Canadian National Railway
Canadian National system map
CN 8951, an EMD SD70M-2
Overview
Reporting markCN
LocaleCanada and the contiguous United States
Dates of operation6 June 1919–present
Technical
Track gauge4 ft 8+12 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge
Previous gauge3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm)
narrow gauge
Length32,831 km (20,400 mi)
Other
Websitecn.ca
Canadian National Railway Company
Compagnie des Chemins de fer nationaux du Canada
TypePublic
IndustryRail transport
PredecessorCanadian Northern Railway
Founded6 June 1919;
102 years ago
 (1919-06-06)
FounderGovernment of Canada
Headquarters
935 de la Gauchetière Street, Montreal, Quebec
Area served
Canada, United States
Key people
Robert Pace[1]
(Chairman)
Jean-Jacques Ruest
(President and CEO)
Margaret A. McKenzie
(Founder and CFO)
RevenueCA$14.912 billion (2019)
CA$5.593 billion (2019)
CA$4.216 billion (2019)
OwnerBill Gates through Cascade Investment (14.4%) and Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (2.14%)

MFS Investment Management (4.8%)

Wellington Management Company (3.17%)

The Vanguard Group (2.77%)

BlackRock (2.4%)
Number of employees
24,000 (2018)
Websitecn.ca

The Canadian National Railway (French: Canadien National) (reporting mark CN) is a Canadian Class I freight railway headquartered in Montreal, Quebec, which serves Canada and the Midwestern and Southern United States.

CN is Canada's largest railway, in terms of both revenue and the physical size of its rail network, spanning Canada from the Atlantic coast in Nova Scotia to the Pacific coast in British Columbia across approximately 20,400 route miles (32,831 km) of track.[2] In the late 20th century, CN gained extensive capacity in the United States by taking over such railroads as the Illinois Central.

CN is a public company with 24,000 employees,[3] and as of July 2019 it has a market cap of approximately CA$90 billion.[4] CN was government-owned, having been a Canadian Crown corporation from its founding in 1919 until being privatized in 1995. As of 2019, Bill Gates is the largest single shareholder of CN stock, owning a 10.04% interest through Cascade Investment and his own Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.[5]

From 1919 to 1960, the railway was referred to as "Canadian National Railways" (CNR).

History

Allan Fleming and Charles Harris, CN director of communications, at the launch of the CN logo at Montreal in 1960
Allan Fleming and Charles Harris, CN director of communications, at the launch of the CN logo at Montreal in 1960

The Canadian National Railways (CNR) was incorporated on June 6, 1919, comprising several railways that had become bankrupt and fallen into Government of Canada hands, along with some railways already owned by the government. Primarily a freight railway, CN also operated passenger services until 1978, when they were assumed by Via Rail. The only passenger services run by CN after 1978 were several mixed trains (freight and passenger) in Newfoundland, and several commuter trains both on CN's electrified routes and towards the South Shore in the Montreal area (the latter lasted without any public subsidy until 1986). The Newfoundland mixed trains lasted until 1988, while the Montreal commuter trains are now operated by Montreal's EXO.

Historical marker at site of Canadian Northern's "last spike" near Ashcroft, British Columbia
Historical marker at site of Canadian Northern's "last spike" near Ashcroft, British Columbia

On November 17, 1995, the Government of Canada privatized CN. Over the next decade, the company expanded significantly into the United States, purchasing Illinois Central Railroad and Wisconsin Central Transportation, among others.

Creation of the company, 1918–1923

The excessive construction of railway lines in Canada led to significant financial difficulties striking many of them, in the years leading up to 1920:

The Canadian National Railway Company then evolved through the following steps:

  • the "railways, works and undertakings of the Companies comprised in the Canadian Northern System" were vested in the newly incorporated Company in June 1919, with provision for the later inclusion of any of the Government Railways[7]
  • vesting of the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway System in the Minister of Railways and Canals, acting as Government Receiver, in March 1919[8]
  • acquisition of the Grand Trunk Railway System in November 1919, implemented in May 1920[9]

GTR management and shareholders opposed to nationalization took legal action, but after several years of arbitration,[10] the GTR was finally absorbed into the CNR on January 30, 1923.[11] Although several smaller independent railways would be added to the CNR in subsequent years as they went bankrupt or it became politically expedient to do so, the system was more or less finalized at that point. However, certain related lawsuits were not resolved until as late as 1936.[12]

Canadian National Railways was born out of both wartime and domestic urgency. Until the rise of the personal automobile and creation of taxpayer-funded all-weather highways, railways were the only viable long-distance land transportation available in Canada. As such, their operation consumed a great deal of public and political attention. Canada was one of many nations to engage in railway nationalization in order to safeguard critical transportation infrastructure during the First World War.

In the early 20th century, many governments were taking a more interventionist role in the economy, foreshadowing the influence of economists like John Maynard Keynes. This political trend, combined with broader geo-political events, made nationalization an appealing choice for Canada. The Winnipeg General Strike of 1919 and allied involvement in the Russian Revolution seemed to validate the continuing process. The need for a viable rail system was paramount in a time of civil unrest and foreign military action.

Canadian National's Acquisitions

Savage Alberta Railway

On December 1, 2006, CN announced that it had purchased Savage Alberta Railway for $25 million and that it had begun operating the railway the same day.[13]

Mackenzie Northern Railway

In 2006, CN acquired Mackenzie Northern Railway, previously purchased by Rail America. This purchase allowed CN to increase their network footprint and hold the northernmost trackage of the contiguous North American railway network. Since being purchased by CN in 2006, it has been officially known as the Meander River Subdivision.[14][15]

Wisconsin Central Railroad

In January 2001, CN acquired the WC for $800 million.

Duluth Missabe & Iron Range Railroad

The DM&IR was purchased by Great Lakes Transportation and in 2011 the DM&IR was merged into CN's Wisconsin Central Subsidiary. The DM&IR was acquired at the same time as the Bessemer & Lake Erie Railroad.

Duluth Winnipeg & Pacific Railroad

The DWP was nationalized with CN in 1918 and became a part of CN's Grand Trunk Corporation in 1971. In 2011 the DWP was merged into the larger Wisconsin Central Subsidiary of CN.

Elgin Joliet & Eastern Railroad

In 2007 CN acquired the EJ&E to assist with traffic congestion in Chicago and the surrounding area. In 2013 EJ&E was merged into the greater Wisconsin Central Subsidiary of CN.

Bessemer & Lake Erie Railroad

The B&LE was acquired with the purchase of Great Lakes Transportation and the DM&IR.

