.mw-parser-output .hidden-begin{box-sizing:border-box;width:100%;padding:5px;border:none;font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .hidden-title{font-weight:bold;line-height:1.6;text-align:left}.mw-parser-output .hidden-content{text-align:left}@media all and (max-width:500px){.mw-parser-output .hidden-begin{width:auto!important;clear:none!important;float:none!important))You can help expand this article with text translated from the corresponding article in Italian. (March 2021) Click [show] for important translation instructions. View a machine-translated version of the Italian article. Machine translation, like DeepL or Google Translate, is a useful starting point for translations, but translators must revise errors as necessary and confirm that the translation is accurate, rather than simply copy-pasting machine-translated text into the English Wikipedia. Consider adding a topic to this template: there are already 3,029 articles in the main category, and specifying|topic= will aid in categorization. Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality. If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article. You must provide copyright attribution in the edit summary accompanying your translation by providing an interlanguage link to the source of your translation. A model attribution edit summary is Content in this edit is translated from the existing Italian Wikipedia article at [[:it:Lucera]]; see its history for attribution. You may also add the template ((Translated|it|Lucera)) to the talk page. For more guidance, see Wikipedia:Translation.
Lucera
Coat of arms of Lucera
Location of Lucera in the province of Foggia
Location of Lucera in the province of Foggia
Location of Lucera
Map
Lucera is located in Italy
Lucera
Lucera
Location of Lucera in Italy
Lucera is located in Apulia
Lucera
Lucera
Lucera (Apulia)
Coordinates: 41°30′N 15°20′E / 41.500°N 15.333°E / 41.500; 15.333
CountryItaly
Region Apulia
ProvinceFoggia (FG)
Government
 • MayorGiuseppe Pitta (coalition of municipal lists)
Area
 • Total339.79 km2 (131.19 sq mi)
Elevation219 m (719 ft)
Population
 (June 2012)[3]
 • Total34,243
DemonymLucerini
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
71036
Dialing code0881
Patron saintSt Mary
Saint day16 August
WebsiteOfficial website

Lucera (Lucerino: Lucére) is an Italian city of 34,243 inhabitants in the province of Foggia in the region of Apulia, and the seat of the Diocese of Lucera-Troia.

Located upon a flat knoll in the Tavoliere Plains, near the foot of Daunian Mountains, Lucera was the capital of Province of Capitanata and the County of Molise from 1579 until 1806.

Climate

The city is characterized by a Mediterranean climate, with long, hot summers, with extreme temperature changes during the day, and mild winters, although due to its proximity to the Daunian mountains the temperature can drop to values below 0 °C (32 °F). The winds are quite frequent and, although sometimes quite strong, are usually moderate.

The average annual temperature is around 15 °C (59 °F), and rainfall amounts to an average value of 497 millimetres (19.6 in). Snowfalls are rare.

History

Ancient era and early Middle Ages

Lucera is located in the territory of the ancient tribe of the Daunii. Archeological excavations show the presence of a Bronze Age village inside the city boundaries. Lucera was probably named after either Lucius, a mythical Daunian king, or a temple dedicated to the goddess Lux Cereris. A third possibility is that the city was founded and named by the Etruscans, in which case the name probably means Holy Wood (luc = "wood", eri = "holy").

In 321 BC, the Roman army was deceived into thinking Lucera was under siege by the Samnites. Hurrying to relieve their allies the army walked into an ambush and were defeated at the famous Battle of the Caudine Forks. The Samnites occupied Lucera but were thrown out after a revolt. The city sought Roman protection and in 320 BC was granted the status of Colonia Togata, which meant it was ruled by the Roman Senate. In order to strengthen the ties between the two cities, 2,500 Romans moved to Lucera. From then on, Lucera was known as a steadfast supporter of Rome.

