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Pompey
Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus
White bust
Born29 September 106 BC
Died28 September 48 BC (aged 57)
Pelusium, Egypt
Cause of deathAssassination
Resting placeAlbanum, Italy
Occupation(s)Military commander and politician
OfficeConsul (70, 55, 52 BC)
Spouses
Children
Parent
RelativesPompeia gens
Military career
Battles/wars
Awards3 Triumphs

Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (Latin: [ˈŋnae̯ʊs pɔmˈpeːi̯ʊs ˈmaŋnʊs]; 29 September 106 BC – 28 September 48 BC), known in English as Pompey /ˈpɒmp/ or Pompey the Great, was a leading Roman general and statesman. He played a significant role in the transformation of Rome from republic to empire. Early in his career, he was a partisan and protégé of the Roman general and dictator Sulla; later, he became the political ally, and finally the enemy, of Julius Caesar.

A member of the senatorial nobility, Pompey entered into a military career while still young. He rose to prominence serving the dictator Sulla as a commander in the civil war of 83–82 BC. Pompey's success as a general while young enabled him to advance directly to his first Roman consulship without following the traditional cursus honorum (the required steps to advance in a political career). He was elected as Roman consul on three occasions (70, 55, 52 BC). He celebrated three Roman triumphs, served as a commander in the Sertorian War, the Third Servile War, the Third Mithridatic War, and in various other military campaigns. Pompey's early success earned him the cognomen Magnus – "the Great" – after his boyhood hero Alexander the Great. His adversaries gave him the nickname adulescentulus carnifex ("teenage butcher") for his ruthlessness.[1]

In 60 BC, Pompey joined Crassus and Caesar in the informal political alliance known as the First Triumvirate, cemented by Pompey's marriage with Caesar's daughter, Julia. After the deaths of Julia and Crassus (in 54 and 53 BC), Pompey switched to the political faction known as the optimates— a conservative faction of the Roman Senate. Pompey and Caesar then began contending for leadership of the Roman state in its entirety, eventually leading to Caesar's Civil War. Pompey was defeated at the Battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC, and he sought refuge in Ptolemaic Egypt, where he was assassinated by the courtiers of Ptolemy XIII.

Early life and career

Reputed statue of Pompey, now held at the Villa Arconati, Bollate, brought from Rome in 1627 by Galeazzo Arconati
Reputed statue of Pompey, now held at the Villa Arconati, Bollate, brought from Rome in 1627 by Galeazzo Arconati

Pompey was born in Picenum on 29 September 106 BC, eldest son of a provincial noble called Gnaeus Pompeius Strabo. Although the dominant family in Picenum, Strabo was the first of his branch to achieve senatorial status in Rome. He completed the traditional cursus honorum, becoming consul in 89 BC, and acquired a reputation for greed, political duplicity, and military ruthlessness. Pompey began his career serving with his father in the Social War (91–87 BC).[2]

Strabo died in 87 BC during the short-lived civil war known as the Bellum Octavianum, although sources differ on whether he succumbed to disease, or was murdered by his own soldiers.[3] Prior to his death, Strabo was accused of embezzlement; as his legal heir, Pompey was held responsible for the alleged crime and put on trial.[4] He was acquitted, supposedly after agreeing to marry the judge's daughter, Antistia.[5]

One of the issues at stake in 87 BC was Sulla's appointment as commander of Roman troops in the First Mithridatic War, an opportunity to amass enormous wealth.[6] During his absence in Asia Minor, political rivals led by Cinna, Carbo and Gaius Marius the Younger regained control of the Roman Senate.[7] His return in 84 BC initiated what is known as Sulla's civil war, during which Pompey raised levies from Picenum in his support.[8]

By 82 BC, Sulla had expelled his opponents from Italy, and engineered his nomination as Dictator by the Senate.[9] Either through admiration of his abilities, or concern at his ambition,[10] Sulla sought to consolidate his alliance with Pompey by persuading him to divorce Antistia, and marry his stepdaughter Aemilia.[11] Plutarch claims she was already pregnant by her former husband, and died in childbirth soon after.[12]