Grand Trunk Western Railroad

The GTW was merged with Central Vermont in 1971 with the creation of the Grand Trunk Corporation. In 1991 the GTW was merged with CN under the "North America" consolidation program. Many of GTWs locomotives and rolling stock would be repainted and the motive power would get the new CN scheme.

Central Vermont Railway

Central Vermont was nationalized in 1918 and consolidated into the Grand Trunk Western in 1971 with the creation of the Grand Trunk Corporation.

British Columbia Railway

In 2003, BCOL sold to Canadian National and leased the railroad to CN for 990 years.

Illinois Central Railroad

In 1998 IC was purchased by CN and CN also acquired the Chicago Central in the deal.

Pros and cons of nationalization

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (April 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
CN 5588 Spirit of Windsor on display at the Windsor, Ontario, riverfront
CN 5588 Spirit of Windsor on display at the Windsor, Ontario, riverfront

Regardless of the political and economic importance of railway transportation in Canada, there were many critics of the Canadian government's policies in maintaining CNR as a Crown corporation from its inception in 1918 until its privatization in 1995. Some of the most scathing criticism came from the railway industry itself—namely the commercially successful Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR), which argued its taxes should not be used to fund a competitor.

As a result of history and geography, the CPR served larger population centres in the southern Prairies, while the CNR's merged system served as a de facto government colonization railway to serve remote and underdeveloped regions of Western Canada, northern Ontario and Quebec, and the Maritimes.

CN was also disadvantaged by being formed from a collection of insolvent rail systems that were not intrinsically viable, as they seldom had the shortest route between any major cities or industrial centres; to this day,[when?] CN has many division points far from significant industries or traffic sources. The only notable exception is the former Grand Trunk mainline between Montreal and Chicago.

The company was also used as an instrument of Government of Canada policy, from the operation of ferries in Atlantic Canada, to assuming the operation of the narrow-gauge Newfoundland Railway following that province's entry into Confederation, and the partnership with CPR in purchasing and operating the Northern Alberta Railways.

CNR as a social and economic tool

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

CNR was considered competitive with CPR in several areas, notably in Central Canada, prior to the age of the automobile and the dense highway network that grew in Ontario and Quebec. The former GTR's superior track network in the Montreal–Chicago corridor has always been a more direct route with higher capacity than CPR's. CNR was also considered a railway industry leader throughout its time as a Crown corporation in terms of research and development into railway safety systems, logistics management, and in terms of its relationship with labour unions.

Deregulation and recapitalization

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

From the creation of CNR in 1918 until its recapitalization in 1978, whenever the company posted a deficit, the Government of Canada would assume those costs in the government budget. The result of various governments using CNR as a vehicle for various social and economic policies was a subsidization running into billions of dollars over successive decades. Following its 1978 recapitalization and changes in management, CN (name changed to Canadian National Railway, using the shortened acronym CN in 1960) started to operate much more efficiently, by assuming its own debt, improving accounting practices to allow depreciation of assets and to access financial markets for further capital. Now operating as a for-profit Crown corporation, CN reported a profit in 11 of the 15 years from 1978 to 1992, paying CA$371 million in cash dividends (profit) to the Government of Canada in this time.

Cutbacks and refocusing

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
The CN ferry Hopedale off the outport of La Poile Bay, Newfoundland, in 1971
The CN ferry Hopedale off the outport of La Poile Bay, Newfoundland, in 1971

CN's rise to profitability was assisted when the company started to remove itself from non-core freight rail transportation starting in 1977 when subsidiary Air Canada (created in 1937 as Trans-Canada Air Lines) became a separate federal Crown corporation. That same year saw CN move its ferry operations into a separate Crown corporation named CN Marine, followed similarly by the grouping of passenger rail services (for marketing purposes) under the name Via-CN. The following year (1978), the Government of Canada decided to create Via Rail as a separate Crown corporation to take over passenger services previously offered by both CN and CPR, including CN's flagship transcontinental train the Super Continental and its eastern counterpart the Ocean. CN Marine was renamed Marine Atlantic in 1986 to remove any references to its former parent organization. CN also grouped its money-losing Newfoundland operations into a separate subsidiary called Terra Transport so federal subsidies for this service would be more visible in company statements.

CN also divested itself in the late 1970s and throughout the 1980s of several non-rail transportation activities such as trucking subsidiaries, a hotel chain (sold to CPR), real estate, and telecommunications companies. The biggest telecommunications property was a company co-owned by CN and CP (CNCP Telecommunications) that originated from a joint venture involving the railways' respective telegraph services. On its sale in the 1980s, it was successively renamed Unitel (United Telecommunications), AT&T Canada, and Allstream as it went through various owners and branding agreements. CN sold Terra Nova Tel to Newfoundland Telephone in 1988. Another telecommunications property wholly owned and built by CN was the CN Tower in Toronto, which still keeps its original name but was divested by the railway company in the mid-1990s. All proceeds from such sales were used to pay down CN's accumulated debt. At the time of their divestitures, all of these subsidiaries required considerable subsidies, which partly explained CN's financial problems prior to recapitalization.

CN also was given free rein by the Government of Canada following deregulation of the railway industry in the 1970s, as well as in 1987, when railway companies began to make tough business decisions by removing themselves from operating money-losing branch lines. In CN's case, some of these branch lines were those it had been forced to absorb through Government of Canada policies and outright patronage, while others were from the heady expansion era of rural branch lines in the 1920s and early 1930s and were considered obsolete following the development of local road networks.

In the period starting in the late 1970s and throughout the 1980s and early 1990s, thousands of kilometres of railway lines were abandoned, including the complete track networks on Newfoundland (CN subsidiary Terra Transport, the former Newfoundland Railway ended railway freight operations and mixed freight-passenger trains in 1988. Mainline Passenger rail service in Newfoundland ended in 1969.) and Prince Edward Island (the former PEIR), as well as numerous branch lines in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Southern Ontario, throughout the Prairie provinces, in the British Columbia interior, and on Vancouver Island. Virtually every rural area served by CN in some form was affected, creating resentment for the company and the Government of Canada. Many of these now-abandoned rights-of-way were divested by CN and the Government of Canada and have since been converted into recreational trails by local municipalities and provincial governments.

