 20th century to take over most of the domestic long-haul market.

Road transportation

Further information: Driving in the United States

Infrastructure and private automobile use

Further information: Numbered highways in the United States

The Interstate highway system in the United States is the largest national controlled-access highway network in the world.
Maximum speed limits in the U.S. states vary by state from 60 to 85 mph.
Maximum speed limits in the U.S. territories vary by territory from 15 to 65 mph.

In comparison to some parts of the Western world, both the United States and Canada rely more heavily on motorized transit over walking and bicycling[19] with 86% of American workers commuting to work via private vehicle,[20][21] costing an estimated additional $1500 per year commuting compared to Western European counterparts.[22] Car ownership is on the decline[23] but still 91% nationally.[24] Car ownership is universal, except in the largest cities where extensive mass transit and railroad systems have been built,[23] with lowest car ownership rates in New York City (44%), Washington, D.C. (62%), Boston (63%), Philadelphia (67%), San Francisco (69%), and Baltimore (69%).

With the development of the extensive Eisenhower Interstate Highway System in the 1950s, both long distance trips and daily commutes were mostly by private automobile. This network was designed to exacting federal standards in order to receive federal funding. The system, as of 2010, has a total length of 47,182 miles (75,932 km),[25] making it the world's second longest after China's, and the largest public works project in US history.[26]

The Interstate system joined an existing National Highway System, a designation created for the legacy highway network in 1995, comprising 160,000 miles (256,000 kilometers) of roadway, a fraction of the total mileage of roads. The Interstate system serves nearly all major U.S. cities, often through the downtown areas, which triggered freeway and expressway revolts in the 1960s and 1970s. The distribution of many goods and services involves Interstate highways at some point.[27] Residents of American cities commonly use urban Interstates to travel to their places of work. The vast majority of long-distance travel, whether for vacation or business, is by the national road network;[28] of these trips, about one-third (by the total number of miles driven in the country in 2003) utilize the Interstate system.[29]

In addition to the routes of the Interstate system, there are those of the U.S. highway system. These routes, which are unrelated to those of the National Highway System, are supplemented by State Highways, and the local roads of counties, municipal streets, and federal agencies, such as the Bureau of Indian Affairs. The five inhabited U.S. territories also have their own road networks. There are approximately 4,161,000 miles (6,696,000 km) of roads in the United States, 2,844,000 miles (4,577,000 km) paved and 1,317,000 miles (2,120,000 km) unpaved.[30] State highways are constructed by each state, but frequently maintained by county governments aided by funding from the state, where such counties exist as governing entities in mostly every state outside of the northeast. Counties construct and maintain all remaining roads outside cities, except in private communities. Local, unnumbered roads are often constructed by private contractors to local standards, then maintenance is assumed by the local government.[31]

All federal highways are maintained by state governments, although they receive federal aid to build and maintain freeways signed as part of the 46,000 mile (75,000 km) nationwide Interstate highway network. Changes by state initiative may be made with federal approval. A large number of expressways are actually government or privately operated toll roads in many East Coast and Midwestern states. West Coast freeways are generally free to users, which is the basis of their name, since freeways have no toll charged per use, although since the 1990s there have been some small experiments with toll roads operated by private companies.

After the collapse of the I-35W Mississippi River bridge in Minnesota in August 2007, the backlog of road and bridge maintenance across the country became an issue in transportation funding.[32] The collapse prompted a tax increase in Minnesota to speed up bridge repairs, and action in other states, such as the Accelerated Bridge Program in Massachusetts, but after some debate no increase in federal funding.[32]

The I-5 Skagit River bridge collapse in 2013, caused by a collision with an over-height truck, highlighted fracture critical bridges in which the failure of only one structural member will lead to complete collapse. According to the National Bridge Inventory, there are at least 600,000 bridges of 20 feet or more in length in the United States, all subject to deterioration in the absence of preventative maintenance.[33] In December 2008, 72,868 bridges in the United States (12.1%) were categorized as "structurally deficient", representing an estimated $48 billion in repairs. President Barack Obama proposed $50 billion of spending on road and bridge repair, plus a national infrastructure bank, but Congress did not act on these proposals.[34] President Donald Trump also failed to get infrastructure funding approved. In 2021, President Joe Biden signed a bipartisan infrastructure bill with about $110 billion for roads and bridges.[35]

As of 2010, seat belt use is mandatory in all states except New Hampshire.[36] Seat belt use is also mandatory in Washington, D.C., the national capital, and the five inhabited U.S. territories.[36]

Intercity bus

Greyhound Lines is the largest intercity bus company[37] in the United States, with routes in all parts of the contiguous U.S. There are also many smaller regional bus companies, many of which use the terminal and booking facilities provided by Greyhound. Intercity bus is, in most cases, the least expensive[citation needed] way to travel long distances in the United States.