Sicily, Africa and Lepidus' rebellion

The surviving Marians escaped to Sicily, where their ally Marcus Perperna was propraetor. They were supported by a fleet under Carbo, while Ahenobarbus occupied the Roman province of Africa. Perperna abandoned Sicily after Pompey landed on the island with a large force, while Carbo was captured and later executed. Pompey claimed this was justified by Carbo's alleged crimes against Roman citizens, but his opponents nicknamed him adulescentulus carnifex, or "young butcher", as a result.[5]

Roman Province of Africa
Roman Province of Africa

Pompey now sailed for Africa, leaving Sicily in the hands of his brother-in-law, Gaius Memmius.[13] After defeating and killing Ahenobarbus at Utica, Pompey subdued Numidia and executed its king Hiarbas, a Marian ally.[5] Around this time, his troops began referring to him as Magnus, or "the Great", after Alexander the Great, a figure much admired by the Romans. Shortly thereafter, Pompey formally made this part of his name.[14]

On returning to Rome, he asked for a triumph to celebrate his victories, an unprecedented demand for someone so young.[15] Pompey refused to disband his army until Sulla agreed, although the latter tried to offset the impact by awarding simultaneous triumphs to Lucius Murena and Gaius Flaccus.[16] Sometime during this period, Pompey married Mucia Tertia, a member of the powerful Metellus family. They had three children before their divorce in 61 BC; Pompey the younger, usually known as Gnaeus, a daughter, Pompeia Magna, and a younger son, Sextus.[12]

Pompey is located in Italy
Cosa
Cosa
Rome
Rome
Mutina
Mutina
Sardinia
Sardinia
Picenum
Picenum
The Lepidan rebellion; key locations

Pompey supported Marcus Aemilius Lepidus as consul for 78 BC; Plutarch claims he did so against Sulla's advice, but most modern historians refute the idea.[17] When Sulla died in 78 BC, Lepidus sought to block his state funeral and assumed leadership of the populares, then became proconsul of Cisalpine and Transalpine Gaul in January 77 BC.[18] When the Senate ordered him back to Rome, Lepidus refused to comply unless granted another term as consul, a proposal that was rapidly rejected.[19] Assembling an army, he began marching on Rome; the Senate responded with a series of measures, one of which was to appoint Pompey to a military command.[20]

While Lepidus continued south, Pompey raised troops from among his veterans in Picenum, and moved north to besiege Mutina, capital of Cisalpine Gaul. The town was held by Lepidus' ally Marcus Junius Brutus, who surrendered after a lengthy siege, and was assassinated next day, allegedly on Pompey's orders.[21] Catulus then defeated Lepidus outside Rome, while Pompey marched against his rear, catching him near Cosa. Lepidus and the remnants of his army retreated to Sardinia, where he died.[22]

Sertorian War and first consulship

Sertorian War

Main article: Sertorian War

The Sertorian War began in 80 BC when Quintus Sertorius initiated a rebellion in Hispania, where he was joined by other Marian survivors like Perpenna. Supported by local tribes, he took control of Hispania Citerior, then forced Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius out of neighbouring Hispania Ulterior. In order to retrieve the situation, allies in the Senate secured Pompey an appointment as military commander in Spain with proconsular authority. This act was technically illegal as he had yet to hold public office, illustrating Pompey's preference for military glory, and disregard for traditional political constraints.[23]

Pompey recruited 30,000 infantry and 1,000 cavalry, evidence of the threat posed by Sertorius.[24] En route to Hispania, he subdued a rebellion in Gallia Narbonensis, after which his army entered winter quarters near Narbo Martius.[25] In early 76 BC, he crossed the Col de Portet and entered the Iberian peninsula, [26] where he would remain for the next five years. His arrival boosted the morale of Metellus' troops, while some rebel groups changed sides, but he was then defeated by Sertorius at the Battle of Lauron.[27] This was a serious blow to Pompey's prestige, who spent the rest of the year re-organising his army.[28]

