Comune di Perugia
Panorama of Piazza IV Novembre
Basilica San Domenico
Torre del Cassero
Basilica San Pietro
Perugia from Porta Sole
Flag of Perugia
Coat of arms of Perugia
Location of Perugia
Perugia is located in Italy
Location of Perugia in Umbria
Perugia is located in Umbria
Perugia (Umbria)
Coordinates: 43°6′44″N 12°23′20″E / 43.11222°N 12.38889°E / 43.11222; 12.38889
ProvincePerugia (PG)
FrazioniSee list
 • MayorAndrea Romizi (Forza Italia)
 • Total449.5 km2 (173.6 sq mi)
493 m (1,617 ft)
 (30 June 2023)[2]
 • Total161,228
 • Density360/km2 (930/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
Dialing code075
Patron saintSt. Constantius, St. Herculanus, St. Lawrence
Saint day29 January
WebsiteOfficial website

Perugia (/pəˈrə/,[3][4] US also /-iə, pˈ-/,[5] Italian: [peˈruːdʒa] ; Latin: Perusia) is the capital city of Umbria in central Italy, crossed by the River Tiber. The city is located about 164 km (102 mi) north of Rome and 148 km (92 mi) southeast of Florence. It covers a high hilltop and part of the valleys around the area.

The history of Perugia goes back to the Etruscan period; Perugia was one of the main Etruscan cities.

The city is also known as a university town, with the University of Perugia founded in 1308, the University for Foreigners, and some smaller colleges such as the Academy of Fine Arts "Pietro Vannucci" (Italian: Accademia di Belle Arti "Pietro Vannucci") public athenaeum founded in 1573, the Perugia University Institute of Linguistic Mediation for translators and interpreters, the Music Conservatory of Perugia, founded in 1788, and other institutes.

Perugia is also a well-known cultural and artistic centre of Italy. The city hosts multiple annual festivals and events, e.g., former Eurochocolate Festival (October), now in Bastia Umbra, the Umbria Jazz Festival (July), and the International Journalism Festival (in April), and is associated with multiple notable people in the arts.

Painter Pietro Vannucci, nicknamed Perugino, was a native of Città della Pieve, near Perugia. He decorated the local Sala del Cambio with a series of frescoes; eight of his pictures can also be seen in the National Gallery of Umbria.[6]

Perugino was the teacher of Raphael,[7] the great Renaissance artist who produced five paintings in Perugia (today no longer in the city)[8] and one fresco.[9] Another painter, Pinturicchio, lived in Perugia. Galeazzo Alessi is the most famous architect from Perugia.[10]

The city's symbol is the griffin, which can be seen in the form of plaques and statues on buildings around the city. It is also the symbol of the local football club A.C. Perugia, who have previously played in the Serie A.


For a chronological guide, see Timeline of Perugia.

Umbrians and Etruscans

Perugia was an Umbrian settlement[11] but first appears in written history as Perusia, one of the 12 confederate cities of Etruria;[11] it was first mentioned in Q. Fabius Pictor's account, used by Livy, of the expedition carried out against the Etruscan League by Fabius Maximus Rullianus[12] in 310 or 309 BC. At that time a thirty-year indutiae (truce) was agreed upon;[13] however, in 295 Perusia took part in the Third Samnite War and was forced, with Volsinii and Arretium (Arezzo), to seek for peace in the following year.[14]

Roman period

In 216 and 205 BC, it assisted Rome in the Second Punic War, but afterwards it is not mentioned until 41–40 BC, when Lucius Antonius took refuge there, and was defeated by Octavian after a long siege, and its senators sent to their deaths. A number of lead bullets used by slingers have been found in and around the city.[15] The city was burnt, we are told, with the exception of the temples of Vulcan and Juno—the massive Etruscan terrace-walls,[16] naturally, can hardly have suffered at all—and the town, with the territory for a mile round, was allowed to be occupied by whoever chose. It must have been rebuilt almost at once, for several bases for statues exist, inscribed Augusto sacr(um) Perusia restituta; but it did not become a colonia, until 251–253 AD, when it was resettled as Colonia Vibia Augusta Perusia, under the emperor C. Vibius Trebonianus Gallus.[17]