Congestion

Traffic on a typical American freeway in Los Angeles

Traffic congestion, especially at rush hour, is often considered a problem in many of the country's larger cities. A 2009 study claimed that traffic congestion costs the United States almost $87.2 billion.[38] The economic costs of traffic congestion have increased 63% over the past decade, and despite the declining traffic volumes caused by the economic downturn, Americans still waste more than 2.8 billion US gallons (11 million cubic metres) of fuel each year as a result of traffic congestion.[38] Motorists also waste 4.2 billion hours annually, or one full workweek per traveler.[38][39] Moreover, it is estimated that drivers are wasting 6.9 billion hours per year or about 42 hours per driver in traffic congestion as a result of aging infrastructure and poor road conditions.[40]

The United States continues to follow a method of attempting to resolve congestion by widening roadways. From 1993 to 2017, the nation's largest 100 urbanized areas added 42% more freeway lane milage, despite population growing by only 32%. However, this policy of widening roadways resulted in a 144% increase in congestion, due to the concept of induced demand.[41]

Cargo

See also: Trucking industry in the United States

The trucking industry (also referred to as the transportation or logistics industry) involves the transport and distribution of commercial and industrial goods using commercial motor vehicles (CMV). In this case, CMVs are most often trucks; usually semi trucks, box trucks, or dump trucks. A truck driver (commonly referred to as a "trucker") is a person who earns a living as the driver of a CMV.

The trucking industry provides an essential service to the American economy by transporting large quantities of raw materials, works in process, and finished goods over land—typically from manufacturing plants to retail distribution centers. Trucks are also important to the construction industry, as dump trucks and portable concrete mixers are necessary to move the large amounts of rocks, dirt, concrete, and other construction material. Trucks in America are responsible for the majority of freight movement over land, and are vital tools in the manufacturing, transportation, and warehousing industries.

Large trucks and buses require a commercial driver's license (CDL) to operate. Obtaining a CDL requires extra education and training dealing with the special knowledge requirements and handling characteristics of such a large vehicle. Drivers of CMVs must adhere to the hours of service, which are regulations governing the driving hours of commercial drivers. These, and all other rules regarding the safety of interstate commercial driving, are issued by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). The FMCSA is also a division of the United States Department of Transportation (USDOT), which governs all transportation-related industries such as trucking, shipping, railroads, and airlines. Some other issues are handled by another branch of the USDOT, the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA).

Developments in technology, such as computers, satellite communication, and the internet, have contributed to many improvements within the industry. These developments have increased the productivity of company operations, saved the time and effort of drivers, and provided new, more accessible forms of entertainment to men and women who often spend long periods of time away from home. In 2006, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency implemented revised emission standards for diesel trucks (reducing airborne pollutants emitted by diesel engines) which promises to improve air quality and public health.

Roadway links with adjacent countries and non-contiguous parts of the United States

Within the United States:

With adjacent countries:

Traffic codes

Main article: Traffic code in the United States

Each state has its own traffic code, although most of the rules of the road are similar for the purpose of uniformity, given that all states grant reciprocal driving privileges (and penalties) to each other's licensed drivers.

Air transportation

Main article: Air transportation in the United States

Further information: List of airlines of the United States and List of airports in the United States

An aircraft from the United States landing at London Heathrow Airport; air travel is the most popular means of long-distance passenger travel in the United States.
Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport in the Atlanta metropolitan area is the world's busiest airport by passenger traffic with 93.6 million passengers annually in 2022.[43]

The United States has advanced air transportation infrastructure which utilizes approximately 5,000 paved runways. In terms of passenger traffic, 17 of the world's 30 busiest airports in 2004 were in the United States, including the world's busiest, Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport. In terms of cargo, in the same year, twelve of the world's thirty busiest airports were in the United States, including the world's busiest, Memphis International Airport.[44] Private aircraft are also used for medical emergencies, government agencies, large businesses, and individuals, see general aviation.

There is no single national flag airline; passenger airlines in the United States have always been privately owned. There are over 200 domestic passenger and cargo airlines and a number of international carriers. The major international carriers of the United States are Delta Air Lines, American Airlines, and United Airlines. Low-cost carrier Southwest Airlines operates few international routes, but has grown its domestic operations to a size comparable to the major international carriers. There is currently no government regulation of ticket pricing, although the federal government retains jurisdiction over aircraft safety, pilot training, and accident investigations (through the Federal Aviation Administration and the National Transportation Safety Board). The Transportation Security Administration provides security at airports.

