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Interactive map of Autostrade in Italy

The Autostrade (Italian: [autoˈstraːde]; singular autostrada [autoˈstraːda]) are roads forming the Italian national system of motorways. The total length of the system is about 6,758 kilometres (4,199 mi).[1] In North and Central Italy, the Autostrade mainly consists of tollways managed by Autostrade per l'Italia, a holding company controlled by Cassa Depositi e Prestiti.[2][3] Other operators include ASTM, ATP, and Autostrade Lombarde in the north-west; Autostrada del Brennero, A4 Holding, Concessioni Autostradali Venete, and Autovie Venete in the north-east; Strada dei Parchi, SALT, SAT, and Autocisa in the center; and CAS in the south.

History

Italy became the first country to inaugurate motorways reserved for motor vehicles with the A8.[4] The Milan-Laghi motorway (connecting Milan to Varese) was devised by Piero Puricelli, a civil engineer and entrepreneur. He received the first authorization to build a public-utility fast road in 1921, and completed the construction (one lane each direction) between 1924 and 1926. By the end of the 1930s, over 400 kilometers of multi- and dual-single-lane motorways had been constructed throughout Italy, linking cities and rural towns.

Traffic laws

An autostrada regulation sign along an entrance ramp
An autostrada regulation sign along an entrance ramp

Italy's autostrade must not be used by:[5]

Speed

Autostrada sign
Autostrada sign

Italy's autostrade have a standard speed limit of 130 km/h (80 mph) for cars. Limits for other vehicles (or during foul weather and/or low visibility) are lower. Legal provisions allow operators to set the limit to 150 km/h (95 mph) on their concessions on a voluntary basis if there are three lanes in each direction and a working SICVE, or Safety Tutor, which is a speed-camera system that measure the average speed over a given distance. In 2016, no road was utilizing this possibility.

The first speed limit, to 120 km/h (75 mph), was enacted in November 1973 as a result of the 1973 oil crisis.[7] In October 1977, a graduated system was introduced: cars with engine displacement above 1.3 L (79 cu in) had a 140 km/h (85 mph) speed limit, cars of 900–1299 cm3 had a limit of 130 km/h (80 mph), those of 600–899 cm3 could drive at 110 km/h (70 mph), and those of 599 cm3 (36.6 cu in) or less had a maximum speed of 90 km/h (55 mph).[7] In July 1988 a blanket speed limit of 110 km/h (70 mph) was imposed on all cars above 600 cm3 (the lower limit was kept for smaller cars) by the short-lived PSDI government. In September 1989 this was increased to 130 km/h (80 mph) for cars above 1.1 L (67 cu in) and 110 km/h (70 mph) for smaller ones.[8]