Early Middle Ages

It is hardly mentioned except by the geographers until it was the only city in Umbria to resist Totila, who captured it and laid the city waste in 547, after a long siege, apparently after the city's Byzantine garrison evacuated. Negotiations with the besieging forces fell to the city's bishop, Herculanus, as representative of the townspeople.[18] Totila is said to have ordered the bishop to be flayed and beheaded. St. Herculanus (Sant'Ercolano) later became the city's patron saint.[19]

Middle Ages

In the Lombard period, Perugia is spoken of as one of the principal cities of Tuscia.[20] In the 9th century, with the consent of Charlemagne and Louis the Pious, it passed under the popes; but by the 11th century, its commune was asserting itself, and for many centuries the city continued to maintain an independent life, warring against many of the neighbouring lands and cities— Foligno, Assisi, Spoleto, Todi, Siena, Arezzo, etc. In 1186, Henry VI, rex romanorum and future emperor, granted diplomatic recognition to the consular government of the city; afterward, Pope Innocent III, whose major aim was to give state dignity to the dominions having been constituting the patrimony of St. Peter, acknowledged the validity of the imperial statement and recognised the established civic practices as having the force of law.[21]

Perugia griffin, in a medieval Latin document

On various occasions, the popes found asylum from the tumults of Rome within its walls, and it was the meetingplace of five conclaves (Perugia Papacy), including those that elected Honorius III (1216), Clement IV (1265), Celestine V (1294), and Clement V (1305); the papal presence was characterised by a pacificatory rule between the internal rivalries.[21] But Perugia had no mind simply to subserve the papal interests and never accepted papal sovereignty; the city used to exercise a jurisdiction over the members of the clergy, moreover in 1282, Perugia was excommunicated due to a new military offensive against the Ghibellines regardless of a papal prohibition. On the other hand, side by side with the 13th-century bronze griffin of Perugia above the door of the Palazzo dei Priori stands, as a Guelphic emblem, the lion, and Perugia remained loyal for the most part to the Guelph party in the struggles of Guelphs and Ghibellines, but this dominant tendency was rather an anti-Germanic and Italian political strategy.[21] The Angevin presence in Italy appeared to offer a counterpoise to papal powers; in 1319, Perugia declared the Angevin Saint Louis of Toulouse "Protector of the city's sovereignty and of the Palazzo of its Priors"[22] and set his figure among the other patron saints above the rich doorway of the Palazzo dei Priori. Midway through the 14th century Bartholus of Sassoferrato, who was a renowned jurist, asserted that Perugia was dependent upon neither imperial nor papal support.[21] In 1347, at the time of Rienzi's unfortunate enterprise in reviving the Roman republic, Perugia sent 10 ambassadors to pay him honour, and when papal legates sought to coerce it by foreign soldiers, or to exact contributions, they met with vigorous resistance, which broke into open warfare with Pope Urban V in 1369; in 1370, the noble party reached an agreement signing the treaty of Bologna, and Perugia was forced to accept a papal legate; however. the vicar-general of the Papal States, Gérard du Puy, Abbot of Marmoutier and nephew of Gregory IX,[23] was expelled by a popular uprising in 1375, and his fortification of Porta Sole was razed to the ground.[24]

The lordships of Perugia

Biordo Michelotti, Lord of Perugia from 1393 to 1398
Biordo Michelotti (1393-1398)

On August 5, 1393, the condottiero (mercenary captain) Biordo Michelotti, a member of the popular faction known as the Raspanti, made his triumphant entry into Perugia, and the general council appointed him as the "knight of the people" of Perugia and the "general captain" of the militias. A special commission of twenty-five citizens was tasked with banishing one hundred and fifty noblemen, while Biordo decided the return of noble individuals who were not considered guilty of sedition. Among the exiled noblemen was Braccio da Montone, one of the most skilled military leaders of the time, who vowed not to seek "any pact or agreement with the Raspanti of Perugia."

It was precisely against the exiled nobles, especially Braccio da Montone, the soul and leader of the noble movement in exile, that the government of the Raspanti directed its efforts after the turmoil of 1393. Holding virtually all power, Biordo was recognized as the first "lord of Perugia," even though during his short rule (1393-1398), he left intact the priory and all existing communal institutions, focusing solely on extending his dominion beyond Perugia. After the splendid marriage with Giovanna Orsini, Biordo and his bride took residence in the Porta Sole palace, but on March 10, 1398, Biordo fell victim to a conspiracy orchestrated by Francesco Guidalotti, abbot of San Pietro. In their new residence, Michelotti was stabbed by Giovanni and Annibaldo, brothers of the abbot of San Pietro.