Rail

Main article: Rail transportation in the United States

Passenger

Passenger trains in North America (interactive map)
Grand Central Terminal in New York City, the second-busiest train station by passenger traffic in North America after Penn Station, also in New York City

Passenger trains were the dominant mode of transportation until the mid-twentieth century. The introduction of jet airplanes on major U.S. routes and the completion of the Interstate Highway System accelerated a decline in intercity rail passenger demand during the 1960s, resulting in the sharp curtailment of passenger service by private railroads. This led to the creation of National Railroad Passenger Corporation, now called Amtrak, by the U.S. federal government in 1971 to maintain limited intercity rail passenger service in most parts of the country. Amtrak serves most major cities but, outside of the Northeast, California, and Illinois, often by only a few trains per day. Amtrak does not serve several major destinations, including Las Vegas, and Phoenix, Arizona. Frequent service is available in regional corridors between certain major cities, particularly the Northeast Corridor between Washington, D.C., Philadelphia, New York City and Boston, between New York City and Albany, around Chicago, and in parts of California and the Pacific Northwest.

Private intercity rail ended in the United States in 1983 with the discontinuation of the Rio Grande Zephyr, until Brightline started in South Florida in 2018. The state-owned Alaska Railroad is the only other intercity passenger railroad still operating. It has only rail ferry connections with other railroads.

Rapid transit

See also: High-speed rail in the United States and Commuter rail in North America

There are 15 heavy rail rapid transit systems in the United States. The New York City Subway is the largest rapid transit system in the world by number of stations.

Cargo

The United States makes extensive use of its rail system for freight. According to the Association of American Railroads, "U.S. freight railroads are the world's busiest, moving more freight than any rail system in any other country. In fact, U.S. railroads move more than four times as much freight as do all of Western Europe's freight railroads combined."

Nearly all railroad corridors not including local transit rail systems are owned by private companies that provide freight service. Amtrak pays these companies for the right to use the tracks for passenger service. There are approximately 150,000 mi (240,000 km) of mainline track in the United States—the world's longest national railroad network. See List of United States railroads

Amtrak P42DC 164 through Orange, Virginia

Rail freight has a major national bottleneck in Chicago and the Midwest, representing approximately one-third of the nation's freight trains pass through the region,[45] which is the subject of an ongoing $4.6 billion infrastructure improvement project which started in 2003.

Railway links with adjacent countries

With few exceptions, the rail gauge is standard gauge 4 ft 8+12 in (1,435 mm). The White Pass and Yukon Route from Skagway, Alaska to Whitehorse, Yukon by way of Bennett, British Columbia is 3 ft (914 mm) gauge.

Mass transit

Main articles: Public transportation in the United States and List of bus transit systems in the United States

30th Street Station in Philadelphia
METRORail on Main Street in Downtown Houston

The miles traveled by passenger vehicles in the United States fell by 3.6% in 2008, while the number of trips taken on mass transit increased by 4.0%. At least part of the drop in urban driving can be explained by the 4% increase in the use of public transportation.[47]

Most medium-sized cities have some sort of local public transportation, usually a network of fixed bus routes. Among larger cities many of the older cities also have metro rail systems (also known as heavy rail in the United States) and/or extensive light rail systems, while the newer cities found in the Sun Belt either have modest light rail systems or have no intracity rail at all.

Legislation

On June 26, 2008, the House passed the Saving Energy Through Public Transportation Act (H.R. 6052),[48] which gives grants to |mass transit authorities to lower fares for commuters pinched at the pump[clarification needed] and expand transit services. The bill also:

Water transportation

A tugboat on the Mississippi River seen from St. Louis

Water transport is largely used for freight. Fishing and pleasure boats are numerous, and passenger service connects many of the nation's islands and remote coastal areas, crosses lakes, rivers, and harbors, and provides alternative access to Alaska which bypasses Canada. Several major seaports in the United States include New York City on the east coast, New Orleans and Houston on the gulf coast, and Los Angeles on the west coast.[49] The interior of the U.S. also has major shipping channels, via the Great Lakes Waterway, St. Lawrence Seaway and the Mississippi River System. Freight on the Mississippi River system is carried on barges pushed by approximately 8000 "towboats" and largely consists of bulk goods, such as petrochemicals, grain and cement.[50]

Many U.S. ports are served by cruise ships. Popular destinations include the Caribbean, the Mexican Riviera, Hawaii and the Inside Passage to Alaska.[51] Automobile ferries operate in many locations where bridges are impractical and in congested metropolitan areas, including New York City and San Francisco Bay.[52] Ferries also operate in Sounds that have populated areas surrounding it, such as Puget Sound. Washington State Ferries operates the ferries in Puget Sound and has the second largest ferry fleet in the world. Washington State ferries even offer ferries from Anacortes, Washington to Sidney, British Columbia.