Pompey is located in Spain
Col de Portet
Col de Portet
Lauron
Lauron
Valencia
Valencia
Sucro
Sucro
Saguntum
Saguntum
Clunia
Clunia
Italica
Italica
Lusitania
Lusitania
Narbo Martius
Narbo Martius
Vaccaei
Vaccaei
Sertorian War in Spain; key locations mentioned in article

In 75 BC, Sertorius led the campaign against Metellus, while Pompey smashed his subordinates Perpenna and Gaius Herennius outside Valencia.[29] When Sertorius took over operations against Pompey, Metellus defeated his deputy Lucius Hirtuleius was defeated by Metellus at the Battle of Italica.[30] After the indecisive Battle of Sucro,[28][29] Sertorius withdrew inland, then turned to fight at Saguntum, where Pompey lost 6,000 killed, including his brother-in-law Memmius, reputedly his most effective subordinate.[31] Sertorius himself suffered 3,000 casualties, one of whom was Hirtuleius.[32]

Although Metellus defeated Perpenna in a separate battle, Sertorius was able to withdraw to Clunia, where he repaired the walls to lure his opponents into a siege, while forming garrisons from other towns into a new field army. Once this was ready, he escaped from Clunia and used it to disrupt Roman logistics on land and by sea. Lack of supplies forced Metellus to quarter his troops in Gaul, while Pompey wintered among the Vaccaei.[33][34]

Reinforced by two more legions, in 73 BC Metellus joined Pompey and made for the river Ebro, while Sertorius and Perpenna advanced from Lusitania. By now, Sertorius was being undermined by internal divisions, and neither side made much progress over the next two years.[35] In 71 BC, Sertorius was murdered by Perpenna, who was subsequently defeated and executed by Pompey. The latter demonstrated a talent for organisation and lack of animosity towards his former opponents, which extended his patronage throughout Hispania and into southern Gaul.[36]

First Consulship

During Pompey's absence in Hispania from 73 to 71 BC, Crassus was charged with suppressing the slave rebellion led by Spartacus known as the Third Servile War. Pompey returned to Italy just before Crassus defeated the main rebel army, arriving in time to massacre 6,000 fugitives from the battle. His claim to have ended the war by doing so was bitterly resented by Crassus.[37][38]

Aureus minted by Pompey for his second triumph in 71 BC, featuring the head of Africa on the obverse (celebrating his victory against Hiarbas). The reverse shows Pompey in his triumphal chariot, with his son Gnaeus seated before and Victory flying above.[39]
Aureus minted by Pompey for his second triumph in 71 BC, featuring the head of Africa on the obverse (celebrating his victory against Hiarbas). The reverse shows Pompey in his triumphal chariot, with his son Gnaeus seated before and Victory flying above.[39]

Pompey was granted a second triumph for his victory in Hispania, and nominated for the consulship. Since he was both too young and technically ineligible, this required a special senatorial decree.[40] Plutarch suggests Pompey supported Crassus as his co-consul in order to put him under an obligation.[41] The two men were elected consuls for 70 BC, but allegedly differed on almost every measure, rendering their term "politically barren and without achievement."[42]

However, their consulship did see the plebeian tribune recover powers removed by Sulla. One of the most significant was the ability to veto Senatorial bills, an act often seen as a turning point in the politics of the late Republic. Highly popular with the people, the measure must have been opposed by the optimates, and thus passing it required support from both consuls, although most extant sources barely mention Crassus.[40]

Campaign against the pirates

Pirates operated throughout the Mediterranean, while their fleets often formed temporary alliances with enemies of Rome, including Sertorius and Mithridates. Their power and range had increased over the past fifty years, partly because of the decline of traditional naval powers like Rhodes, while previous attempts to subdue them had been unsuccessful.[43] However, Romans routinely referred to their opponents as "pirates" or "brigands", and some historians argue it is more accurate to see them as a conventional enemy, rather than disorganised outlaws.[44]