List of current Autostrade

Number Length (km) Length (mi) Southern or western terminus Northern or eastern terminus Route name Formed Removed Notes
A1 759.8 472.1 Milan Naples Autostrada del Sole 01964-01-011964 current E35, E45
A2 202.1 125.6 Rome Naples Autostrada del Sole 01962-01-011962 01988-01-011988 Absorbed into the A1
A2 442.9 275.2 Salerno Reggio Calabria Autostrada del Mediterraneo 02017-01-012017 current E45, E90, E841
A3 51.7 32.1 Naples Salerno 01974-01-011974 current E45
A4 522.4 324.6 Turin Trieste Serenissima 01927-01-011927 current E55, E64, E70
A5 141.4 87.9 Turin Mont Blanc Autostrada della Valle d'Aosta 01961-01-011961 current E25, E612
A6 123.7 76.9 Turin Savona La Verdemare 01960-01-011960 current E717
A7 135.5 84.2 Milan Genoa Serravalle 01935-01-011935 current E25, E62
A8 43.6 27.1 Milan Varese Autostrada dei Laghi 01924-01-011924 current E35, E62
A9 30.9 19.2 Lainate Chiasso Autostrada dei Laghi 01924-01-011924 current E35
A10 158.1 98.2 Genoa Ventimiglia Autostrada dei Fiori 01967-01-011967 current E25, E74, E80
A11 81.7 50.8 Florence Pisa Autostrada Firenze-Mare 01933-01-011933 current E76
A12 210.0 130.5 Genoa Rosignano Marittimo Autostrada Azzurra 01967-01-011967 current E80
A13 116.7 72.5 Bologna Padua 01970-01-011970 current
A14 743.4 461.9 Bologna Taranto Autostrada Adriatica 01966-01-011966 current E45, E843
A15 108.5 67.4 Parma La Spezia Autocamionale della Cisa 01975-01-011975 current E33
A16 172.5 107.2 Naples Canosa di Puglia Autostrada dei Due Mari 01966-01-011966 current E842
A17 242 150 Naples Bari 01969-01-011969 01973-01-011973 Absorbed into the A14 and A16
A18 76.8 47.7 Messina Catania 01971-01-011971 current E45
A18 SR-Gela 47.7 29.6 Syracuse Ispica 01983-01-011983 current E45
A19 191.6 119.1 Palermo Catania 01970-01-011970 current E90, E932
A20 183.0 113.7 Messina Buonfornello 01972-01-011972 current E45, E90
A21 238.3 148.1 Turin Brescia Autostrada dei Vini 01968-01-011968 current E70
A22 315.0 195.7 Brenner Modena Autostrada del Brennero 01968-01-011968 current E45
A23 119.9 74.5 Palmanova Tarvisio Autostrada Alpe-Adria 01966-01-011966 current E55
A24 158.8 98.7 Rome Teramo Autostrada dei Parchi 01969-01-011969 current E80
A25 115.0 71.5 Torano di Borgorose Pescara Autostrada dei Parchi 01969-01-011969 current E80
A26 197.1 122.5 Genoa Gravellona Toce Autostrada dei Trafori 01976-01-011976 current E25, E62
A27 82.5 51.3 Venice Belluno Autostrada d'Alemagna 01972-01-011972 current
A28 48.8 30.3 Portogruaro Conegliano 01974-01-011974 current
A29 114.8 71.3 Palermo Mazara del Vallo Autostrada del Sale 01972-01-011972 current E90
A30 55.3 34.4 Caserta Salerno 01975-01-011975 current
A31 88.7 55.1 Badia Polesine Piovene Rocchette Autostrada della Val d'Astico 01976-01-011976 current
A32 73.0 45.4 Turin Fréjus Road Tunnel Autostrada del Frejus 01983-01-011983 current E70
A33 23.0 14.3 Cuneo Carrù 02005-01-012005 current
A34 17.5 10.9 Villesse Gorizia 02013-01-012013 current
A35 54.8 34.1 Castegnato Melzo BreBeMi 02014-01-012014 current
A36 23.0 14.3 Cassano Magnago Lentate sul Seveso Pedemontana Lombarda 02015-01-012015 current
A50 31.3 19.4 Ring road around Milan Tangenziale Ovest di Milano 01968-01-011968 current E35, E62
A51 30.7 19.1 Ring road around Milan Tangenziale Est di Milano 01971-01-011971 current
A52 21.6 13.4 Ring road around Milan Tangenziale Nord di Milano 01994-01-011994 current
A53 9.2 5.7 Bereguardo Pavia 01960-01-011960 current
A54 8.4 5.2 Ring road around Pavia Tangenziale Ovest di Pavia 01994-01-011994 current
A55 57.5 35.7 Ring road around Turin Tangenziale di Torino 01976-01-011976 current E70
A56 20.2 12.6 Ring road around Naples Tangenziale di Napoli 01972-01-011972 current
A57 26.7 16.6 Ring road around Mestre Tangenziale di Mestre 01972-01-011972 current E55
A58 31.8 19.8 Ring road around Milan Tangenziale Est Esterna di Milano 02014-01-012014 current
A59 2.9 1.8 Ring road around Como Tangenziale di Como 02015-01-012015 current
A60 4.5 2.8 Ring road around Varese Tangenziale di Varese 02015-01-012015 current
A90 68.2 42.4 Ring road around Rome Grande Raccordo Anulare di Roma 01951-01-011951 current E80
A91 18.4 11.4 Rome Fiumicino Airport 01959-01-011959 current E80
A93 42.3 26.3 Marene Asti 02007-01-012007 current E74
  •       Former

List of bretelle and raccordi autostradali

Some autostrade are called bretelle, diramazioni or raccordi because they are short and have few exits.