Waterways

Further information: Inland waterways of the United States

The United States has 25,482 miles (41,009 km) of navigable inland channels (rivers and canals), exclusive of the Great Lakes. Out of this 12,006 miles (19,322 km) is used in commerce. About 15,000 miles (24,000 km) of the Mississippi River System are presently navigable, although not all is used for commerce.[50] The Saint Lawrence Seaway of 2,342 miles (3,769 km), including the Saint Lawrence River of 1,900 miles (3,100 km), is shared with Canada.[53]

Ports and harbors

Main article: List of ports in the United States

United States ports and harbors include:

Merchant marine

Further information: List of longest rivers of the United States (by main stem) and United States Merchant Marine

The Barbours Cut Terminal at the Port of Houston, one of the world's largest ports

Most U.S. exports and imports are on foreign ships. The 1920 Jones Act bars foreign ships from trade within the United States, thus creating a domestic "Jones Act fleet". Deck officers and ship's engineers of U.S.-flagged ships are usually trained at one of the established maritime academies.[54]

Military

The federal military has a dedicated system of bases with runways, aircraft, watercraft, conventional cars and trucks, and armored and special-purpose vehicles. During times of war, it may commandeer private infrastructure and vehicles as authorized by Congress and the President.[55]

Pipeline statistics

Policy

Main article: Transportation policy of the United States

As the population of the world increases, cities grow in size and population – according to the United Nations, 55% of the world's population live in cities, and by 2050 this number is expected to rise to 68%.[56] Public transportation policy must evolve to meet the changing priorities of the urban world.[57] The institution of policy enforces order in transportation, which is by nature chaotic as people attempt to travel from one place to another as fast as possible. This policy helps to reduce accidents and save lives.

Pedestrian

A key component of a suitable urban environment is support for pedestrian traffic, including people on foot as well as human propelled vehicles like bikes, skateboards, and scooters. Pedestrian policy is implemented at the state level, but consistent across states is the fact that the pedestrian has the right-of-way. If someone on foot is crossing the street, legally or illegally, any vehicular traffic is required to stop—under no circumstance does a driver have a right to hit a pedestrian. The exact details with respect to when a vehicle has to stop differ between the states, some requiring that all vehicles at an intersection yield to a pedestrian, while others requiring only those vehicles perpendicular to the motion of the crossing to stop.[58] California requires all vehicles at an intersection to yield to a pedestrian walking in any direction.

There are also rules for pedestrian conduct. Though they have the right-of-way, pedestrians are not permitted to leave a curb into a crosswalk close enough to a vehicle to “constitute hazard.”[59] Pedestrians must also yield to mass transit like light-rail cars and trains, as these forms of transportation operate on a schedule and are often moving too quickly to yield to a pedestrian. Pedestrians are also not permitted to delay traffic more than necessary while in a crosswalk. When not using a crosswalk, pedestrians must yield their right-of-way to vehicles who are close enough to constitute hazard. One of the issues with this kind of policy is how vague it is. A pedestrian is expected to determine on the fly what “constitutes hazard,” which can create dangerous situations leading to pedestrian injury or even death. As technology continues to advance, embedded technology like sensors and computer chips in vehicles should be able to process data very quickly and thus prevent collisions, as discussed in the Internet section found below.

Complete Street

A complete street is a roadway that is safe for people of any ability or age utilizing any form of transportation.[60] The concept revolves around the fact that streets are communal spaces, so anyone has a right to access them. In order to ensure universal safety, however, policy exists to ensure that these complete streets are maintained and utilized properly.

Other supporting policies indirectly related to complete streets include parking policies and vehicle restrictions. Complete streets are an important development for urban transportation because they equally support all forms of transportation, enforce safety, and ensure that everyone can navigate the busy city streets to arrive at their destination as fast as possible.

Traffic flow

In order to ensure that traffic flow is uniformly dispersed across roadways and does not interfere with existing pedestrian and public transportation infrastructure, traffic flow policy is put in place in order to get everyone to their destination in the most efficient way possible. Traffic flow policy includes everything from how spaced out two cars should be on a highway to which cars have priority at stop signs and street lights to the proper use of bus, taxi, and carpool lanes.

Parking lots

Further information: Parking mandates

Parking policy has a strong impact on the transportation mode. Efforts to reduce the amount of space dedicated to parking are diminishing the dependence on cars, encouraging walking, biking, public transit, lowering the cost of housing and increase the amount of housing units that can be built in the city territory. Such efforts has been taken in different cities in California[62] and in September 2023 the state abolished the requirement of minimum parking space "within a half-mile of major public transit stops".[63] From 2017 more than 200 towns and cities in the USA abolished or changed the requirement for parking minimum.[64] Those include Portland, Minneapolis, Austin. As of 2 November 2023, Austin (Texas) is the biggest city in the USA that did it.[65] Some cities including Nashville, begun to impose parking maximum.[66]

Funding

Parts of this article (those related to reauthorization) need to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (May 2010)
Federal, State, and Local spending on transportation as a percent of GDP
Federal, State, and Local spending on transportation as a percent of GDP

Federal, state, and local tax revenues support upkeep of most roads, which are generally free to drivers. There are also some toll roads and toll bridges. Most other forms of transportation charge a fee for use as they are not given much, if any, tax support by Congress.