CN's U.S. subsidiaries prior to privatization

CN's railway network in the late 1980s consisted of the company's Canadian trackage, along with the following U.S. subsidiary lines: Grand Trunk Western Railroad (GTW) operating in Michigan, Indiana, and Illinois; Duluth, Winnipeg and Pacific Railway (DWP) operating in Minnesota; Central Vermont Railway (CV) operating down the Connecticut River valley from Quebec to Long Island Sound; and the Berlin subdivision to Portland, Maine, known informally as the Grand Trunk Eastern, sold to a short-line operator in 1989.[16]

Privatization

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (March 2020) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
The headquarters of CN in Downtown Montreal
The headquarters of CN in Downtown Montreal

In 1992, a new management team led by ex-federal government bureaucrats, Paul Tellier and Michael Sabia, started preparing CN for privatization by emphasizing increased productivity. This was achieved largely through aggressive cuts to the company's management structure, widescale layoffs in its workforce and continued abandonment or sale of its branch lines. In 1993 and 1994, the company experimented with a rebranding that saw the names CN, Grand Trunk Western, and Duluth, Winnipeg, and Pacific replaced under a collective CN North America moniker. In this time, CPR and CN entered into negotiations regarding a possible merger of the two companies. This was later rejected by the Government of Canada, whereupon CPR offered to purchase outright all of CN's lines from Ontario to Nova Scotia, while an unidentified U.S. railroad (rumoured to have been Burlington Northern Railroad) would purchase CN's lines in western Canada. This too was rejected. In 1995, the entire company including its U.S. subsidiaries reverted to using CN exclusively.

The CN Commercialization Act[17] was enacted into law on July 13, 1995, and by November 28, 1995, the Government of Canada had completed an initial public offering (IPO) and transferred all of its shares to private investors. Two key prohibitions in this legislation include, 1) that no individual or corporate shareholder may own more than 15% of CN, and 2) that the company's headquarters must remain in Montreal, thus maintaining CN as a Canadian corporation.

Contraction and expansion since privatization

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Following the successful IPO, CN has recorded impressive gains in its stock price, largely through an aggressive network rationalization and purchase of newer more fuel-efficient locomotives. Numerous branch lines were shed in the late 1990s across Canada, resulting in dozens of independent short line railway companies being established to operate former CN track that had been considered marginal. This network rationalization resulted in a core east–west freight railway stretching from Halifax to Chicago and Toronto to Vancouver and Prince Rupert. The railway also operated trains from Winnipeg to Chicago using trackage rights for part of the route south of Duluth.

In addition to the rationalization in Canada, the company also expanded in a strategic north–south direction in the central United States. In 1998, in an era of mergers in the U.S. rail industry, CN bought the Illinois Central Railroad (IC), which connected the already existing lines from Vancouver, British Columbia to Halifax, Nova Scotia with a line running from Chicago, Illinois to New Orleans, Louisiana. This single purchase of IC transformed CN's entire corporate focus from being an east–west uniting presence within Canada (sometimes to the detriment of logical business models) into a north–south NAFTA railway (in reference to the North American Free Trade Agreement). CN is now feeding Canadian raw material exports into the U.S. heartland and beyond to Mexico through a strategic alliance with Kansas City Southern Railway (KCS).

Properties of the CN in the United States serve, in many instances, as routes for Amtrak. Pictured is the Amtrak station in Hammond, Louisiana, refurbished with a modern passenger platform. This segment of the CN was built in 1854 to form part of the New Orleans, Jackson and Great Northern railway, which later became part of Illinois Central.[citation needed]
Properties of the CN in the United States serve, in many instances, as routes for Amtrak. Pictured is the Amtrak station in Hammond, Louisiana, refurbished with a modern passenger platform. This segment of the CN was built in 1854 to form part of the New Orleans, Jackson and Great Northern railway, which later became part of Illinois Central.[citation needed]

In 1999, CN and BNSF Railway, the second largest rail system in the U.S., announced their intent to merge, forming a new corporate entity North American Railways, headquartered in Montreal to conform to the CN Commercialization Act of 1995. The merger announcement by CN's Paul Tellier and BNSF's Robert Krebs was greeted with skepticism by the U.S. government's Surface Transportation Board (STB), and protested by other major North American rail companies, namely CPR and Union Pacific Railroad (UP). Rail customers[who?] also denounced the proposed merger, following the confusion and poor service sustained in southeastern Texas in 1998 following UP's purchase of Southern Pacific Railroad two years earlier. In response to the rail industry, shippers, and political pressure, the STB placed a 15-month moratorium on all rail-industry mergers, effectively scuttling CN-BNSF plans. Both companies dropped their merger applications and have never refiled.

CN EMD SD60F sits in Toledo, Ohio.
CN EMD SD60F sits in Toledo, Ohio.

After the STB moratorium expired, CN purchased Wisconsin Central (WC) in 2001, which allowed the company's rail network to encircle Lake Michigan and Lake Superior, permitting more efficient connections from Chicago to western Canada. The deal also included Canadian WC subsidiary Algoma Central Railway (ACR), giving access to Sault Ste. Marie and Michigan's Upper Peninsula. The purchase of Wisconsin Central also made CN the owner of EWS, the principal freight train operator in the United Kingdom.

On May 13, 2003, the provincial government of British Columbia announced the provincial Crown corporation, BC Rail (BCR), would be sold with the winning bidder receiving BCR's surface operating assets (locomotives, cars, and service facilities). The provincial government is retaining ownership of the tracks and right-of-way. On November 25, 2003, it was announced CN's bid of CA$1 billion would be accepted over those of CPR and several U.S. companies. The transaction was closed effective July 15, 2004. Many opponents – including CPR – accused the government and CN of rigging the bidding process, though this has been denied by the government. Documents relating to the case are under court seal, as they are connected to a parallel marijuana grow-op investigation connected with two senior government aides also involved in the sale of BC Rail.

Also contested was the economic stimulus package the government gave cities along the BC Rail route. Some saw it as a buy-off to get the municipalities to cooperate with the lease, though the government asserted the package was intended to promote economic development along the corridor. Passenger service along the route had been ended by BC Rail a few years earlier due to ongoing losses resulting from deteriorating service. The cancelled passenger service has subsequently been replaced by a blue-plate tourist service, the Rocky Mountaineer, with fares well over double what the BCR coach fares had been.

CN also announced in October 2003 an agreement to purchase Great Lakes Transportation (GLT), a holding company owned by Blackstone Group for US$380 million. GLT was the owner of Bessemer & Lake Erie Railroad, Duluth, Missabe and Iron Range Railway (DM&I), and the Pittsburgh & Conneaut Dock Company. The key instigator for the deal was the fact that since the Wisconsin Central purchase, CN was required to use DM&I trackage rights for a short 18 km (11 mi) "gap" near Duluth, Minnesota, on the route between Chicago and Winnipeg. To purchase this short section, CN was told by GLT it would have to purchase the entire company. Also included in GLT's portfolio were eight Great Lakes vessels for transporting bulk commodities such as coal and iron ore as well as various port facilities. Following Surface Transportation Board approval for the transaction, CN completed the purchase of GLT on May 10, 2004.