Bretelle, diramazioni or raccordi are generally connections between two motorways, or connections between motorways and important cities without a motorway.

They have the same number (sometimes with the suffix dir) as one of the two autostrade linked, a combination of the numbers of the two autostrade linked, or the number of the main autostrada.

Number Name (length) Connection
A1
Raccordo Milano-Piazzale Corvetto (2 km) A1 - Milano Piazzale Corvetto
A1
Diramazione Capodichino (3 km) A1 - Aeroporto di Capodichino - A56
A1dir
Diramazione Roma nord (23 km) A1 - GRA
A1dir
Diramazione Roma sud (20 km) A1 - GRA
A1var
Variante di Valico (32,966 km) A1 - A1
A2
A2 dir. Napoli (2 km) A2 - A3
A2
A2 dir. Reggio Calabria (9 km) A2 - Reggio Calabria
A4
Raccordo Chivasso (6 km) A4 - Verolengo
A4/A5
Raccordo Ivrea-Santhià (23,6 km) A4 - A5
Raccordo Aosta-Gran San Bernardo (7,9 km) A5 - SS27
A6
Diramazione per Fossano (6,6 km) A6 - Fossano
A8/A26
Diramazione Gallarate-Gattico (23,2 km) A8 - A26
A11/A12
Diramazione Lucca-Viareggio (20 km) A11 - A12
A12
Diramazione per Livorno (4,5 km) A12 - Livorno
A13
Diramazione per Padova sud (4,3 km) A13 - Padova
A13
Diramazione per Ferrara (6,3 km) A13 - Ferrara - RA8
A14
Raccordo per Tangenziale di Bari (4,6 km) A14 - Tangenziale di Bari
A14dir
Diramazione per Ravenna (29,8 km) A14 - Ravenna
A15
Diramazione La Spezia-Santo Stefano di Magra Santo Stefano di Magra - A15 - La Spezia
A18dir
Diramazione per Catania (3,7 km) A18 - Catania
A19dir
Raccordo A19-Palermo (5,2 km) A19 - Circonvallazione di Palermo
A21dir
Diramazione per Fiorenzuola (12,3) A1 - A21
A4/A26
Diramazione Stroppiana-Santhià (29,7 km) A4 - A26
A26/A7
Diramazione Predosa-Bettole (17 km) A7 - A26
A29dir
Diramazione Alcamo-Trapani (36,9 km) A29 - Trapani
A29dirA
Diramazione per Birgi (13,1 km) A29dir - Aeroporto di Trapani-Birgi
A29racc
Bretella aeroporto Falcone e Borsellino (4 km) A29 - Aeroporto di Palermo
A29racc bis
Raccordo per via Belgio (5,6 km) A29 - Circonvallazione di Palermo
A55
Diramazione per Pinerolo (23,44 km) A55 - Pinerolo
A55
Diramazione per Moncalieri (6,18 km) A6 - Moncalieri
A55
Raccordo della Falchera (3,13 km) A55 - A4 - SR 11
A57
Bretella/raccordo aeroporto (6,73 km) A57 - Aeroporto di Venezia

Trafori (T)

Important alpine tunnels ((in Italian) trafori) are identified by the capital letter "T" followed by a single digit number. Currently there are only three T-classified tunnels: Mont Blanc Tunnel (T1), Great St Bernard Tunnel (T2) and Frejus Road Tunnel (T4). Tunnels that cross the border between Italy and France (T1, T4) or Switzerland (T2), are treated as motorways (green signage, access control, and so on), although they are not proper motorways. The code T3 was once assigned to the Bargagli-Ferriere Tunnel in Ligurian Apennines before it was reclassified as SP 226.