Government funding of transportation exists at many levels. Federal funding for highway, rail, bus, water, air, and other forms of transportation is allocated by Congress for several years at a time. The current authorization bill is the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU), which runs from 2005 to 2009. A Congressionally chartered committee is considering future funding issues.[67][needs update]

Though earmarks are often made for specific projects, the allocation of most federal dollars is controlled by metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs) and state governments. Usually "matching" funds are required from local sources. All projects have a sponsoring agency that will receive the funding from the various federal and local sources, and be responsible for implementing the project directly or through contracts. Large projects require a Major Investment Study' and both a draft and final Environmental Impact Review. A patchwork of federal laws and accounts govern the allocation of federal transportation dollars, most of which is reserved for capital projects, not operating expenses. Some roads are federally designated as part of the National Highway System and get preferential funding as a result, but there are few federally maintained roads outside of Washington, D.C., and national parks.

State governments are sovereign entities which use their powers of taxation both to match federal grants, and provide for local transportation needs. Different states have different systems for dividing responsibility for funding and maintaining road and transit networks between the state department of transportation, counties, municipalities, and other entities. Cities or counties are typically responsible for local roads, financed with block grants and local property taxes, and the state is responsible for major roads that receive state and federal designations. Many mass transit agencies are quasi-independent and subsidized branches of a state, county, or city government.

Economic impact

According to the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT): "Transportation's vital importance to the U.S. economy is underscored by the fact that more than $1 out of every $10 produced in the U.S. gross domestic product is related to transportation activity. This includes all aspects of transportation, including the movement of goods and the purchase of all transportation-related products and services as well as the movement of people".[68] Employment in the transportation and material moving industry accounted for 7.4% of all employment, and was the 5th largest employment group in the United States.[69]

The United States invests 0.6% of its GDP on transportation annually.[70]

Environmental impacts

Corn vs Ethanol production in the United States
  Total corn production (bushels) (left)
  Corn used for Ethanol fuel (bushels) (left)
  Percent of corn used for Ethanol (right)

Two-thirds of U.S. oil consumption is due to the transportation sector.[71][72] The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 has an impact on U.S. Energy Policy.[73] The United States, an important export country for food stocks, converted 18% of its grain output to ethanol in 2008. Across the United States, 25% of the whole corn crop went to ethanol in 2007.[74] The percentage of corn going to biofuel is expected to go up.[75][76] In 2006, U.S. Senators introduced the BioFuels Security Act, which would mandate the production of dual-fuel vehicles and the sale of E85 ethanol fuel.[77]

Carbon dioxide emission

Gas emissions from the transportation sector in the United States

In 2016, transportation became the leading source of greenhouse gas emissions (28.5%), exceeding electricity generation (28.4%).[78] In a report conducted by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, an amount of 1.8 billion metric tons of carbon dioxide was emitted by the transportation sector in 2019. Of the 1.8 billion metric tons, 58% was emitted by personal vehicles, 25% was emitted by commercial trucks and busses, 10% was emitted by air, 3% is emitted by pipeline, 2% is by rail, and 2% is by water.[79] To reduce the amount of carbon dioxide emission from personal vehicles, people can switch to public transportation as an alternative form of transportation. A switch of lifestyle to active transportation will can reduce the pollution from the transportation sector to zero. The use of walking and cycling will encourage exercising, which can help combat the negative health effects of a sedentary lifestyle.