On December 24, 2008, the STB approved CN's purchase for $300 million of the principal lines of the Elgin, Joliet & Eastern Railway Company (EJ&E) (reporting mark EJE) from the U.S. Steel Corporation, originally announced on September 27, 2007. The STB's decision was to become effective on January 23, 2009, with a closure of the transaction shortly thereafter. The EJ&E lines create a bypass around the western side of heavily congested Chicago-area rail hub and its conversion to use for mainline freight traffic is expected to alleviate substantial bottlenecks for both regional and intercontinental rail traffic subject to lengthy delays entering and exiting Chicago freight yards. The purchase of the lightly used EJ&E corridor was positioned by CN as a boon not only for its own business but for the efficiency of the entire U.S. rail system.

On December 31, 2011, CN completed the merger of DM&I, DWP, and WC into its Wisconsin Central Ltd. subsidiary.[18]

In March 2021, CN subsidiary WCL reached a deal to sell roughly 1,400 km (900 mi) of non-core rail lines and assets in Michigan, Wisconsin, and Ontario to short-line operator Watco.[19]

In April 2021, CN bid nearly $30 billion for Kansas City Southern (KCS), ostensibly creating a bidding war between itself and CPR, who had placed a $25 billion bid for the company in March. CN's offer represented a 21% premium to the one made by Canadian Pacific, offering $325 for each share and including $200 in cash. The move by CN was influenced by the projected economic upturn once the world began to emerge from the COVID-19 pandemic, with KCS's railroad network reaching from Canada, through the United States, and running along the Panama Canal.[20][21][22][23] On May 21, CN and KCS agreed to merge, but lengthy regulatory approvals are required to put it into effect.[24] However, on August 31, the US Surface Transportation Board (STB) denied a voting trust between CN and KCS.[25] With the decision by the STB, KCS re-engaged with CP on CP's original offer.[26][27]

CN today

Since the company operates in two countries, CN maintains some corporate distinction by having its U.S. lines incorporated under the Delaware-domiciled Grand Trunk Corporation for legal purposes;[28] however, the entire company in both Canada and the U.S. operates under CN, as can be seen in its locomotive and rail car repainting programs.

Since the Illinois Central purchase in 1998 CN has been increasingly focused on running a "scheduled freight railroad/railway." This has resulted in improved shipper relations, as well as reduced the need for maintaining pools of surplus locomotives and freight cars. CN has also undertaken a rationalization of its existing track network by removing double track sections in some areas and extending passing sidings in other areas.

CN is also a rail industry leader in the employment of radio-control (R/C) for switching locomotives in yards, resulting in reductions to the number of yard workers required. CN has frequently been touted in recent years within North American rail industry circles as being the most-improved railroad in terms of productivity and the lowering of its operating ratio, acknowledging the fact the company is becoming increasingly profitable. Due to the rising popularity of ethanol, shuttle trains, and mineral commodities, CN Rail Service is increasing in popularity.

Projects

In April 2012 a plan was announced to build an 800 kilometres (500 mi) railway that would run north from Sept-Îles, Quebec; the railway would support mining and other resource extraction in the Labrador Trough.[29]

In September 2012, CN announced the trial of locomotives fuelled by natural gas as a potential alternative to conventional diesel fuel. Two EMD SD40 diesel-electric locomotives fuelled with 90% natural gas and 10% diesel were tested in service between Edmonton and Fort McMurray, Alberta.[30]

Controversies

Accidents

Derailments

Disputes

Other incidents

The "CN North America" logo that was used from 1993 to 1995, before the plain "CN" logo was reinstated
The "CN North America" logo that was used from 1993 to 1995, before the plain "CN" logo was reinstated

Non-rail subsidiaries

CN Telegraph

Restored CN Telegraph counter on display at the Saskatchewan Railway Museum
Restored CN Telegraph counter on display at the Saskatchewan Railway Museum

CN Telegraph originated as the Great North West Telegraph Company in 1880 to connect Ontario and Manitoba and became a subsidiary of Western Union in 1881. In 1915, facing bankruptcy, GNWTC was acquired by the Canadian Northern Railway's telegraph company.[43] When Canadian Northern was nationalized in 1918 and amalgamated into Canadian National Railways in 1921, its telegraph arm was renamed the Canadian National Telegraph Company. CN Telegraphs began co-operating with its Canadian Pacific-owned rival CPR Telegraphs in the 1930s, sharing telegraph networks and co-founding a teleprinter system in 1957. In 1967 the two services were amalgamated into a joint venture CNCP Telecommunications which evolved into a telecoms company. CN sold its stake of the company to CP in 1984.

CNR Radio

Main article: CNR Radio

In 1923 CNR's second president, Sir Henry Thornton who succeeded David Blyth Hanna (1919–1922), created the CNR Radio Department to provide passengers with entertainment radio reception and give the railway a competitive advantage over its rival, CP. This led to the creation of a network of CNR radio stations across the country, North America's first radio network. As anyone in the vicinity of a station could hear its broadcasts the network's audience extended far beyond train passengers to the public at large.

Claims of unfair competition from CP as well as pressure on the government to create a public broadcasting system similar to the British Broadcasting Corporation led the government of R.B. Bennett (who had been a corporate lawyer with Canadian Pacific as a client prior to entering politics) to pressure CNR into ending its on-train radio service in 1931 and then withdrawing from the radio business entirely in 1933. CNR's radio assets were sold for $50,000 to a new public broadcaster, the Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission, which in turn became the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation in 1936.

An early logo or "herald" of the Canadian National Railways. It was replaced by the CN "worm" in 1960.
An early logo or "herald" of the Canadian National Railways. It was replaced by the CN "worm" in 1960.

CN Hotels

Main article: Canadian National Hotels

Canadian railways built and operated their own resort hotels, ostensibly to provide rail passengers travelling long distances a place to sleep overnight. These hotels became attractions in and of themselves – a place for a rail passenger to go for a holiday. As each railway company sought to be more attractive than its competitors, they made their hotels more attractive and luxurious. Canadian National Hotels was the CNRs chain of hotels and was a combination of hotels inherited by the CNR when it acquired various railways and structures built by the CNR itself. The chain's principal rival was Canadian Pacific Hotels.

