Phosphoric acid
Structural formula of phosphoric acid, showing dimensions
Ball-and-stick model
Ball-and-stick model
Space-filling model
Space-filling model
Names
IUPAC name
Phosphoric acid
Other names
Orthophosphoric acid
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChEBI
ChEMBL
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.028.758 Edit this at Wikidata
EC Number
  • 231-633-2
E number E338 (antioxidants, ...)
KEGG
RTECS number
  • TB6300000
UNII
UN number 1805
  • InChI=1S/H3O4P/c1-5(2,3)4/h(H3,1,2,3,4) checkY
    Key: NBIIXXVUZAFLBC-UHFFFAOYSA-N checkY
  • InChI=1/H3O4P/c1-5(2,3)4/h(H3,1,2,3,4)
    Key: NBIIXXVUZAFLBC-UHFFFAOYAI
  • OP(=O)(O)O
Properties
H3PO4
Molar mass 97.994 g·mol−1
Appearance Colorless solid
Odor Odorless
Density 1.6845 g/cm3 (25 °C, 85%),[1] 1.834 g/cm3 (solid)[2]
Melting point 42.35 °C (108.23 °F; 315.50 K) anhydrous[12]
29.32 °C (84.78 °F; 302.47 K) hemihydrate[13]
Boiling point
  • 212 °C (414 °F)[3](only water evaporates)[4]
  • 392.2 g/(100 g) (−16.3 °C)
  • 369.4 g/(100 mL) (0.5 °C)
  • 446 g/(100 mL) (15 °C)[5]
  • 548 g/(100 mL) (20 °C)[6]
Solubility Soluble in ethanol
log P −2.15[7]
Vapor pressure 0.03 mmHg (20 °C)[8]
Conjugate base Dihydrogen phosphate
−43.8·10−6 cm3/mol[10]
  • 1.3420 (8.8% w/w aq. soln.)[11]
  • 1.4320 (85% aq. soln) 25 °C
Viscosity 2.4–9.4 cP (85% aq. soln.)
147 cP (100%)
Structure
Monoclinic
Tetrahedral
Thermochemistry[14]
145.0 J/(mol⋅K)
150.8 J/(mol⋅K)
−1271.7 kJ/mol
−1123.6 kJ/mol
Hazards
GHS labelling:
GHS05: Corrosive[15]
Danger
H290, H314[15]
P280, P305+P351+P338, P310[15]
NFPA 704 (fire diamond)
NFPA 704 four-colored diamondHealth 3: Short exposure could cause serious temporary or residual injury. E.g. chlorine gasFlammability 0: Will not burn. E.g. waterInstability 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g. liquid nitrogenSpecial hazards (white): no code
3
0
0
Flash point Non-flammable
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
1530 mg/kg (rat, oral)[16]
NIOSH (US health exposure limits):
PEL (Permissible)
TWA 1 mg/m3[8]
REL (Recommended)
TWA 1 mg/m3 ST 3 mg/m3[8]
IDLH (Immediate danger)
1000 mg/m3[8]
Safety data sheet (SDS) ICSC 1008
Related compounds
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
☒N verify (what is checkY☒N ?)

Phosphoric acid (orthophosphoric acid, monophosphoric acid or phosphoric(V) acid) is a colorless, odorless phosphorus-containing solid, and inorganic compound with the chemical formula H3PO4. It is commonly encountered as an 85% aqueous solution, which is a colourless, odourless, and non-volatile syrupy liquid. It is a major industrial chemical, being a component of many fertilizers.

The compound is an acid. Removal of all three H+ ions gives the phosphate ion PO3−4. Removal of one or two protons gives dihydrogen phosphate ion H2PO4, and the hydrogen phosphate ion HPO2−4, respectively. Phosphoric acid forms esters, called organophosphates.[17]

The name "orthophosphoric acid" can be used to distinguish this specific acid from other "phosphoric acids", such as pyrophosphoric acid. Nevertheless, the term "phosphoric acid" often means this specific compound; and that is the current IUPAC nomenclature.

Production

Phosphoric acid is produced industrially by one of two routes, wet processes and dry.[18][19][20]

Wet process

In the wet process, a phosphate-containing mineral such as calcium hydroxyapatite and fluorapatite are treated with sulfuric acid.[21]

Ca5(PO4)3OH + 5 H2SO4 → 3 H3PO4 + 5 CaSO4 + H2O
Ca5(PO4)3F + 5 H2SO4 → 3 H3PO4 + 5 CaSO4 + HF

Calcium sulfate (gypsum, CaSO4) is a by-product, which is removed as phosphogypsum. The hydrogen fluoride (HF) gas is streamed into a wet (water) scrubber producing hydrofluoric acid. In both cases the phosphoric acid solution usually contains 23–33% P2O5 (32–46% H3PO4). It may be concentrated to produce commercial- or merchant-grade phosphoric acid, which contains about 54–62% P2O5 (75–85% H3PO4). Further removal of water yields superphosphoric acid with a P2O5 concentration above 70% (corresponding to nearly 100% H3PO4). The phosphoric acid from both processes may be further purified by removing compounds of arsenic and other potentially toxic impurities.

