A Roman colonia (pl.: coloniae) was originally a settlement of Roman citizens, establishing a Roman outpost in federated or conquered territory, for the purpose of securing it. Eventually, however, the term came to denote the highest status of a Roman city. It is also the origin of the modern term "colony".


Under the Roman Republic, which had no standing army, their own citizens were planted in conquered towns as a kind of garrison. There were two types:[1][2]

After 133 BC tribunes introduced reforms to support the urban poor to become farmers again in new colonies as agricultural settlements (e.g. Tarentum in 122 BC).[citation needed]

Under Caesar and in the Imperial era starting from Augustus, thousands of Roman legionary veterans were granted lands in many coloniae in the empire and were responsible for the Romanization of many territories (mainly in the spread of Latin language and of Roman laws and customs).[citation needed]


According to Livy, Rome's first colonies were established in about 752 BC at Antemnae and Crustumerium, both in Latium.[4]

Other early colonies were established at Signia in the 6th century BC, Velitrae and Norba in the 5th century BC, and Ostia, Antium, and Tarracina in the late 4th century. In this first period of colonisation, which lasted down to the end of the Punic Wars, colonies were primarily military in purpose, being intended to defend Roman territory.

The first Roman colony outside Italy was probably Italica in Hispania[5] founded in 206 BC by Publius Cornelius Scipio during the Second Carthaginian War.[6]

In the Empire colonies became large centres for the settlement of army veterans, especially in Roman north Africa which had the largest density of Roman colonies per region in the Roman Empire, where the Italic population constituted more than one third of the total population during the second century AD.[citation needed]

Under the Kingdom

Under the Republic

New bilateral defence contracts with Falerii, Tarquinii (Etruria) Caere (again), Pomptina and Poplilia tribus (tribes) formed in territories of Antium

New Roman municipia made from small towns around Rome: Aricia, Lanuvium, Nomentum, Pedum, Tusculum. Latin ius contracts made with Tibur, Praeneste, Lavinium, Cora (Latium) Ius comercii contracts made with Circei, Notba, Setia, Signia, Nepi, Ardea, Gabii Ius migrationi and ius connubii Ufentina tribus established (on territories of Volscus city Antium), Privernum, Velitrae, Terracia, Fondi and Fotmiae made contract with Rome (cives sine suffragio)

Under the Principate

Colonies were not founded on a large scale until the inception of the Principate. Augustus, who needed to settle over a hundred thousand of his veterans after the end of his civil wars, began a massive colony creation program throughout his empire. However, not all colonies were new cities. Many were created from already-occupied settlements and the process of colonization just expanded them. Some of these colonies would later grow into large cities (modern day Cologne was first founded as a Roman colony). During this time, provincial cities can gain the rank of colony, gaining certain rights and privileges.[7] After the era of the Severan emperors the new "colonies" were only cities that were granted a status (often of tax exemption), and in most cases during the Late Imperial times there was no more settlement of retired legionaries.[citation needed]

Effects and legacy of colonization

Roman colonies sometimes served as a potential reserve of veterans which could be called upon during times of emergency. However, these colonies more importantly served to produce future Roman citizens and therefore recruits to the Roman army.[7]

Roman colonies played a major role in the spread of the Latin language within the central and southern Italian peninsula during the early empire.[8] The colonies showed surrounding native populations an example of Roman life.[9] Since the veterans settled there were usually single until discharge and married local women, colonies tended to become culturally integrated in their surroundings within a few generations.