Principally based in Cilicia, in 68 BC they raided as far as Ostia, Rome's port, and kidnapped two senators, to general outrage.[45] [46] Prompted by Pompey, Aulus Gabinius, tribune of the plebs in 67 BC, proposed the Lex Gabinia, giving him a mandate for their suppression. It granted him proconsular authority for three years in any province within 50 miles of the Mediterranean, along with the power to appoint legates and significant financial resources.[47] Concerned by one man holding such wide-ranging powers, the law was opposed by the Senate, but passed by the tribunate.[48] Most of the difficulties Pompey faced came from officials who resented his authority. In Gaul, Piso hampered his recruitment efforts, while in Crete, Quintus Metellus refused to comply with his instructions.[49]

Pompey spread his forces throughout the Mediterranean to prevent the pirates escaping a Roman fleet by moving elsewhere.[50] Fifteen legates were given specific areas to patrol, while he secured the grain route to Rome. These measures won him control of the western Mediterranean in just 40 days, after which his fleets moved to the east, forcing the pirates back to their bases in Cilicia. Pompey led the decisive assault on their stronghold in Alanya, winning the Battle of Korakesion and concluding the war in only three months.[51]

Most of his opponents surrendered without fighting, thanks to Pompey's reputation for clemency.[35] They were granted lands in cities devastated during the Mithridatic War, notably Soli, renamed Pompeiopolis, and Dyme in Greece, with others sent to towns in Libya and Calabria. These communities retained a strong attachment to both Rome and Pompey.[52][53]

The Third Mithridatic War, and Re-Organisation of the East

Third Mithridatic War

Asia Minor and surrounding region, first century BC
Asia Minor and surrounding region, first century BC

In 73 BC, Lucius Licinius Lucullus, formerly one of Sulla's chief lieutenants, was made proconsul of Cilicia, and commander in the Third Mithridatic War. This began when the last ruler of Bithynia died in 74 BC and left his kingdom to Rome, sparking an invasion by Mithridates VI of Pontus, and Tigranes the Great of Armenia. Lucullus was a skilled general who won numerous victories, but claims he was protracting the war for "power and wealth" led to a Senate investigation, while by 69 BC his troops were weary and mutinous.[54]

In 68 BC, Quintus Marcius Rex replaced Lucullus in Cicilia, while Manius Acilius Glabrio received Bithynia. He also assumed leadership of the war against Mithridates, but failed to respond decisively when the latter re-occupied much of Pontus in 67 BC, then attacked Cappadocia, a Roman ally.[55] Seeing an opportunity, in 66 BC Pompey used the tribunate to pass the lex Manilia, giving him extensive powers throughout Asia Minor in order to defeat Mithridates, in addition to those granted by the lex Gabinia. The optimates were privately horrified that one man should hold so much influence, but fearful of his popularity allowed the measure to pass.[56]

Incensed at being replaced, Lucullus called Pompey a "vulture" who profited from the work of others, a reference both to his new command and claim to have finished the war against Spartacus.[57] Pompey agreed an alliance with Phraates III, king of Parthia, whom he persuaded to invade Armenia. When Mithridates offered a truce, Lucullus argued the war was over, but Pompey demanded concessions which could not be accepted.[58] Outnumbered, Mithridates withdrew into Armenia, followed by Pompey, who defeated him at Lycus near the end of 66 BC.[59][60]

Bust of  Mithridates of Pontus in the Louvre, Paris
Bust of Mithridates of Pontus in the Louvre, Paris

According to contemporary sources, Mithridates and a small contingent escaped the battle, outstripped their pursuers, and reached Colchis on the Black Sea.[61][62] While there, he took control of the Cimmerian Bosporus from its Roman-backed ruler, his son Machares, who later committed suicide.[63] Meanwhile, Pompey invaded Armenia supported by Tigranes the Younger, whose father quickly came to terms; in return for the restoration of Armenian territories taken by Lucullus, he paid a substantial cash indemnity [a] and allowed Roman troops to be based on his territory.