Gian Galeazzo Visconti, Lord of Perugia from 1400 to 1402
Gian Galeazzo Visconti (1400-1402)

The death of Michelotti removed an important point of reference, and factions threatened the stability within and outside the walls. Meanwhile, the twenty-five worked diligently to find an institution that could protect the city and alleviate a very high debt. The people's demands for independence were no longer as urgent, and in the 15th century, the common belief was that they had to accept a ruler or master capable of providing the minimum requirements for survival. The choice fell on the Duchy of Milan, and on January 21, 1400, Gian Galeazzo Visconti was proclaimed the lord of Perugia by the voluntary submission of the city. In response to the delegation of the ten representatives that Perugia had sent him, he canceled the debt of the Perugians. His lordship was short-lived, and on October 3, 1402, Visconti passed away.

Braccio da Montone

Braccio da Montone (1416-1424)

In 1408, Ladislao D'Angiò Durazzo, the King of Naples, successfully captures Perugia and intends to have it administered by Braccio Fortebracci. However, Braccio vehemently opposes this idea and declines the offer. Nonetheless, in 1411, Perugia surrenders to the King of Naples, opting to be ruled by a foreigner rather than a nobleman. Braccio viewed this as a profound betrayal by his fellow citizens and fled. In November 1410, Braccio besieged Perugia but failed to capture it due to the city's resistance. He defeated pursuing troops and terrorized surrounding towns. In April 1416, he returned with a large army and attacked Perugia. After a victory in July, Perugia surrendered, marking the end of the Raspanti government. Braccio ruled moderately. In 1417, he entered Rome and proclaimed himself Defender of the City, later returning to Umbria. After conflicts and military successes, he was appointed Vicar by the Pope. Upon returning to Perugia, he undertook public works. He left for Bologna, returned, and went to Calabria. When denied entry to L'Aquila, he laid siege but faced opposition from the Pope and Queen. A league attacked him near Pescara in 1424, leading to his death. His son later buried him in Perugia with honors. During the rule of Braccio Fortebracci da Montone, significant public works were undertaken, such as Braccio's residence in the square, of which only the loggias remain, or the "Sopramuro," to which Braccio had another series of supporting structures built: the "briglie di Braccio."

The Renaissance

Braccio Baglioni, Lord of Perugia from 1438 to 1479.

Baglioni family (1438-1540)

Perugia in 1454

During the period 1438 - 1479, the Baglioni family held a covert lordship over Perugia, which was not characterized by complete control of civic powers. Braccio I Baglioni, leveraging his position as captain of the militias of the Holy See and being the nephew of Braccio da Montone, the previous Lord of the City, exerted an influence over Perugia that quickly established its supremacy. During those years, the Umbrian center experienced a period of flourishing growth as the Baglioni implemented a policy of expansion and beautification of the city, including the construction of new roads and palaces.

Pietro Perugino, self-portrait

Between 1429 and 1433, the Palazzo dei Priori was expanded, new churches and private chapels were built, and the patronage of the Baglioni attracted artists such as Piero della Francesca, Pinturicchio, and Raphael, making Perugia an important artistic center. During this time, Perugia became a significant hub of the Umbrian Renaissance, marked by the production of the eight panels depicting the life of

Saint Bernardino, a collaborative effort involving Pinturicchio, Piermatteo d'Amelia, and the young Perugino, among others, commonly referred to as the "1473 workshop." The Perugino Pietro Vannucci created numerous works in the city, including a cycle of frescoes in the Hall of Audiences of the Collegio del Cambio.

Additionally, the Baglioni family commissioned the construction of an imposing aristocratic palace as their private residence, of which only the part incorporated into the Rocca Paolina remains today. The palace was decorated by Domenico Veneziano with a painting cycle depicting noble Perugian families and great military leaders of the past.