See also

Location-specific

Funding

All modes

Mass transportation

References

  1. ^ "Table 1-40: U.S. Passenger-Miles (Millions)". Bureau of Transportation Statistics. US Department of Transportation. Archived from the original on December 4, 2014. Retrieved December 5, 2014.
  2. ^ "Table 1-1: System Mileage Within the United States". National Transportation Statistics. Bureau of Transportation Statistics. Archived from the original on April 18, 2008. Retrieved March 12, 2008.
  3. ^ "Table 4-3 Passenger-Miles: 1990-2005". Pocket Guide to Transportation. Bureau of Transportation Statistics. Archived from the original on August 21, 2008. Retrieved March 12, 2008.
  4. ^ A "passenger-mile" is one passenger transported one mile. For example, one vehicle traveling 3 miles carrying 5 passengers generates 15 passenger-miles.
  5. ^ "Pollfish: Insights from the largest car purchase intent study in US". Pollfish.com. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved December 29, 2015.
  6. ^ "Car Free Day 2006: Nearly One Car per Two Inhabitants in the EU25 in 2004" (PDF). Europa, Eurostat Press Office. September 19, 2006. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 5, 2016. Retrieved October 27, 2015.
  7. ^ Pucher, John & Lewis Dijkstra (February 2000). "Making Walking and Cycling Safer: Lessons from Europe" (PDF). Transportation Quarterly. Transportation Alternatives. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 25, 2007. Retrieved August 15, 2007.
  8. ^ Herman, Marc (October 2013). "Commuting by Bike Was Way Up Last Year". Pacific Standard. Archived from the original on April 4, 2018. Retrieved November 7, 2013.
  9. ^ "3-1 Freight Shipments Within the U.S. by Mode". Bureau of Transportation Statistics. Archived from the original on July 14, 2014. Retrieved June 11, 2014.
  10. ^ "Table 1 – Commercial Freight Activity in the United States by Mode of Transportation: 2002". Freight in America. US Bureau of Transportation Statistics. Archived from the original on June 7, 2017. Retrieved October 27, 2015.
  11. ^ Guzman, Joseph (June 4, 2021). "Traffic deaths spiked in 2020 despite pandemic". TheHill. Archived from the original on June 5, 2021. Retrieved November 26, 2021.
  12. ^ Damiani, Anne (April 20, 2021). "EU has world's safest roads, recorded fewest traffic-related deaths in 2020 –". Euractiv.com. Archived from the original on June 5, 2021. Retrieved November 26, 2021.
  13. ^ Bureau of Transportation Statistics, National Transportation Statistics Archived April 7, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. Passenger-miles by mode: Table 1-40, p. 74. Air and car fatalities: Table 2-1, p. 125. Transit fatalities: Table 2-32, p. 168. Railroad fatalities: Table 2-39, p. 181. Only fatalities among on-board passengers are counted.
  14. ^ SÉCURITÉ ROUTIÈRE: Quelle est la situation dans votre pays? ec.europa.eu/transport/road_safety/pdf/statistics/dacota/scoreboard_2015_en.pdf D'après des données CARE/Eurostat
  15. ^ Annual Accident Report 2018 https://ec.europa.eu/transport/road_safety/sites/roadsafety/files/pdf/statistics/dacota/asr2018.pdf Archived June 2, 2019, at the Wayback Machine
  16. ^ Base de donénes IRTAD_CASUAL_BY_AGE stats.oecd.org/Index.aspx?DataSetCode=IRTAD_CASUAL_BY_AGE
  17. ^ Vient, Ben (February 28, 2016). "Speeding to reverse in Alicante, Spain". Florida Today. Melbourne, Florida. pp. 6E.
  18. ^ a b "Status of the Nation's Highways, Bridges, and Transit Conditions and Performance". May 23, 2018. Archived from the original on October 18, 2020. Retrieved September 12, 2020.
  19. ^ "Walking and Cycling in Western Europe and the United States" (PDF). Onlinepubs.trb.org. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 23, 2017. Retrieved October 14, 2017.
  20. ^ "Who Drives to Work? Commuting by Automobile in the United States: 2013". Census.gov. US Census Bureau. Archived from the original on May 24, 2017. Retrieved October 14, 2017.
  21. ^ "ABCD" (PDF). Altrans.net. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 12, 2019. Retrieved October 14, 2017.
  22. ^ Cox, Stefani. "How U.S. Commuters Differ from Commuters in Other Countries". Bigthink.com. Archived from the original on October 12, 2017. Retrieved October 14, 2017.
  23. ^ a b "Hitchin' a ride: Fewer Americans have their own vehicle – University of Michigan News". ns.umich.edu. January 23, 2014. Archived from the original on September 30, 2017. Retrieved October 14, 2017.
  24. ^ Gershgorn, Dave. "After decades of decline, no-car households are becoming more common in the US". Qz.com. Archived from the original on October 12, 2017. Retrieved October 14, 2017.
  25. ^ Table HM-20: Public Road Length – 2010. Office of Highway Policy Information (Report). Federal Highway Administration. December 2011. Archived from the original on August 31, 2012. Retrieved May 9, 2012.