In 65 BC, Pompey set out to take Colchis, but to do so had first to subdue various local tribes and allies of Mithridrates. After winning a series of battles, he reached Phasis and linked up with Servilius, admiral of his Euxine fleet, before a fresh revolt in Caucasian Albania forced him to retrace his steps. Victory at the Abas enabled him to impose terms on the Albanians and agree truces with other tribes on the northern side of the Caucasus.[64] Pompey then wintered in Armenia, settling minor border contests and raids between his allies Phraates and Tigranes.[65]

Relying on his naval blockade to wear down Mithridates, Pompey spent 64 BC annexing the independent and wealthy cities of Syria, which were incorporated into a new Roman province. In the process, he acquired large amounts of money and prestige, as well as criticism from his opponents in Rome, who argued doing so exceeded his authority. Meanwhile, an ageing Mithridates had been cornered in Panticapaeum by another of his sons, Pharnaces II of Pontus. An attempt to commit suicide by taking poison allegedly failed due to his habit of taking "precautionary antidotes", and he was killed by the rebels. Pharnaces sent his embalmed body to Pompey, in return for which he was granted the Bosporan Kingdom and made an ally of Rome.[66]

Re-organisation of the East

The final collapse of the Seleucid Empire allowed Pompey to annex Syria in 64 BC, but its dissolution destabilised the region, while many of its cities had used the power vacuum to achieve independence.[67] In early 63 BC, Pompey left Antioch and marched south, occupying coastal cities like Apamea, before crossing the Anti-Lebanon Mountains and capturing Pella, Jordan and Damascus.[68]

Judea (blue) in 63 BC, after losing the Decapolis (red) to the north
Judea (blue) in 63 BC, after losing the Decapolis (red) to the north

Further south, Judea was disrupted by the Hasmonean Civil War, in which Pompey backed Hyrcanus II over his brother Aristobulus II. When he compelled the latter to surrender Jerusalem, its defenders took refuge in the Temple, which the Romans first stormed, then looted. Judea became a client kingdom ruled by Hyrcanus, while its northern section was incorporated into the Decapolis, a league of semi-autonomous cities (see Map). Both Judea and the League were made subordinate to the new province of Syria.[69]

Other organisational changes included creating the province of Bithynia and Pontus, with the rest of Mithridates' territories distributed among Roman allies. Elsewhere, Ariobarzanes I of Cappadocia was restored to his throne, while Lesser Armenia was taken from Tigranes and incorporated into Galatia, with Pompey's client Deiotarus becoming ruler of the new kingdom. Finally, Cilicia received the coastal region of Pamphylia, previously a centre of piracy, along with other inland areas and reorganised into six parts.[b] These actions significantly increased Roman state income and presented Pompey with multiple opportunities to increase his personal wealth and patronage base.[70]

Return to Rome and the First Triumvirate

Denarius minted in 56 BC by Pompey's supporter Faustus Sulla[c][71][72]
Denarius minted in 56 BC by Pompey's supporter Faustus Sulla[c][71][72]

Before his return to Italy in 62 BC, Pompey paid his troops bonuses totalling around 16,000 talents, [73] [d] but despite fears he intended to follow Sulla's example, they were dismissed upon arrival at Brundisium.[74] His journey to Rome drew huge crowds wherever he stopped, showing that although opinion in the Senate was divided, Pompey remained as popular as ever with the masses. He was awarded a third triumph for his achievements in Asia Minor, celebrated on his 45th birthday in 61 BC.[75]

Pompey claimed the new provinces established in the East had increased annual state income from 200 million to 340 million sesterces, plus an additional payment of 480 million sesterces to the treasury.[76] He refused to provide details of his personal fortune, but given the amounts declared publicly, this must have been enormous. Some of it was used to build one of the most famous structures of Ancient Rome, the Theatre of Pompey.[77]

However, the Senate then refused to ratify the treaties agreed by Pompey as part of his settlement of the East. Opposition was led by the optimates Cato the Younger and Metellus Celer, whose sister Mucia had recently been divorced by Pompey, for reasons still disputed.[78] [e] They also defeated a bill to distribute farmland to his veterans, and landless members of the urban poor. A similar measure had been rejected in 63 BC, which arguably made the Senate over confident in their ability to control popular unrest.[80]

The First Triumvirate; left to right, Caesar , Crassus, and Pompey
The First Triumvirate; left to right, Caesar , Crassus, and Pompey