Canadian National Steamship Company

Canadian National operated a fleet of passenger and cargo vessels on both the West Coast and East Coast of Canada which operated under a branch of the company known as Canadian National Steamships, later CN Marine.

West Coast

The turbine steamship Prince Robert berthed at Vancouver, BC
The turbine steamship Prince Robert berthed at Vancouver, BC
Prince David as an armed merchant cruiser in 1942

Swan Hunter and Wigham Richardson of Wallsend, England, built Prince George and Prince Rupert for the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway in 1910.[44] In 1930 Cammell Laird of Birkenhead, England, built Prince David, Prince Henry and Prince Robert.[44] Prince Henry was sold in 1937.[45] Prince George was destroyed by fire in 1945. Prince David and Prince Robert were requisitioned in 1939 as Royal Canadian Navy armed merchant cruisers, converted into landing ships in 1943, and sold in 1948.[45] In 1948 a second Prince George was built by Yarrows Limited, becoming CN's sole remaining Pacific Coast passenger liner. She was switched from scheduled routes to pleasure cruises, and was the last CN ship that served the west coast. After a fire in 1975 she was sold in 1976 (first to British Columbia Steamship Company and finally Wong Brother Enterprises)[45] before finally being sold to Chinese breakers in 1995 (and sank on her way to China in 1996 in Unimak Pass).[46]

Former Canadian Northern Pacific ships
Former Grand Trunk Pacific steamships

These ships served the Pacific coast with GTP till Canadian National took possession of them in 1925:

CN-built steamships for the West Coast

Ships specially built for CN for the West Coast. After the Second World War steamship service had dropped and by the 1950s the ships were withdrawn. Prince George (II) stayed in service, but to do cruises on the West Coast. By 1975 Prince George (II) was retired, ending CN's steamship era on the West Coast.

East Coast

In 1928–29 Cammell Laird built a set of five ships for CN[44] to carry mail, passengers and freight between eastern Canada and the Caribbean via Bermuda. Each ship was named after the wife of an English or British admiral who was noted for his actions in the Caribbean,[47] and who had been knighted or ennobled.[48] They were therefore nicknamed the Lady-liners[47] or Lady-boats.[49] Lady Nelson along with Lady Hawkins and Lady Drake were designed for service to eastern islands of the British West Indies and had larger passenger capacity but lesser cargo capacity than Lady Rodney and Lady Somers who were built for service to western islands.[50] In the Second World War Lady Somers was requisitioned as an ocean boarding vessel while her four sister ships continued in CN service. The Italian submarine Morosini sank Lady Somers in 1941. Lady Hawkins and Lady Drake were sunk by German U-boats in 1942. Lady Nelson was torpedoed in 1942 but refloated and converted to a hospital ship, while Lady Rodney survived the war unscathed. The two surviving Lady Boats, Nelson and Rodney, were sold in 1952 after declining passenger traffic and rising labour costs made them too expensive to run.[45]

Cargo ships

In 1928 CN took over most of the fleet of Canadian Government Merchant Marine Ltd, giving it a fleet of about 45 cargo ships. When France surrendered to Germany in June 1940 the Canadian Government seized CGT's MV Maurienne and contracted CN to manage her.[45]

Aquatrain

Main article: Aquatrain

CN operated a rail barge service between Prince Rupert, British Columbia to Whittier, Alaska, from 1963 to 2021.[51]

Corporate governance

Robert Pace is the chair of the CNR board. The other board members are Donald J. Carty, V. Maureen Kempston Darkes, Gordon D. Giffin, Edith E. Holiday, Luc Jobin, Denis Losier, Kevin G. Lynch, James E. O'Connor, Robert L. Phillips, and Laura Stein.[52]

Heads of the corporation

[relevant?]

Thornton and Harrison were the only non-Canadians to head CN.

Passenger trains

Early years

When CNR was first created, it inherited a large number of routes from its constituent railways, but eventually pieced its passenger network into one coherent network. For example, on December 3, 1920, CNR inaugurated the Continental Limited, which operated over four of its predecessors, as well as the Temiskaming and Northern Ontario Railway. The 1920s saw growth in passenger travel, and CNR inaugurated several new routes and introduced new services, such as radio, on its trains. However, the growth in passenger travel ended with the Great Depression, which lasted between 1929 and 1939, but picked up somewhat in World War II. By the end of World War II, many of CNR's passenger cars were old and worn down. Accidents at Dugald, Manitoba, in 1947 and Canoe River, British Columbia, in 1950, wherein extra passenger trains composed of older, wooden equipment collided with transcontinental passenger trains composed of newer, all-steel equipment, demonstrated the dangers inherent in the older cars. In 1953, CNR ordered 359 lightweight passenger cars, allowing them to re-equip their major routes.

On April 24, 1955, the same day that the CPR introduced its transcontinental train The Canadian, CNR introduced its own new transcontinental passenger train, the Super Continental, which used new streamlined rolling stock. However, the Super Continental was never considered as glamorous as the Canadian. For example, it did not include dome cars. Dome cars would be added in the early 1960s with the purchase of six former Milwaukee Road "Super Domes". They were used on the Super Continental in the summer tourist season.

New services

Rail passenger traffic in Canada declined significantly between World War II and 1960 due to automobiles and airplanes. In the 1960s CN's privately owned rival CPR reduced its passenger services significantly. However, the government-owned CN continued much of its passenger services and marketed new schemes. One, introduced on 5 April 1962, was the "Red, White and Blue" fare structure, which offered deep discounts on off-peak days ("red") and were credited with increasing passenger numbers on some routes as much as 600%. Another exercise was the rebranding of the express trains in the Ontario–Quebec corridor with the Rapido label.

In 1968, CN introduced a new high-speed train, the United Aircraft Turbo, which was powered by gas turbines instead of diesel engines. It made the trip between Toronto and Montreal in four hours, but was not entirely successful because it was somewhat uneconomical and not always reliable. The trainsets were retired in 1982 and later scrapped at Metrecy, in Laval, Quebec.

On CN's narrow gauge lines in Newfoundland, CN also operated a main line passenger train that ran from St. John's to Port aux Basques called the Caribou. Nicknamed the Newfie Bullett, this train ran until June 1969. It was replaced by the CN Roadcruiser Buses. The CN Roadcruiser service was started in fall 1968 and was run in direct competition with the company's own passenger train. Travellers saw that the buses could travel between St. John's and Port aux Basques in 14 hours versus the train's 22 hours. After the demise of the Caribou, the only passenger train service run by CN on the island were the mixed (freight and passenger) trains that ran on the Bonavista, Carbonear and Argentia branch lines. The only passenger service surviving on the main line was between Bishop's Falls and Corner Brook.