  26. ^ "The Year of the Interstate". Archived from the original on March 14, 2010. Retrieved April 29, 2008.
  27. ^ Caltrans (2006). "The Interstate Highway System Turns 50". Archived from the original on October 16, 2007. Retrieved January 10, 2008.
  28. ^ "Table 1-36: Long-Distance Travel in the United States by Selected Trip Characteristics". Bureau of Transportation Statistics. 1995. Archived from the original on October 5, 2006. Retrieved December 21, 2006.
  29. ^ "Annual Vehicle Distance Traveled in Miles and Related Data". Federal Highway Administration. 2003. Archived from the original on September 17, 2007. Retrieved December 21, 2006.
  30. ^ "Table 1-4: Public Road and Street Mileage in the United States by Type of Surface(a) (Thousands of miles)". Bureau of Transportation Statistics. Retrieved August 11, 2022.
  31. ^ "The Road Ahead: County Transportation Funding and Financing" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 1, 2014. Retrieved September 19, 2014.
  32. ^ a b Kaiser, Emily (July 31, 2012). "5 years after I-35W bridge collapse, a look at nation's infrastructure". Minnesota Public Radio MPR News. Archived from the original on November 26, 2021. Retrieved October 27, 2015.
  33. ^ Staff (2012), "The challenge of testing and protecting vintage U.S. bridges", R&D Magazine, Advantage Business Media (published May 3, 2012), archived from the original on May 14, 2012, retrieved May 3, 2012
  34. ^ Naylor, Brian (June 1, 2013). "Many Agree Bridges Are Unsafe, But Few Agree On Fixes". NPR. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved October 27, 2015.
  35. ^ Ponciano, Jonathan (November 15, 2021). "Everything In The $1.2 Trillion Infrastructure Bill: New Roads, Electric School Buses And More". Forbes. Archived from the original on November 19, 2021. Retrieved November 19, 2021. Headlining the 2,702-page bill's spending, roughly $110 billion of new funds would go toward improving the nation's roads and bridges, and investments in other major transportation programs.
  36. ^ a b https://www.ghsa.org/state-laws/issues/Seat-Belts Archived December 10, 2019, at the Wayback Machine GHSA.org. State laws: issues. Seat Belts. Retrieved November 29, 2019.
  37. ^ "About Greyhound". Greyhound Lines. 2015. Archived from the original on February 14, 2014. Retrieved October 27, 2015.
  38. ^ a b c "Intelligent Transportation Systems – Congestion Initiative". U.S. Department of Transportation. Archived from the original on November 1, 2021. Retrieved November 1, 2021.
  39. ^ "TTI: Urban Mobility Information: 2009 Annual Urban Mobility Report: Media Information: Press Release". Archived from the original on January 29, 2010. Retrieved February 9, 2010.
  40. ^ Lyle, Josh. "Washington roads among worst in nation". king5.com/. Archived from the original on April 1, 2017. Retrieved April 1, 2017.
  41. ^ "The Congestion Con" (PDF). Transportation for America. Retrieved June 27, 2022.
  42. ^ Luxner, Larry. "Shipping firm sees potential gold mine in Florida-Cuba passenger ferry service." CubaNews Sept. 2009: 1+. General Reference Center Gold. Web. February 9, 2010.
  43. ^ Hunter, Marnie (April 11, 2022). "This US airport has reclaimed its title as the world's busiest". CNN.com.
  44. ^ "Memphis maintains hold as largest cargo airport by weight". Commercialappeal.com. February 4, 2009. Archived from the original on February 8, 2009. Retrieved February 4, 2009.
  45. ^ Bucklew, Keith J. (Fall 2007). "The heartland fast-freight rail system". Entrepreneur.com. Archived from the original on January 7, 2009. Retrieved June 18, 2009.
  46. ^ "Alaska Canada Rail Link Phase 1". Government of Yukon. October 1, 2013. Archived from the original on January 17, 2013. Retrieved October 27, 2015.
  47. ^ "U.S. Transit Use Up, Driving Down in 2008". US Department of Energy, EERE News ARchives and Events. March 11, 2009. Archived from the original on May 4, 2009. Retrieved October 27, 2015.
  48. ^ Nancy Pelosi. "Speaker Nancy Pelosi". Archived from the original on October 2, 2008. Retrieved June 18, 2009.
  49. ^ Rank Order – Seaports Archived May 27, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. Infoplease.com
  50. ^ a b "Mississippi River". Gatewayno.com. Archived from the original on May 30, 2010. Retrieved October 14, 2017.
  51. ^ "Cruise industry predicts smooth sailing." Colorado Springs Business Journal [CO] April 27, 2007. General Reference Center Gold. Web. February 9, 2010.
  52. ^ "Officials eye ferries to help ease congestion: Water Transit Agency hopes to build eight new terminals to go along with the six already in use." Contra Costa Times [Walnut Creek, CA] June 26, 2006. General Reference Center Gold. Web. February 9, 2010.
  53. ^ a b "CIA — THe World Factbook — United States". Archived from the original on March 21, 2021. Retrieved June 14, 2009.