Although Pompey could not overcome optimate opposition on his own, the situation changed when Marius' nephew Julius Caesar sought his endorsement for the consulship in 59 BC. A skilled, unscrupulous, and ambitious politician, an alliance allowed Caesar to harness Pompey's influence with the urban electorate.[81] With additional support from Crassus, Caesar became one of the two consuls for 59 BC, the other being the optimate Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus. This meant Caesar could help pass legislation sponsored by Pompey and Crassus, while it was in his interest to keep them aligned, an important factor given the rivalry between his two patrons.[82]

Despite appearing to be the most junior, Caesar thus became central to the First Triumvirate, an informal political alliance designed to counter-balance the optimates. Pompey's influence was based on his reputation as a military commander, and popularity with the Roman people.[83] Crassus' wealth allowed him to construct extensive patronage networks, but he lacked the military clout essential for political success in the late Republican era.[84]

Marcus Tullius Cicero, leader of optimate opposition to the triumvirate who became an ally of Pompey
Marcus Tullius Cicero, leader of optimate opposition to the triumvirate who became an ally of Pompey

Once elected, Caesar secured the passage of a new agrarian bill, helped by Pompey's veterans, who filled the streets of Rome and allegedly intimidated the Senate. When Bibulus opposed the measure, he was attacked in the forum, and spent the rest of his consulship under virtual house arrest.[85] Caesar then ensured ratification of Pompey's settlements in the east, while the Lex Vatinia made him governor of Gallia Cisalpina and Illyricum. He was also assigned Gallia Transalpina after its governor died in office, before leaving Rome to launch the Gallic Wars in 58 BC. His alliance with Pompey was strengthened when the latter married Caesar's daughter Julia.[78]

Senatorial opposition to the triumvirate was led by Cicero, a long-standing Pompeian ally. Despite this, the latter supported the populist politician Publius Clodius Pulcher in an attack on Cicero for executing Roman citizens without trial during the Catilinarian conspiracy.[86] Although Clodius succeeded in having Cicero exiled, he was recalled to Rome by Pompey eighteen months later in 58 BC.[87] As a result, when shortages of grain caused popular unrest in 57 BC, a grateful Cicero backed Pompey's appointment as praefectus annonae, a temporary position set up for such occasions.[87]

Pompey and Crassus were competing for command of a new expedition to Asia Minor, and in 56 BC they met with Caesar to resolve these issues. Although Crassus was a long-standing rival, there are also indications Pompey felt his status as the foremost soldier of the Republic was threatened by Caesar's success in Gaul.[88] With this in mind, Pompey set aside his differences with Crassus to promote their joint candidature as consuls for 55 BC. With Caesar's support, they were duly elected after prolonged periods of the violence which had become a feature of Roman political campaigns.[89]

Once in office, they ensured passage of a law giving Crassus the province of Syria and command of a punitive expedition against Parthia, providing him opportunities for both military glory and loot. Pompey was assigned the restive provinces of Hispania, along with Africa, while Caesar's governorships in Gaul were extended. All three men were given these positions for a period of five years, as well as the right to levy troops and "make peace and war with whomsoever they pleased."[89]

From confrontation to civil war

The Roman Empire and satellite states, prior to the outbreak of civil war c. 49 BC
The Roman Empire and satellite states, prior to the outbreak of civil war c. 49 BC

In 54 BC, Caesar continued his conquest of Gaul, Crassus opened his campaign against the Parthians, and Pompey remained in Rome, where his wife Julia died in child birth in September. Contemporary sources suggest that combined with the death of Crassus and his son Publius at Carrhae in May 53 BC, this removed any obstacle to direct confrontation between Caesar and Pompey.[90][91] [f]

Consular elections in 52 BC had to be suspended due to widespread violence. Seeking to end his alliance with Caesar, the optimate Bibulus proposed Pompey be elected sole consul, an unprecedented act backed by both Cato and the tribunate.[93] Having restored order, Pompey married Cornelia, widow of Publius Crassus and daughter of Metellus Scipio Nasica, whom he appointed as his colleague for the last five months of the year.[94]