Dry process

To produce food-grade phosphoric acid, phosphate ore is first reduced with coke in an electric arc furnace, to give elemental phosphorus. Silica is also added, resulting in the production of calcium silicate slag. Elemental phosphorus is distilled out of the furnace and burned with air to produce high-purity phosphorus pentoxide, which is dissolved in water to make phosphoric acid.[22]

Properties

Acidic properties

In aqueous solution phosphoric acid behaves as a triprotic acid.

H3PO4 ⇌ H2PO4 + H+, pKa1 = 2.14
H2PO4 ⇌ HPO2−4 + H+, pKa2 = 7.20
HPO2−4 ⇌ PO3−4 + H+, pKa3 = 12.37

The difference between successive pKa values is sufficiently large so that salts of either monohydrogen phosphate, HPO2−4 or dihydrogen phosphate, H2PO4, can be prepared from a solution of phosphoric acid by adjusting the pH to be mid-way between the respective pKa values.

Aqueous solutions

Aqueous solutions up to 62.5% H3PO4 are eutectic, exhibiting freezing-point depression as low as -85°C. Beyond this freezing-point increases, reaching 21°C by 85% H3PO4 (w/w). Beyond this the phase diagram becomes complicated, with significant local maxima and minima. For this reason phosphoric acid is rarely sold above 85%, as beyond this adding or removing small amounts moisture risks the entire mass freezing solid, which would be a major problem on a large scale. A local maximum at 91.6% which corresponds to the hemihydrate 2H3PO4•H2O, freezing at 29.32°C.[23][24] There is a second smaller eutectic depression at a concentration of 94.75% with a freezing point of 23.5°C. At higher concentrations the freezing point rapidly increases. Concentrated phosphoric acid tends to supercool before crystallization occurs, and may be relatively resistant to crystallisation even when stored below the freezing point.[13]

Self condensation

Phosphoric acid is commercially available as aqueous solutions of various concentrations, not usually exceeding 85%. If concentrated further it undergoes slow self-condensation, forming an equilibrium with pyrophosphoric acid:

2 H3PO4 ⇌ H2O + H4P2O7

Even at 90% concentration the amount of pyrophosphoric acid present is negligible, but beyond 95% it starts to increase, reaching 15% at what would have otherwise been 100% orthophosphoric acid.[25]

As the concentration is increased higher acids are formed, culminating in the formation of polyphosphoric acids.[26] It is not possible to fully dehydrate phosphoric acid to phosphorus pentoxide, instead the polyphosphoric acid becomes increasingly polymeric and viscous. Due to the self-condensation, pure orthophosphoric acid can only be obtained by a careful fractional freezing/melting process.[13][12]

Uses

See also: Phosphorus § Food additive

The dominant use of phosphoric acid is for fertilizers, consuming approximately 90% of production.[27]

Application Demand (2006) in thousands of tons Main phosphate derivatives
Soaps and detergents 1836 STPP
Food industry 309 STPP (Na5P3O10), SHMP, TSP, SAPP, SAlP, MCP, DSP (Na2HPO4), H3PO4
Water treatment 164 SHMP, STPP, TSPP, MSP (NaH2PO4), DSP
Toothpastes 68 DCP (CaHPO4), IMP, SMFP
Other applications 287 STPP (Na3P3O9), TCP, APP, DAP, zinc phosphate (Zn3(PO4)2), aluminium phosphate (AlPO4), H3PO4

Food-grade phosphoric acid (additive E338[28]) is used to acidify foods and beverages such as various colas and jams, providing a tangy or sour taste. The phosphoric acid also serves as a preservative.[29] Soft drinks containing phosphoric acid, which would include Coca-Cola, are sometimes called phosphate sodas or phosphates. Phosphoric acid in soft drinks has the potential to cause dental erosion.[30] Phosphoric acid also has the potential to contribute to the formation of kidney stones, especially in those who have had kidney stones previously.[31]

Specific applications of phosphoric acid include:

Phosphoric acid may also be used for chemical polishing (etching) of metals like aluminium or for passivation of steel products in a process called phosphatization.[37]

Safety

Phosphoric acid is not a strong acid. However, at moderate concentrations phosphoric acid solutions are irritating to the skin. Contact with concentrated solutions can cause severe skin burns and permanent eye damage.[38]

A link has been shown between long-term regular cola intake and osteoporosis in later middle age in women (but not men).[39]