During the civil wars of the late Republic, Pompey set up his headquarters in Lucera, but abandoned the city when Julius Caesar approached. Lucera quickly switched its allegiance and Caesar's clemency spared it from harm. In the next civil war between Octavian and Mark Anthony the city did not escape as lightly. After the war, Octavian settled many veteran soldiers on the lands of the ruined city. This helped Lucera recover quickly and marked an era of renewed prosperity. Many of the surviving Roman landmarks hail from this Augustan period, among them the Luceran amphitheatre.

With the fall of the Western Roman Empire the city of Lucera entered into a state of decline. In 663 AD, it was captured from the Lombards and destroyed by the Eastern Roman Emperor Constans II. A year later in 664 AD, the town was sacked by the Byzantine Empire to ward off Muslim expansion into southern Italy.

Islamic period

Further information: Muslim settlement of Lucera

Lucera Cathedral was converted into a mosque during the brief Muslim settlement of Lucera.

In 1224, Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II, responding to religious uprisings in Sicily, expelled all Muslims from the island, transferring many to Lucera (Lugêrah, as it was known in Arabic) over the next two decades. In this controlled environment, they could not challenge royal authority and they benefited the crown in taxes and military service. Their numbers eventually reached between 15,000 and 20,000, leading Lucera to be called Lucaera Saracenorum because it represented the last stronghold of Islamic presence in Italy. During peacetime, Muslims in Lucera were predominantly farmers. They grew durum wheat, barley, legumes, grapes and other fruits. Muslims also kept bees for honey.[4]

The colony thrived for 75 years until it was sacked in 1300 by Christian forces under the command of Giovanni Pippino di Barletta, with the acquiescence of Charles II of Naples. The majority of the city's Muslim inhabitants were slaughtered or – as happened to almost 10,000 of them – sold into slavery.[5] Their abandoned mosques were demolished, and churches were usually built in their place, including the cathedral of S. Maria della Vittoria.[6] The city and its history of this period find mention in the novel A Sultan in Palermo by Tariq Ali.

After the Muslims were removed from Lucera, Charles tried to settle Christians in the city. Those Muslims that converted to Christianity got part of their property back, but none was restored his former position of political or economic influence. As time progressed, grain production fell in the city, and in 1339 the city was hit by a famine. Christians were allowed to farm as the Muslims.[7]

Hohenstaufen castle.
Amphitheatre of Lucera.

Main sights

Sights in Lucera include:

Economy

The commune of Lucera is home to the Denominazione di origine controllata (DOC) wine of Cacc'e mmitte di Lucera. This red Italian wine is said to have gotten its name from the local dialect referring to the act of pouring a wine from cask to goblet and going back for seconds. The DOC includes 80 hectares (198 acres) of land around the commune with all grapes destined for DOC wine production needing to be harvested to a yield no greater than 14 tonnes/ha. The wine is made primarily (35-60%) from the Uva di Troia grape (known in Lucera under the synonym Sumarello), Montepulciano, Sangiovese and Malvasia nera (the latter three grapes collectively making up between 25-35% of the blend). White wine grape varieties are also permitted in this red wine with Trebbiano Toscano, Bombino bianco and Malvasia del Chianti collectively allowed to account for between 15-30% of the blend. The finished wine must attain a minimum alcohol level of 11.5% in order to be labelled with the Cacc'e mmitte di Lucera DOC designation.[8]

International relations

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Italy

Twin towns – Sister cities

Lucera is twinned with:

See also

References

  1. ^ "Superficie di Comuni Province e Regioni italiane al 9 ottobre 2011". Italian National Institute of Statistics. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  2. ^ "Lucera". Tuttitalia (in Italian).
  3. ^ Population data from Istat
  4. ^ Taylor, p.99
  5. ^ Julie Taylor. Muslims in Medieval Italy: The Colony at Lucera. Lanham, Md.: Lexington Books. 2003. [dead link]
  6. ^ Taylor, p.187
  7. ^ Taylor, pp. 190-194
  8. ^ P. Saunders Wine Label Language pg 131 Firefly Books 2004 ISBN 1-55297-720-X

Sources