As consul, Pompey helped enact legislation which some historians view as crucial to understanding the drift to war in 49 BC. Accused of using violence during his consulship in 59 BC, Caesar had previously been shielded by his proconsular immunity. With private support from Pompey, new laws made such prosecutions retrospective, which meant Caesar would probably be put on trial the moment he left Gaul and lost his Imperium.[95] To avoid this, he had secured approval to stand for the consulship in 48 BC while still in Gaul, but another law backed by Pompey required electoral candidates to be physically present in Rome.[96]

Although the two continued to co-operate in public,[97] Pompey clearly viewed his colleague as a threat, as did much of the Senate. Both consuls for 50 BC, Paullus and Gaius Claudius, were opponents of Caesar, as was Curio, a plebeian tribune. They initiated legislation to remove Caesar from his command in Gaul, who allegedly bypassed this by bribing Paullus and Curio.[98] For whatever reason, Curio came up with an alternative proposal; Caesar and Pompey should disarm at the same time, or be declared enemies of the state.[99]

Bust of Pompey the Great c. 27 BC – 14 AD, copy of original 70 to 60 BC
Bust of Pompey the Great c. 27 BC – 14 AD, copy of original 70 to 60 BC

This was a clever move, since it was popular with those who wanted to avoid war, but unacceptable to the optimates who saw Caesar as a danger that had to be eliminated.[100] Rejection made open conflict more likely, and the Senate agreed to fund a consular army, organised by Pompey. When he fell ill while recruiting in Naples, the celebrations that followed his recovery allegedly convinced Pompey his popularity was sufficient to see off any opponent.[89] In December, Caesar crossed the Alps with a single veteran legion and arrived at Ravenna, close to the border with the Roman Republic.[101] [g]

A significant number of senators opposed any concessions to Caesar, but many also mistrusted Pompey, who has been criticised for "weak and ineffectual leadership" in this period.[102] On 1 January 49 BC, Caesar sent an ultimatum demanding acceptance of his compromise, failing which he would march on Rome "to avenge his country's wrongs". Confident their forces significantly outnumbered those available to Caesar, on 7 January the Senate declared him a public enemy; four days later, he crossed the Rubicon into Italy.[101]

The Road to Pharsalus

Main article: Caesar's civil war

When the war began, Caesar was a rebel with no navy and three understrength legions, while Pompey was backed by all the resources of the Roman state and his clients in the East.[103] However, his position was weaker than it seemed, since he was simply an advisor to the Senate, many of whose members either preferred a negotiated solution, or regarded him with as much suspicion as Caesar. His military strategy had to be approved by the consuls, and he could only issue recommendations, which were not always followed. For example, Cicero rejected a request to help him with recruitment, and Cato refused to take command of Sicily, vital for control of Rome's grain supply.[104]

The Flight of Pompey after Pharsalus, by Jean Fouquet
The Flight of Pompey after Pharsalus, by Jean Fouquet

Plans to defend Italy were undone by the speed with which Caesar moved, advancing directly on Rome with minimal resistance. Although outnumbered, his troops were experienced veterans, while many of Pompey's were new recruits, a weakness made worse by lack of co-ordination. Cato's brother-in-law, the optimate leader Lucius Domitius, was cut off and captured in a hopeless defence of Corfinium, and his 13,000 men incorporated into Caesar's army.[104] Led by Asinius Pollio, they were later used to occupy Sicily.[105]

Pompey had abandoned Rome, ordering all senators and public officials to accompany him as he withdrew south to Brundisium. From there, he transported his troops across the Adriatic to Dyrrhachium in Thessaly, an operation performed with almost complete success.[106] Lacking ships to pursue him, Caesar first secured his rear by subduing Pompeian forces in Hispania, before returning to Rome in December 49 BC. This gave Pompey time to build an army nearly twice the size of his opponents, while his navy destroyed two fleets being built for Caesar, ensuring the Pompeians retained control of the sea lanes.[107]