In 1976, CN created an entity called Via-CN as a separate operating unit for its passenger services. Via evolved into a coordinated marketing effort with CP Rail for rail passenger services, and later into a separate Crown corporation responsible for inter-city passenger services in Canada. Via Rail took over CN's passenger services on April 1, 1978.

Decline

CN continued to fund its commuter rail services in Montreal until 1982, when the Montreal Urban Community Transit Commission (MUCTC) assumed financial responsibility for them; operation was contracted out to CN, which eventually spun off a separate subsidiary, Montrain, for this purpose. When the Montreal–Deux-Montagnes line was completely rebuilt in 1994–1995, the new rolling stock came under the ownership of the MUCTC, until a separate government agency, the Agence métropolitaine de transport (now AMT), was set up to consolidate all suburban transit administration around Montreal. Since then, suburban service has resumed to Saint-Hilaire, and a new line to Mascouche opened in December 2014.

In Newfoundland, Terra Transport would continue to operate the mixed trains on the branch lines until 1984. The main line run between Corner Brook and Bishop's Falls made its last run on September 30, 1988. Terra Transport/CN would run the Roadcruiser bus service until March 29, 1996, whereupon the bus service was sold off to DRL Coachlines of Triton, Newfoundland.

Expansion and service cuts

CN operates the Agawa Canyon Tour excursion.
CN operates the Agawa Canyon Tour excursion.

From the acquisition of the Algoma Central Railway in 2001 until service cancellation in July 2015, CN operated passenger service between Sault Ste. Marie and Hearst, Ontario. The passenger service operated three days per week and provided year-round access to remote tourist camps and resorts.

In January 2014, CN announced it was cutting the service, blaming the Government of Canada for cutting a subsidy necessary to keep the service running.[56] It was argued as an essential service; however, the service had always been deemed financially uneconomic, and despite an extension of funding in April 2014, Algoma Central service was suspended as of July 2015.

CN operates the Agawa Canyon Tour excursion, an excursion that runs from Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, north to the Agawa Canyon. The canyon tour train consists of up to 28 passenger cars and 2 dining cars, the majority of which were built for CN by Canadian Car and Foundry in 1953–54. These cars were transferred to the D&RGW Ski Train and bought back by CN in 2009.

After CN acquired BC Rail in 2004, it started operating a railbus service between Seton Portage and Lillooet, British Columbia called the Kaoham Shuttle.

CN crews used to operate commuter trains on behalf of GO Transit in the Toronto and the surrounding vicinity. This changed in 2008 when a deal was reached with Bombardier Transportation that switched all CN crews for Bombardier crews.[57]

Locomotives

CN coal fired steam engine 6064 with driver Carl Bruner and colleague
CN coal fired steam engine 6064 with driver Carl Bruner and colleague

Steam

CN steam locomotive at Head Lake, Haliburton, Ontario
CN 6167 at Guelph, Ontario

The CNR acquired its first 4-8-4 Confederation locomotives in 1927. Over the next 20 years, it ordered over 200 for passenger and heavy freight service. The CNR also used several 4-8-2 Mountain locomotives, almost exclusively for passenger service. No. 6060, a streamlined 4-8-2, was the last CN steam locomotive, running in excursion service in the 1970s. CNR also used several 2-8-2 Mikado locomotives.

Electric

First and last CN electric locomotive, 1918–1995
First and last CN electric locomotive, 1918–1995

CN inherited from the Canadian Northern Railway several boxcab electrics used through the Mount Royal Tunnel. Those were built between 1914 and 1918 by General Electric in Schenectady, New York. To operate the new Montreal Central Station, which opened in 1943 and was to be kept free of locomotive smoke, they were supplemented by nearly identical locomotives from the National Harbours Board; those engines were built in 1924 by Beyer, Peacock & Company and English Electric. In 1950, three General Electric centre-cab electric locomotives were added to the fleet. In 1952 CN added electric multiple units built by Canadian Car and Foundry.

Electrification was restricted to Montreal, and went from Central Station to Saint-Lambert (south), Turcot (west), Montréal-Nord (east) and Saint-Eustache-sur-le-lac, later renamed Deux-Montagnes, (north). But as steam locomotives gave way to diesels, engine changeovers were no longer necessary, and catenary was eventually pulled from the west, east and from the south. However, until the end of the original electrification, CN's electric locomotives pulled Via Rail's trains, including its diesel electric locomotives, to and from Central Station.

The last 2,400 V DC CN electric locomotive ran on June 6, 1995, the very same locomotive that pulled the inaugural train through the Mount Royal Tunnel back in 1918. Later in 1995 the AMT's Electric Multiple Units began operating under 25 kV AC 60 Hz electrification, and in 2014, dual-power locomotives entered service on the Mascouche line.

Turbo

CN TurboTrain in Toronto
CN TurboTrain in Toronto

In May 1966, CN ordered five seven-car UAC TurboTrain for the Montreal–Toronto service. It planned to operate them in tandem, connecting two trains together into a larger fourteen-car arrangement with a total capacity of 644 passengers. The Canadian trains were built by Montreal Locomotive Works, with their ST6 engines supplied by UAC's Canadian division (now Pratt & Whitney Canada) in Longueuil, Quebec.

CN and their ad agency wanted to promote the new service as an entirely new form of transit, so they dropped the "train" from the name. In CN's marketing literature the train was referred to simply as the "Turbo", although it retained the full TurboTrain name in CN's own documentation and communication with UAC. A goal of CN's marketing campaign was to get the train into service for Expo '67, and the Turbo was rushed through its trials. It was late for Expo, a disappointment to all involved, but the hectic pace did not let up and it was cleared for service after only one year of testing.

The Turbo's first demonstration run in December 1968 with Conductor James Abbey of Toronto in command, included a large press contingent. An hour into its debut run, the Turbo collided with a truck at a highway crossing near Kingston.

The Turbo's final run was on October 31, 1982.