Rocca Paolina, view of the fortress in a 19th century painting

Following mutual atrocities of the Oddi and the Baglioni families, power was at last concentrated in the Baglioni, who though they had no legal position, defied all other authority, though their bloody internal squabbles culminated in a massacre, 14 July 1500.[24] Gian Paolo Baglioni was lured to Rome in 1520 and beheaded by Leo X; and in 1540, Rodolfo, who had slain a papal legate, was defeated by Pier Luigi Farnese, and the city, captured and plundered by his soldiery, was deprived of its privileges. A citadel known as the Rocca Paolina, after the name of Pope Paul III, was built, to designs of Antonio da Sangallo the Younger "ad coercendam Perusinorum audaciam."[25]

In the Rocca Paolina

In 1797, the city was conquered by French troops. On 4 February 1798, the Tiberina Republic was formed, with Perugia as capital, and the French tricolour as flag. In 1799, the Tiberina Republic merged to the Roman Republic.

In 1832, 1838, and 1854, Perugia was hit by earthquakes. Following the collapse of the Roman republic of 1848–49, when the Rocca was in part demolished,[24] it was seized in May 1849 by the Austrians. In June 1859, the inhabitants rebelled against the temporal authority of the pope and established a provisional government, but the insurrection was quashed bloodily by Pius IX's troops.[26] In September 1860, the city was united finally, along with the rest of Umbria, as part of the Kingdom of Italy. During World War II, the city suffered only some damage and was liberated by the British 8th army on 20 June 1944.[27]


Perugia has become famous for chocolate, mostly because of a single firm, Perugina, whose Baci ("kisses" in English) are widely exported.[28] Perugian chocolate is popular in Italy. The company's plant located in San Sisto (Perugia) is the largest of Nestlé's nine sites in Italy.[29] According to the Nestlé USA official website,[30] today Baci is the most famous chocolate brand in Italy.[citation needed]

The city hosts a chocolate festival every October.[31]


Perugia is the capital city of the region of Umbria. Cities' distances from Perugia: Assisi 19 km (12 mi), Siena 102 km (63 mi), Florence 145 km (90 mi), Rome 164 km (102 mi).


Though Perugia is located in the central part of Italy, the city experiences a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa) similar to much of Northern Italy due to its inland location and the diverse, hilly topography of Umbria. Typically, summers are warm to hot and humid, while winters are cold with occasional snowfall. The climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, with adequate rainfall year-round.[32]

Climate data for Perugia (1971–2000, extremes 1967–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 17.3
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 8.9
Daily mean °C (°F) 4.8
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 0.6
Record low °C (°F) −15.8
Average precipitation mm (inches) 52.7
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 7.1 7.1 7.0 8.7 8.4 7.1 4.7 4.9 6.5 7.7 8.4 7.8 85.4
Average relative humidity (%) 83 77 73 74 74 71 68 69 71 76 82 85 75
Source: Servizio Meteorologico (humidity 1968–1990)[33][34][35]
Perugia seen from the national archaeological museum of Umbria


In 2007, there were 163,287 people residing in Perugia, located in the province of Perugia, Umbria, of whom 47.7% were male and 52.3% were female. Minors (children ages 18 and younger) totalled 16.41 percent of the population compared to pensioners who number 21.51 percent. This compares with the Italian average of 18.06 percent (minors) and 19.94 percent (pensioners). The average age of Perugia residents is 44 compared to the Italian average of 42. In the five years between 2002 and 2007, the population of Perugia grew by 7.86 percent, while Italy as a whole grew by 3.85 percent.[36]

As of 2006, 90.84% of the population was Italian. The largest immigrant group came from other European countries (particularly from Albania and Romania): 3.93%, the Americas: 2.01%, and North African: 1.3%. The majority of inhabitants are Roman Catholic.


Perugia today hosts two main universities, the ancient Università degli Studi (University of Perugia) and the Foreigners University (Università per Stranieri). Stranieri serves as an Italian language and culture school for students from all over the world.[37] Other educational institutions are the Perugia Fine Arts Academy "Pietro Vannucci" (founded in 1573), the Perugia Music Conservatory for the study of classical music, and the RAI Public Broadcasting School of Radio-Television Journalism.[38] The city is also host to the Umbra Institute, an accredited university program for American students studying abroad.[39] The Università dei Sapori (University of Tastes), a National centre for Vocational Education and Training in Food, is located in the city as well.[40]