See also

References

  1. ^ Christensen, J. H.; Reed, R. B. (1955). "Design and Analysis Data—Density of Aqueous Solutions of Phosphoric Acid Measurements at 25 °C". Ind. Eng. Chem. 47 (6): 1277–1280. doi:10.1021/ie50546a061.
  2. ^ "CAMEO Chemicals Datasheet – Phosphoric Acid". Archived from the original on 15 August 2019. Retrieved 15 August 2019.
  3. ^ "Phosphoric acid". www.chemspider.com. Archived from the original on 12 March 2020. Retrieved 3 March 2020.
  4. ^ Brown, Earl H.; Whitt, Carlton D. (1952). "Vapor Pressure of Phosphoric Acids". Industrial & Engineering Chemistry. 44 (3): 615–618. doi:10.1021/ie50507a050.
  5. ^ Seidell, Atherton; Linke, William F. (1952). Solubilities of Inorganic and Organic Compounds. Van Nostrand. Archived from the original on 11 March 2020. Retrieved 2 June 2014.
  6. ^ Haynes, p. 4.80
  7. ^ "phosphoric acid_msds". Archived from the original on 4 July 2017. Retrieved 2 May 2018.
  8. ^ a b c d NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. "#0506". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
  9. ^ Haynes, p. 5.92
  10. ^ Haynes, p. 4.134
  11. ^ Edwards, O. W.; Dunn, R. L.; Hatfield, J. D. (1964). "Refractive Index of Phosphoric Acid Solutions at 25 C.". J. Chem. Eng. Data. 9 (4): 508–509. doi:10.1021/je60023a010.
  12. ^ a b Greenwood, N. N.; Thompson, A. (1959). "701. The mechanism of electrical conduction in fused phosphoric and trideuterophosphoric acids". Journal of the Chemical Society (Resumed): 3485. doi:10.1039/JR9590003485.
  13. ^ a b c Ross, Wm. H.; Jones, R. M.; Durgin, C. B. (October 1925). "The Purification of Phosphoric Acid by Crystallization". Industrial & Engineering Chemistry. 17 (10): 1081–1083. doi:10.1021/ie50190a031. ISSN 0019-7866.
  14. ^ Haynes, p. 5.13
  15. ^ a b c Sigma-Aldrich Co., Phosphoric acid.
  16. ^ "Phosphoric acid". Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH). National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
  17. ^ Westheimer, F.H. (6 June 1987). "Why nature chose phosphates". Science. 235 (4793): 1173–1178 (see pp. 1175–1176). Bibcode:1987Sci...235.1173W. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.462.3441. doi:10.1126/science.2434996. PMID 2434996.
  18. ^ Becker, Pierre (1988). Phosphates and phosphoric acid. New York: Marcel Dekker. ISBN 978-0824717124.
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  20. ^ Jupp, Andrew R.; Beijer, Steven; Narain, Ganesha C.; Schipper, Willem; Slootweg, J. Chris (2021). "Phosphorus recovery and recycling – closing the loop". Chemical Society Reviews. 50 (1): 87–101. doi:10.1039/D0CS01150A. PMID 33210686.
  21. ^ Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. pp. 520–522. ISBN 978-0-08-037941-8.
  22. ^ Geeson, Michael B.; Cummins, Christopher C. (2020). "Let's Make White Phosphorus Obsolete". ACS Central Science. 6 (6): 848–860. doi:10.1021/acscentsci.0c00332. PMC 7318074. PMID 32607432.
  23. ^ Ross, William H.; Jones, Russell M. (August 1925). "The Solubility and Freezing-Point Curves of Hydrated and Anhydrous Orthophosphoric Acid". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 47 (8): 2165–2170. doi:10.1021/ja01685a015.
  24. ^ "Purified Phosphoric Acid H3PO4 Technical Information Bulletin" (PDF). PotashCorp. Retrieved 11 February 2023.
  25. ^ Korte, Carsten; Conti, Fosca; Wackerl, Jürgen; Lehnert, Werner (2016), Li, Qingfeng; Aili, David; Hjuler, Hans Aage; Jensen, Jens Oluf (eds.), "Phosphoric Acid and its Interactions with Polybenzimidazole-Type Polymers", High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells, Cham: Springer International Publishing, pp. 169–194, doi:10.1007/978-3-319-17082-4_8, ISBN 978-3-319-17081-7, retrieved 12 February 2023
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  28. ^ "Current EU approved additives and their E Numbers". Foods Standards Agency. 14 March 2012. Archived from the original on 21 August 2013. Retrieved 22 July 2012.
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  30. ^ Moynihan, P. J. (23 November 2002). "Dietary advice in dental practice". British Dental Journal. 193 (10): 563–568. doi:10.1038/sj.bdj.4801628. PMID 12481178.
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  33. ^ Wet chemical etching. Archived 25 September 2012 at the Wayback Machine umd.edu.
  34. ^ Wolf, S.; R. N. Tauber (1986). Silicon processing for the VLSI era: Volume 1 – Process technology. p. 534. ISBN 978-0-9616721-6-4.
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  39. ^ Tucker KL, Morita K, Qiao N, Hannan MT, Cupples LA, Kiel DP (1 October 2006). "Colas, but not other carbonated beverages, are associated with low bone mineral density in older women: The Framingham Osteoporosis Study". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 84 (4): 936–942. doi:10.1093/ajcn/84.4.936. PMID 17023723.

Cited sources