Modern name Latin name Modern country Roman province Foundation or Promotion Founder or Promotor additional Info
Arles Colonia Iulia Paterna Arelatensis Sextanorum France Gallia Narbonensis 45 BC Julius Caesar
Belgrade Singidunum Serbia Moesia Superior 239 AD founded by Celts c.279 BC, conquered by Romans in 15 BC
Budapest Aquincum Hungary Pannonia 41-54
Carteia Carteia Spain Hispania Ulterior 171 BC Roman Senate
Colchester Colonia Claudia Victricensis Camulodunum United Kingdom Britannia / Britannia Superior / Maxima Caesariensis 49 Claudius
Köln Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium Germany Germania Inferior 50 Claudius
Jerusalem (on the site of) Colonia Aelia Capitolina Hierosoloma Israel and Palestine Judaea After Bar Kokhba's revolt Hadrian
Lincoln Lindum Colonia or Colonia Domitiana Lindensium United Kingdom Britannia / Britannia Inferior / Flavia Caesariensis 71 Domitian
Narbonne Colonia Iulia Paterna Claudius Narbo Martius Decumanorum France Gallia / Gallia Narbonensis 118 BC Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus refounded by Caesar in 45 BC[10]
Patras Colonia Augusta Achaica Patrensis Greece Achaia After the battle of Actium Augustus
Şebinkarahisar Colonia (Κολώνεια) Turkey Bithynia et Pontus 1st century BC Pompey [11]
Colonia Iulia Concordia Apamea Turkey Bithynia-Pontus ca. 45 BC Iulius Caesar
York Eboracum United Kingdom Britannia / Britannia Inferior / Britannia Secunda early 3rd century [12] Caracalla
Mérida Colonia Emerita Augusta Spain Hispania / Lusitania 25 BC Augustus for war veterans of V Alaudae and X Gemina legions
Sarmizegetusa Colonia Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa Romania Dacia 106-110 Trajan
Alba Iulia Apulum Romania Dacia 180-192 [13] Commodus
Cluj Napoca Napoca Romania Dacia 2nd half of 2nd century Commodus
Drobeta-Turnu Severin Drobeta Romania Dacia 198-208 [14] Septimius Severus
Gigen Oescus Bulgaria Moesia Inferior 106-112 Trajan
Ljubljana Colonia Iulia Aemona Slovenia Illyricum 14 or 15 Decree of Augustus, completed by Tiberius On the site of the Legio XV Apollinaris, after it left for Carnuntum
Debelt Colonia Flavia Pancensis Deultum Bulgaria Thracia After the Year of the Four Emperors Vespasian for veterans of VIII Augusta
Qalunya Colonia Amosa or Colonia Emmaus[15] Israel Judaea After 71 Vespasian Might have been Emmaus of the New Testament.[16]
Zaragoza/Saragossa Caesaraugusta Spain Hispania Tarraconensis Between 25 BC and 11 BC[17] Augustus To settle army veterans from the Cantabrian wars.
Augsburg Augusta Vindelicorum Germany Raetia 15 BC [18] Augustus The name means "the Augustan city of the Vindelici" [19]

See also


  1. ^ E.T. Salmon, The Coloniae Maritimae, Athenaeum, N.S.41 (1963) 3-33
  2. ^ A.N. Sherwin-White, The Roman Citizenship, 86
  3. ^ C.G.Severino, Crotone. Da polis a città di Calabria, 1988, p. 29
  4. ^ Livy, Ab urbe condita, 1:11
  5. ^ Livy (25 June 2009). Hannibal's War: Books 21-30. ISBN 978-0-19-955597-0. Archived from the original on 17 February 2023. Retrieved 17 February 2023.
  6. ^ Appian, Iberian Wars 38
  7. ^ a b Nigel., Rodgers (2006). Roman Empire. Dodge, Hazel. London: Lorenz Books. ISBN 0754816028. OCLC 62177842.
  8. ^ "History of Europe - Romans". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2018-07-03.
  9. ^ "Colonia - Livius". www.livius.org. Archived from the original on 2018-07-02. Retrieved 2018-07-02.
  10. ^ "CHRONOLOGIE - Les grandes dates - Narbo Martius" (in French). Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 4 February 2017.
  11. ^ Procopius De Aedificiis 3.4.6-7
  12. ^ "EBORACUM or Eburacum or Eburaco (York) Yorkshire, England". Archived from the original on 10 August 2020. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
  13. ^ "APULUM (Alba Iulia) Romania". Archived from the original on 4 May 2021. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
  14. ^ "DROBETA or Drubeta (Drobeta-Turnu Severin) Romania". Archived from the original on 4 May 2021. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
  15. ^ Khalidi, 1992, p. 309
  16. ^ Conder and Kitchener, 1883, SWP III, p. 40
  17. ^ Sivan, H.; S. Keay; R. Mathisen; DARMC, R.; Talbert, S.; Gillies, J.; Åhlfeldt; J. Becker; T. Elliott. "Places: 246344 (Col. Caesaraugusta)". Pleiades. Archived from the original on 24 December 2014. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
  18. ^ Jecmen, Gregory; Spira, Freyda (2012). Imperial Augsburg: Renaissance Prints and Drawings, 1475-1540. National Gallery of Art (U.S.). p. 25. ISBN 9781848221222.
  19. ^ Tore Janson (2007). A Natural History of Latin. OUP Oxford. p. 169. ISBN 9780191622656.

Further reading