The comune includes the frazioni of Bagnaia, Bosco, Capanne, Casa del Diavolo, Castel del Piano, Cenerente, Civitella Benazzone, Civitella d'Arna, Collestrada, Colle Umberto I, Cordigliano, Colombella, Farneto, Ferro di Cavallo, Fontignano, Fratticiola Selvatica, La Bruna, La Cinella, Lacugnano, Lidarno, Madonna Alta, Migiana di Monte Tezio, Monte Bagnolo, Monte Corneo, Montelaguardia, Monte Petriolo, Mugnano, Olmo, Parlesca, Pianello, Piccione, Pila, Pilonico Materno, Piscille, Ponte della Pietra, Poggio delle Corti, Ponte Felcino, Ponte Pattoli, Ponte Rio, Ponte San Giovanni, Ponte Valleceppi, Prepo, Pretola, Ramazzano-Le Pulci, Rancolfo, Ripa, Sant'Andrea delle Fratte, Sant'Egidio, Sant'Enea, San Fortunato della Collina, San Giovanni del Pantano, Sant'Andrea d'Agliano, Santa Lucia, San Marco, Santa Maria Rossa, San Martino dei Colli, San Martino in Campo, San Martino in Colle, San Sisto, Solfagnano, Villa Pitignano. Other localities are Boneggio, Canneto, Colle della Trinità, Monte Pulito, Montevile, Pieve di Campo, Montemalbe and Monte Morcino.

Collestrada, in the territory of the suburb of Ponte San Giovanni, saw a battle between the inhabitants of Perugia and Assisi in 1202.

Main sights


Secular buildings

Torre degli Sciri
Torre del Cassero di Porta Sant'Angelo

Medieval towers


Modern architecture

Collegio del Cambio


Perugia has had a rich tradition of art and artists. The Early Renaissance painter Pietro Perugino created some of his masterpieces in the Perugia area. The High Renaissance master Raphael was also active in Perugia and painted his famous Oddi Altar there in 1502–04.

Today, the Galleria Nazionale dell'Umbria in Perugia houses a number of masterpieces, including the Madonna with Child and six Angels, which represents the Renaissance Marian art of Duccio. And the private Art collection of Fondazione Cassa di Risparmio di Perugia has two separate locations.

The Collegio del Cambio is an extremely well preserved representation of a Renaissance building and houses a magnificent Pietro Perugino fresco.[44] The newly re-opened Academy of Fine Arts has a small but impressive plaster casts gallery and Perugian paintings and drawings from the 16th century on.[45]


  Umbria Jazz Festival 2008

  International Journalism Festival 2009

    Eurochocolate 2008



A.C. Perugia Calcio play at the 28,000-seater Stadio Renato Curi.

A.C. Perugia Calcio is the main football club in the city, playing in Italy's second-highest division Serie B. The club plays at the 28,000-seat Stadio Renato Curi, named after a former player who died during a match. From 1983 to 2001, the stadium held four matches for the Italy national football team.[50]

Perugia has two water polo teams: L.R.N. Perugia and Gryphus. The team of LRN Perugia is currently in SERIE B (second-highest division) and the Gryphus team is in the SERIE C (the third highest) division. The L.R.N Perugia has also a women's water polo team which is also playing in the division of SERIE B.

Sir Safety Umbria Volley, in English Sir Sicoma Colussi Perugia, is an Italian volleyball club, playing at the top level of the Italian Volleyball League. They won their first Italian championship in 2018. Notable players include Luciano de Cecco of Argentina, Aleksandar Atanasijević of Serbia, and Wilfredo Leon of Poland.

The martial arts in Perugia have been present since the sixties with Chinese techniques, followed by judo. Later there were karate contact (later called kickboxing), karate, taijiquan, jūjutsu, kendo, aikido, taekwondo and, in recent years, krav maga has also arrived.

In 2014 Jessica Scricciolo, under the Ju-Jitsu Sports Group Perugia, won the title of World Champion in the Fighting System speciality, 55 kg. In March 2015 at the World Championship of Greece (J.J.I.F.) Andrea Calzon' (Ju-Jitsu Sports Group Perugia) won the gold medal in the Ne-Waza (U21.56 kg) and a bronze medal in the Fighting System.



An electric tramway operated in Perugia from 1901 until 1940. It was decommissioned in favour of buses, and since 1943 trolley buses – the latter were in service until 1975.