  54. ^ Maritime academies include the federal United States Merchant Marine Academy in Kings Point, New York, Maine Maritime Academy in Castine, Massachusetts Maritime Academy in Buzzard's Bay, State University of New York Maritime College in the Bronx, Texas Maritime Academy in Galveston, California Maritime Academy in Vallejo, and Great Lakes Maritime Academy in Traverse City, Michigan.
  55. ^ "A Guide to Emergency Powers and Their Use | Brennan Center for Justice". www.brennancenter.org. Archived from the original on October 20, 2020. Retrieved October 20, 2020.
  56. ^ Meredith, Sam (May 17, 2018). "Two-thirds of global population will live in cities by 2050, UN says". CNBC. Archived from the original on November 12, 2020. Retrieved November 20, 2018.
  57. ^ Jones, Peter (July 2014). "The evolution of urban mobility: The interplay of academic and policy perspectives". Iatss Research. 38: 7–13. doi:10.1016/j.iatssr.2014.06.001.
  58. ^ "Pedestrian Crossing: 50 States Summary". National Conference of State Legislatures. May 23, 2018. Retrieved November 20, 2018.
  59. ^ National Conference of State Legislatures, 2018
  60. ^ LaPlante, John (May 2008). "Complete Streets: We Can Get There from Here" (PDF). Smart Growth America. Open Publishing. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 29, 2018. Retrieved November 20, 2018.
  61. ^ "Public Policies for Pedestrian and Bicyclist Safety and Mobility" (PDF). U.S. Department of Transportation. August 2010. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 12, 2019. Retrieved November 20, 2018.
  62. ^ "To Tackle Climate Change, Cities Need to Rethink Parking". Institute for transportation & development policy. Retrieved November 7, 2023.
  63. ^ KHOURI, ANDREW (September 23, 2023). "California bans mandated parking near transit to fight high housing prices, climate change". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 27, 2023.
  64. ^ Franzen, Carl. "The End of Parking Minimums". Lift. Parking Reform Network. Retrieved November 27, 2023.
  65. ^ FECHTER, JOSHUA (November 2, 2023). "To fight climate change and housing shortage, Austin becomes largest U.S. city to drop parking-spot requirements". Texas tribune. Retrieved November 7, 2023.
  66. ^ Meyersohn, Nathaniel (May 21, 2023). "This little-known rule shapes parking in America. Cities are reversing it". CNN. Retrieved November 27, 2023.
  67. ^ "National Surface Transportation Infrastructure Financing Commission". Final Report. February 26, 2009. Archived from the original on June 11, 2009. Retrieved June 18, 2009.
  68. ^ "The Nation's Freight". Freight in America. U.S. Department of Transportation — Bureau of Transportation Statistics. Archived from the original on March 28, 2008. Retrieved February 8, 2008.
  69. ^ "Employment and Wages by Major Occupational Group and Industry" (PDF). Bureau of Labor Statistics. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 9, 2008. Retrieved February 29, 2008.
  70. ^ Bookman, Jay (October 8, 2010). "Opinion:Toll roads, taxes and why voters distrust leaders". Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Atlanta, Georgia. pp. A18. Archived from the original on October 11, 2010. Retrieved October 17, 2010.
  71. ^ "Domestic Demand for Refined Petroleum Products by Sector". U.S. Bureau of Transportation Statistics. Archived from the original on September 29, 2007. Retrieved December 20, 2007.
  72. ^ "After the Oil Runs Out". Washingtonpost.com. Archived from the original on May 5, 2017. Retrieved October 14, 2017.
  73. ^ "Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (Enrolled as Agreed to or Passed by Both House and Senate)". Archived from the original on January 15, 2016. Retrieved January 18, 2008.
  74. ^ Kathleen Kingsbury (November 16, 2007). "After the Oil Crisis, a Food Crisis?". Time Magazine. Archived from the original on October 27, 2011. Retrieved April 28, 2008.
  75. ^ "Money". Telegraph.co.uk. February 16, 2016. Archived from the original on January 12, 2022. Retrieved October 14, 2017.[dead link]
  76. ^ "US Vessel Documentation Center". Maritimedocumentation.us. February 16, 2016. Archived from the original on January 12, 2022. Retrieved October 14, 2017.
  77. ^ Baltimore, Chris. "New U.S. Congress looks to boost alternate fuels," Archived June 17, 2008, at the Wayback Machine The Boston Globe, January 5, 2007. Retrieved on August 23, 2007
  78. ^ "Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2016". US EPA. April 12, 2018. Archived from the original on February 12, 2019. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  79. ^ US EPA, OAR (February 1, 2023). "Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2021". www.epa.gov. Retrieved April 26, 2023.

Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from The World Factbook. CIA.

Further reading