Diesel

A CN freight train led by a diesel locomotive at the crossovers at English which is east of Jasper, Alberta
A CN freight train led by a diesel locomotive at the crossovers at English which is east of Jasper, Alberta
CN 2269, a GE ES44DC, in Waukesha, Wisconsin

CNR's first foray into diesel motive power was with self-propelled railcars. In November 1925, Railcar No. 15820 completed a 72-hour journey from Montreal to Vancouver with the 185-horsepower (138 kW) diesel engine in nearly continuous operation for the entire 4,726 kilometres (2,937 mi) trip. Railcars were used on marginal economic routes instead of the more-expensive-to-operate steam locomotives used for busier routes.[58]

In 1929, the CNR made its first experiment with mainline diesel electric locomotives, acquiring two 1,330-horsepower (990 kW) engines from Westinghouse, numbered 9000 and 9001.[58] It was the first North American railway to use diesels in mainline service. These early units proved the feasibility of the diesel concept, but were not always reliable. No. 9000 served until 1939, and No. 9001 until 1947. The difficulties of the Great Depression precluded much further progress towards diesel locomotives. The CNR began its conversion to diesel locomotives after World War II, and had fully dieselized by 1960.[58] Most of the CNR's first-generation diesel locomotives were made by General Motors Diesel (GMD) and Montreal Locomotive Works.

For its narrow-gauge lines in Newfoundland CN acquired from GMD the 900 series, Models NF110 (road numbers 900–908) and NF210 (road numbers 909–946). For use on the branch lines, CN purchased the EMD G8 (road numbers 800–805).

For passenger service the CNR acquired GMD FP9 diesels, as well as CLC CPA16-5, ALCO MLW FPA-2 and FPA-4 diesels. These locomotives made up most of the CNR's passenger fleet, although CN also owned some 60 RailLiners (Budd Rail Diesel Cars), some dual-purpose diesel freight locomotives (freight locomotives equipped with passenger train apparatus, such as steam generators) as well as the locomotives for the Turbo trainsets. Via acquired most of CN's passenger fleet when it took over CN passenger service in 1978.

CN train at East Junction, Edmonton, 2006
CN train at East Junction, Edmonton, 2006

The CN fleet as of 2007 consists of 1,548 locomotives, most of which are products of either General Motors' Electro-Motive Division (EMD), or General Electric/GE Transportation Systems. Some locomotives more than 30 years old remain in service.

Much of the current roster is made up of EMD SD70I and EMD SD75I locomotives and GE C44-9W locomotives. Recently acquired are the new EMD SD70M-2 and GE ES44DC. Since 2015 the GE ES44AC & GE ET44AC are the latest units.

Beginning in the early summer months of 2010, CN purchased a small order of GE C40-8's and GE C40-8W's from Union Pacific and BNSF Railway, respectively. The intent was to use them as a cheaper power alternative. CN currently have 65 GE ES44ACs on its roster and all 65 were ordered and delivered from December 2012 – December 2013. They are CN's first AC-powered locomotives. In 2015, CN started ordering more GE units, the ET44AC.[59]

Hoppers in Sainte-Foy, Quebec City, April 2012
Hoppers in Sainte-Foy, Quebec City, April 2012

On November 17, 2020, CN revealed five heritage units to mark the 25th anniversary of becoming a publicly-traded company. They had originally been spotted a month earlier, but were not yet formally announced by the company. The locomotives were repainted into various schemes of railroads CN had previously acquired, and included four GE ET44ACs painted in IC, EJ&E, WC, and BC Rail paint, and an EMD SD70M-2 painted in GTW paint.[60][61]

Major facilities

CN owns a large number of large yards and repair shops across their system. They are used for many operations, ranging from intermodal terminals to classification yards. Examples include:

Hump yards

Hump yards work by using a small hill over which cars are pushed before being released down a slope and switched automatically into cuts of cars, ready to join into outbound trains. CN's active humps include:[62]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Board Mandate and Committees". CN. Retrieved July 7, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  2. ^ "Stock Analysis: Canadian National Railway Company (NYSE:CNI) A Value Buy, But Not a Dividend Buy | Dividends Value". November 17, 2008. Archived from the original on November 6, 2018. Retrieved March 2, 2011.
  3. ^ "Facts and Figures". CN. Archived from the original on January 28, 2016. Retrieved January 21, 2016.
  4. ^ "CNR.TO : Summary for Canadian National Railway Compa – Yahoo Finance". ca.finance.yahoo.com (in Canadian English). Retrieved July 9, 2019.
  5. ^ "Bill Gates now biggest CN shareholder (CA;CNR)". CBC News. April 25, 2011. Retrieved April 26, 2011.
  6. ^ "OIC 1918-3122: Canadian National Railways - Board of Directors of the Canadian Northern Railway to use this collection designation as description of the Canadian Northern and Canadian Government Railway systems without prejudice". Privy Council of Canada. December 20, 1918.
  7. ^ An Act to incorporate Canadian National Railway Company and respecting Canadian National Railways, S.C. 1919, c. 13
  8. ^ An Act to confirm two Orders of the Governor General in Council respecting the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway System, S.C. 1919, c. 22
  9. ^ The Grand Trunk Railway Acquisition Act, 1919, S.C. 1919 (2nd sess.), c. 17 , supplemented by An Act to confirm the Agreement dated the eighth day of March, 1920, between His Majesty the King and the Grand Trunk Railway Company of Canada for the acquisition by His Majesty of the capital stock of the said Grand Trunk Railway Company, except the four per cent guaranteed stock, S.C. 1920, c. 13
  10. ^ as provided for under The Grand Trunk Railway Acquisition Act, 1919, subsequently extended by An Act respecting the Grand Trunk Arbitration, S.C. 1921), c. 9
  11. ^ "OIC 1923-0115: Can. Govt. Rys. etc placed under the management and control of the C.N.R. Co". Privy Council of Canada. January 20, 1923.
  12. ^ George Pardew Lovibond v Grand Trunk Railway Company of Canada [1936] UKPC 35, [1936] 2 All ER 495; 1936 CanLII 332 (UK JCPC) (14 May 1936), on appeal from Lovibond v Grand Trunk Railway Co, 1933 CanLII 143, [1933] OR 727; [1933] 4 DLR 425 (28 June 1933), Court of Appeal (Ontario, Canada)
  13. ^ "Archived copy". cn.ca. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved January 11, 2022.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  14. ^ http://www.cwrailway.ca/cnrha.ca/Timetables%2007/Edmonton/Meander%20River.pdf
  15. ^ "CN buys back into northern rail system | CBC News".
  16. ^ Melvin, George F. (2007). Trackside Grand Trunk New England Lines with John Ames. Scotch Plains, New Jersey: Morning Sun Books. p. 8. ISBN 978-1-58248-193-7.
  17. ^ "CN Commercialization Act (S.C. 1995, c. 24)". GoC Justice Laws Website. Government of Canada. Retrieved November 7, 2015.
  18. ^ "CN completes merger of DMIR, DWP into Wisconsin Central". Railway Track & Structures. January 3, 2012. Archived from the original on May 26, 2012. Retrieved January 4, 2012.
  19. ^ "CN and Watco Reach Agreement on Sale of Rail Lines in Northern Ontario, Wisconsin, and Michigan" (Press release). CN. March 30, 2021. Retrieved July 7, 2021.((cite press release)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  20. ^ Lombardo, Cara (April 20, 2021). "Canadian National Makes $30 Billion Topping Bid for Kansas City Southern". Wall Street Journal (in American English). ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved April 30, 2021.
  21. ^ Keidan, Maiya; Smith, Fergal (April 28, 2021). "CP shareholders say bidding war for Kansas City Southern unnecessary". Financial Post (in Canadian English). Retrieved April 30, 2021.
  22. ^ Business, Paul R. La Monica, CNN. "Two Canadian railroads launch bidding war for rare access to Mexico". CNN. Retrieved April 30, 2021.
  23. ^ McNish, Jacquie (March 21, 2021). "Railroads Strike a $25 Billion Merger". Wall Street Journal (in American English). ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved April 30, 2021.
  24. ^ "CN to combine with Kansas City Southern". BusinessWire. May 21, 2021.
  25. ^ Stephens, Bill (August 31, 2021). "Federal regulators reject CN plan to put KCS in voting trust". Trains.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  26. ^ Stephens, Bill (September 4, 2021). "Kansas City Southern moves toward a merger agreement with Canadian Pacific". Trains.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  27. ^ Vantuono, William C. (September 4, 2021). "CP, KCS rekindle relationship". Railway Age.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  28. ^ "GRAND TRUNK CORPORATION - 2002" (PDF). www.aar.org. Association of American Railroads. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 26, 2004.
  29. ^ "Railway Gazette: Railway could tap Quebec's northern wealth". Railway Gazette International. Retrieved April 23, 2012.
  30. ^ "CN tests natural gas/diesel fuel powered locomotives between Edmonton and Fort McMurray, Alta". Archived from the original on November 5, 2012. Retrieved September 29, 2012.
  31. ^ "Transportation Safety Board of Canada | Rail". Tsb.gc.ca. July 31, 2008. Archived from the original on March 7, 2012. Retrieved May 15, 2012.
  32. ^ "CN Prince George fire under control". CBC News. August 4, 2007. Retrieved October 12, 2009.
  33. ^ "CN Derailment – UPDATED". 630 CHED. December 4, 2007. Archived from the original on December 29, 2007. Retrieved December 5, 2007.
  34. ^ "Building bridges in just a fraction of time". Detroit News. Retrieved April 7, 2017.
  35. ^ "Spill recovery could take decades". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. February 7, 2006. Retrieved January 15, 2007.
  36. ^ "Bridge blaze". TBNewsWatch. October 29, 2013. Retrieved July 17, 2014.
  37. ^ "1906 Agreement". Retrieved July 17, 2014.
  38. ^ "James Street bridge remains closed". NetnewsLedger.com. February 22, 2014. Retrieved July 17, 2014.
  39. ^ "CN Rail Sets Deadline to Thunder Bay on Bridge". NetNewsLedger.com. July 16, 2014. Retrieved July 17, 2014.
  40. ^ "Country of Origin | Brand Identity". brandchannel.com. Archived from the original on August 19, 2012. Retrieved May 15, 2012.
  41. ^ "Amtrak files long-overdue complaint over CN delays". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved December 4, 2015.
  42. ^ Kingston, John (March 26, 2018). "Amtrak's initial report card on freight railroads ranges from A to a pair of F's". FreightWaves (in American English). Retrieved July 30, 2018.
  43. ^ "Telegraph". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica-Dominica. Retrieved June 18, 2013.
  44. ^ a b c Lloyd's Register, Steamers & Motorships (PDF). London: Lloyd's Register. 1932. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 4, 2014. Retrieved January 3, 2014.
  45. ^ a b c d e Swiggum, Sue; Kohli, Marj (February 28, 2010). "Canadian National Steamship Company". The Ships List. Retrieved January 3, 2014.
  46. ^ "Prince George, Canadian National Railways". cruiseshipodyssey.com. Archived from the original on March 16, 2015. Retrieved September 17, 2014.
  47. ^ a b ""Lady" Liners Sail to West Indies". The Evening Post. Vol. CXXV, no. 72. Wellington: National Library of New Zealand. March 26, 1938. p. 27. Retrieved January 3, 2014.
  48. ^ Lloyd's Register, Steamers & Motorships (PDF). London: Lloyd's Register. 1931. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 4, 2014. Retrieved January 3, 2014.
  49. ^ Hannington, Felicity (1980). The Lady Boats: The Life and Times of Canada's West Indies Merchant Fleet. Halifax, NS: Canadian Marine Transportation Centre, Dalhousie University. ISBN 0770301894.
  50. ^ Hannington, p. 16
  51. ^ "Alaska Railroad Industries AquaTrain". Alaskarails.org. Retrieved November 9, 2019.
  52. ^ "The Board and Its Committees". www.cn.ca. Canadian National Railway Company. Archived from the original on July 5, 2016. Retrieved August 21, 2016.
  53. ^ "Historical Heads of CN". CN.ca. Canadian National Railway Company. Retrieved August 16, 2016.
  54. ^ "CN Rail ousts CEO Luc Jobin". CBC.ca. The Canadian Press. Archived from the original on March 6, 2018. Retrieved March 6, 2018.
  55. ^ "CN Board appoints Jean-Jacques Ruest President and CEO". Retrieved July 28, 2018.
  56. ^ "CN to cut passenger service to Hearst". Northern Ontario Business. Retrieved January 28, 2014.
  57. ^ "GO deal swaps CN crews with Bombardier personnel". Toronto Star. November 9, 2007. Retrieved September 13, 2011.
  58. ^ a b c Holland, Kevin J (December 2017). "Trains of Fame". Canada's History. 97 (6): 20–29. ISSN 1920-9894.
  59. ^ "CN to acquire 161 locomotives to handle expected traffic increases, improve operational efficiency | cn.ca". www.cn.ca. Archived from the original on April 7, 2017. Retrieved April 7, 2017.
  60. ^ "CN heritage locomotives sighted, but company won't comment". Trains. October 13, 2020.
  61. ^ "Canadian National Puts New Heritage Units into Service". Railfan & Railroad Magazine. November 17, 2020.
  62. ^ Trains Magazine (July 8, 2006). "North America's Hump Yards". Archived from the original on December 4, 2008. Retrieved June 27, 2008.
  63. ^ "CN to close Montreal's rail traffic control centre, affecting over 100 jobs". Global News. Retrieved May 17, 2020.

Further reading