Two elevators were established since 1971:

This was followed by public escalators:

Since 1971 Perugia has taken several measures against car traffic, when the first traffic restriction zone was implemented. These zones were expanded over time and at certain hours of the day driving is forbidden in the city centre. Large parking lots are provided in the lower town, from where the city can be reached via public transport.

Since 2008, an automated people mover called Minimetrò has also been in operation. It has seven stations, with one terminal at a large parking lot, and the other in the city centre.[51]

The main railway station of Perugia: Perugia Fontivegge

Perugia railway station, also known as Perugia Fontivegge, was opened in 1866. It forms part of the Foligno–Terontola railway, which also links Florence with Rome. The station is situated at Piazza Vittorio Veneto, in the heavily populated district of Fontivegge, about 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) southwest of the city centre.

Perugia San Francesco d'Assisi – Umbria International Airport is located 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) outside the city.

From the bus station there has been a daily connection of ITA Airways from 1 December 2022, by bus, to and from Rome Fiumicino Airport, allowing a connection with the airline's hub. [52]

International relations

Twin towns – sister cities

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Italy

Perugia is twinned with:[53]

See also


  1. ^ "Superficie di Comuni Province e Regioni italiane al 9 ottobre 2011". Italian National Institute of Statistics. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  2. ^ Error: Unable to display the reference properly. See the documentation for details.
  3. ^ "Perugia" (US) and "Perugia". Lexico UK English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 2020-03-22.
  4. ^ "Perugia". Collins English Dictionary. HarperCollins. Retrieved 30 May 2019.
  5. ^ "Perugia". Dictionary. Retrieved 30 May 2019.
  6. ^ cf. Perugia, Raffaele Rossi, Pietro Scarpellini, 1993 (Vol. 1, pg. 337, 344)
  7. ^ " appears most probable that he did not enter Perugino's studio till the end of 1499, as during the four or five years before that Perugino was mostly absent from his native city. The so-called Sketch Book of Raphael in the academy of Venice contains studies apparently from the cartoons of some of Perugino's Sistine frescoes, possibly done as practice in drawing." (Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition).
    See also "Perugia". The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Columbia University Press., 2003
  8. ^ The precise role of Raphael in Perugino's works, executed during his apprenticeship, is disputed by scholars. The independent works depicted in Perugia are: the Ansidei Madonna (taken by the French under the terms of the Treaty of Tolentino in 1798), the Deposition by Raphael (Pala Baglioni, this masterpiece was expropriated by Scipione Borghese in 1608, cf. 'The Guardian, October 19, 2004), the Madonna and Child Enthroned with Saints, by Raphael (formerly located in the convent of St Anthony of Padua cf.The Colonna Altarpiece review at Art History Archived 2007-12-19 at the Wayback Machine), the Connestabile Madonna (this picture left Perugia in 1871, when Count Connestabile sold it to the emperor of Russia for £13,200, cf. Encyclopædia Britannica), the Oddi altar by Raphael (requisitioned by the French in 1798)
  9. ^ a b "...some studies for the figure of St. John the Martyr which Raphael used in 1505 in his great fresco in the Church of San Severo at Perugia." (The Notebooks of Leonardo Da Vinci (X)
  10. ^ "COMP Italy Internship Programme | About Perugia". Retrieved 2022-02-23.
  11. ^ a b Perugia (2007). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved May 21, 2007, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online
  12. ^ "How much of his glory is due to his kinsman, Fabius Pictor, the first historian of Rome, or to the family legends, which found in Etruria the most fitting scene for the exploits of the great Fabian house, we cannot tell" (Walter W. How and Henry Devenish Leigh, A History of Rome to the Death of Caesar London: Longmans, Green 1898:112).