T1
Traforo del Monte Bianco
T2
Traforo del Gran San Bernardo
T4
Traforo del Frejus

Raccordi autostradali (RA)

RA stands for Raccordo autostradale (translated as "motorway connection"), a relatively short spur route that connects an autostrada to a nearby city or tourist resort not directly served by the motorway. These spurs are owned and managed by ANAS (with some exceptions, such as the RA7 that became A53 when assigned to a private company for maintenance). Some spurs are toll-free motorways (type-A), but most are type-B or type-C roads. All RA have separate carriageways with two lanes in each direction. Generally, they do not have an emergency lane.

Symbol Number
Italian traffic signs - raccordo autostradale 1.svg
RA1 A1 - A13 - A14

(Tangenziale di Bologna)

Italian traffic signs - raccordo autostradale 2.svg
RA2 A3 - Avellino
Italian traffic signs - raccordo autostradale 3.svg
RA3 A1 - Siena
Italian traffic signs - raccordo autostradale 4.svg
RA4 A3 - Reggio Calabria - SS106
Italian traffic signs - raccordo autostradale 5.svg
RA5 A3 - Potenza
Italian traffic signs - raccordo autostradale 6.svg
RA6 A1 - Perugia
Autostrada A53 Italia.svg
A53 (or RA7) A7 - Tangenziale di Pavia
Italian traffic signs - raccordo autostradale 8.svg
RA8 A13 - Ferrara - Porto Garibaldi
Italian traffic signs - raccordo autostradale 9.svg
RA9 A16 - Benevento
Italian traffic signs - raccordo autostradale 10.svg
RA10 Torino - A55 - Turin Airport
Italian traffic signs - raccordo autostradale 11.svg
RA11 Ascoli - A14 - Porto d'Ascoli
Italian traffic signs - raccordo autostradale 12.svg
RA12 A25 - Chieti - A14 - Pescara
Italian traffic signs - raccordo autostradale 13.svg
RA13 A4 - SS202
Italian traffic signs - raccordo autostradale 14.svg
RA14 RA13 - Fernetti (state border with Slovenia)
Italian traffic signs - raccordo autostradale 15.svg
RA15 A18 - A19 - Aut. CT-SR

(Tangenziale di Catania)

Italian traffic signs - raccordo autostradale 16.svg
RA16 A28 - SS13 Pontebbana

Strade extraurbane principali

Strada extraurbana principale sign
Strada extraurbana principale sign

Type B highway (or strada extraurbana principale), commonly but unofficially known as superstrada (Italian equivalent for expressway), is a divided highway with at least two lanes in each direction, paved shoulder on the right, no cross-traffic and no at-grade intersections. Access restrictions on such highways are exactly the same as autostrade. Signage at the beginning and the end of the highways is the same, except the background color is blue instead of green. The general speed limit on strade extraurbane principali is 110 km/h. Strade extraurbane principali are not tolled. All strade extraurbane principali are owned and managed by ANAS, and directly controlled by the Italian government or by the regions.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-02-06. Retrieved 2015-06-20.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  2. ^ Benetton Family to Control Italian Toll Road Operator
  3. ^ Infrastructure company controlled by the Benetton family
  4. ^ The “Milano-Laghi” by Piero Puricelli, the first motorway in the world
  5. ^ Art. 175, Nuovo codice della strada
  6. ^ Art. 372 Regolamento di esecuzione del codice della strada
  7. ^ a b "Disegno di Legge" [draft law], Legislative Decree (in Italian), Senato della repubblica, no. 967, p. 2, 1988-04-07
  8. ^ Novella de Luca, Maria (1989-09-28). "'Via libera ai 130 km/h' la camera aumenta i limiti di velocità" [Green light for 130 km/h: chamber increases speed limits]. La Repubblica (in Italian). Retrieved 2017-01-18.