  13. ^ Livy ix.37.12).
  14. ^ Livy ix.30.1–2, 31.1–3; indutiae with Volsinii, Perusia and Arretium, ix.37.4–5.
  15. ^ cf. Corpus Inscr. Lat. xi. 1212
  16. ^ Etruscan town walls.
  17. ^ Latin inscriptions at two of the preserved Etruscan gates.
  18. ^ Patrick Amory, People and Identity in Ostrogothic Italy, 489–554 pp185-86, referring to Perugia in passing, notes the increasingly localized role assumed since the mid-fifth century by the bishops.
  19. ^ Procopius, Bellum Gothicum, 3 (7).2.35.2, characteristically does not mention the incident, reported in Gregory the Great, Dialogues, 13 Archived 2009-09-17 at the Wayback Machine, who imagines a seven-year siege (i.e. since 540, before the accession of Baduila) and dramatically reports Herculanus' grotesque murder.
  20. ^ Procopius of Caesarea, Gothic Wars I,16 and III,35.
  21. ^ a b c d cf. Perugia, Raffaele Rossi, Attilio Bartoli Angeli, Roberta Sottani 1993 (Vol. 1, pp. 120–140)
  22. ^ "Avvocato della Signoria cittadina e del Palazzo dei suoi Priori"
  23. ^ Made a cardinal by his uncle, 20 December 1375 (Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church: 14th century)
  24. ^ a b c cf. Touring Club Italiano, Guida d'Italia: Umbria (1966)
  25. ^ "to bring to heel the audacious Perugini".
  26. ^ cf. Chicago Tribune, Jul 18, 1859 Archived November 8, 2012, at the Wayback Machine and "The outrage of the American witnesses in Perugia," Chicago Tribune, Jul 21, 1859 Archived November 8, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  27. ^ "Advance to the Gothic Line". World War II Database. Retrieved 13 May 2014.
  28. ^ Nestlé-Perugina produced in 2005 about 1.5 million Baci a day. Each October, Perugia has an annual chocolate festival called EuroChocolate. In Italy, right in the kisser, The Washington Post, May 29, 2005
  29. ^ "European Industrial Relations Observatory, April 9, 2003". Archived from the original on October 10, 2013. Retrieved 2013-06-08.
  30. ^ [1] Archived September 29, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  31. ^ Lehndorff, John. "Thousands converge on historic city to celebrate everything chocolate Associated Press, October 21, 2002". Archived from the original on 2012-11-02. Retrieved 2013-06-08.
  32. ^ "Perugia, Italy Köppen Climate Classification (Weatherbase)". Weatherbase. Retrieved May 10, 2020.
  33. ^ "Perugia/Sant'Egidio(PG)" (PDF). Atlante climatico. Servizio Meteorologico. Retrieved December 11, 2014.
  34. ^ "STAZIONE 181 PERUGIA: medie mensili periodo 68–90" (in Italian). Servizio Meteorologico. Retrieved December 11, 2014.
  35. ^ "Perugia Sant'Egidio: Record mensili dal 1967" (in Italian). Servizio Meteorologico dell’Aeronautica Militare. Retrieved December 11, 2014.
  36. ^ "Statistiche demografiche ISTAT". Retrieved 2009-05-06.
  37. ^ BBC students diaries March 13, 2007
  38. ^ See Perugia, University Town Archived 2007-09-27 at the Wayback Machine and La Repubblica Università – Italian Journalism recognized schools (in Italian)
  39. ^ "The Umbra Institute".
  40. ^ See the institution educational purposes at the Università dei Sapori official site
  41. ^ A short break in Perugia The Independent – London, June 6, 1999
  42. ^ "Torre degli Sciri - Comune di Perugia - Turismo". Retrieved 2023-10-21.
  43. ^ The Centro Direzionale is mentioned in the Aldo Rossi personal page at the Pritzker Prize official website Archived 2007-05-23 at the Wayback Machine
  44. ^ "Collegio del Cambio". The New York Times Company. Archived from the original on 16 July 2012. Retrieved 20 April 2010.
  45. ^ "The Academy of Fine Arts of Perugia". 20 January 2013. Retrieved 20 January 2013.
  46. ^ "Umbria Jazz".
  47. ^ The Umbrian musical event is hosted in Perugia since the end of World War II NYT, October 18, 1953
  48. ^ "International Journalism Festival".
  49. ^ "Music Fest Perugia".
  50. ^ "Stadio Renato Curi, Perugia, football venue".
  51. ^ "Perugia MiniMetro on". 2008-01-29. Archived from the original on 2010-04-09. Retrieved 2010-04-20.
  52. ^ "ITA Airways con Itabus: Colleghiamo Perugia e Pescara al resto del mondo". Archived from the original on 2022-11-01. Retrieved 2022-11-01.
  53. ^ "Città gemelle". (in Italian). Turismo Perugia. Retrieved 2019-12-16.


Further reading