Despite this, in January 48 BC Caesar managed to cross the Adriatic and land in southern Albania.[108] After capturing Oricum and Apollonia, he advanced on Pompey's main supply base at Dyrrhachium. The latter arrived in time to block the attempt, and establish a fortified camp on the other side of the River Apus, where the two armies remained until spring.[h] Neither commander was anxious to begin hostilities, since Caesar was too weak militarily, while as with Mithridates, Pompey preferred to starve his opponent into submission.[109]

The Pharsalus campaign, 48 BC
The Pharsalus campaign, 48 BC

In April, reinforcements under Mark Antony reached Caesar, but he still lacked the siege equipment needed to take Dyrrhachium, and could not risk leaving Pompey in his rear. Although the latter had enough food, water was scarce because Caesar had dammed the local rivers, and the Pompeian cavalry lacked forage for their horses. Ending the stalemate became a matter of urgency, and in late July Pompey finally managed to break through part of Caesar's defensive lines. Since this made the blockade pointless, Caesar cut his losses and withdrew to Apollonia.[109]

At this point, reinforcements from Syria arrived in Thesssaly led by Pompey's subordinate Metellus Scipio. Caesar moved south to confront this threat and link up with his deputy Gnaeus Domitius Calvinus, allowing his men to sack Gomphi en route. Pursued by Pompey, he then withdrew to the area near Pharsalus, but failed to tempt Pompey into giving battle.[110][i] Although it was later claimed Pompey only did so after being pressured by his subordinates, the delay may simply have been a reflection of his natural caution.[111]

Regardless, Pompey's army of around 38,000 outnumbered the 22,000 men commanded by Caesar, with 7,000 cavalry to 1,000.[112] On 9 August he deployed his men in battle formation, planning to use his superior cavalry to outflank his opponent on his left. Caesar had anticipated this, and repulsed the cavalry which fled in confusion, exposing the infantry behind them. Under pressure from the left and in front, the Pompeian army collapsed.[113]

Death

Death of Pompey Magnus; 18th century engraving
Death of Pompey Magnus; 18th century engraving

Pompey escaped from the battlefield and made his way to Mytilene, where he was reunited with his wife Cornelia. Most of his Eastern allies were present at Pharsalus, and had either been killed or captured. The main absentee was 14 year old Ptolemy XIII, ruler of the wealthy and strategically important kingdom of Egypt, making it an obvious destination. Cato announced his intention to continue the war from Africa, although most of his senatorial colleagues, including Cicero and Marcus Junius Brutus, made their peace with Caesar, and returned to Rome.[114]

Pompey sailed from Cyprus with a small fleet, and on 28 September 48 BC arrived at Pelusium in Egypt, where Ptolemy was engaged in a bitter civil war with his co-ruler and elder sister, Cleopatra VII. When he went ashore to greet an official delegation, Pompey was killed by Lucius Septimius, a Roman officer and former colleague serving in the Egyptian army. His body was cremated by two servants, while the head was kept as evidence.[115]

One explanation for the assassination is that Ptolemy's advisors believed Pompey planned to take advantage of the civil war to seize control of Egypt for himself. These fears were heightened because many Egyptian army officers were Roman mercenaries like Septimius who had previously served under Pompey, and killing Caesar's rival seemed an easy way to win his support against Cleopatra.[116] In the event, Caesar backed his sister, while Pompey's head was returned to Cornelia for burial at his villa in the Alban Hills. News of his ignominious death prompted Cicero to write that "his life outlasted his power".[115]

Generalship

Pompey's military glory was second to none for two decades, yet his skills were occasionally criticized by some of his contemporaries. Sertorius or Lucullus, for instance, were especially critical.[117] Pompey's tactics were usually efficient, albeit not particularly innovative or imaginative, and they could prove insufficient against greater tacticians. However, Pharsalus was his only decisive defeat.[118] At times, he was reluctant to risk an open battle. While not extremely charismatic, Pompey could display tremendous bravery and fighting skills on the battlefield, which inspired his men.[118] While being a superb commander, Pompey also earned a reputation for stealing other generals' victories.[119]

On the other hand, Pompey is usually considered an outstanding strategist and organizer, who could win campaigns without displaying genius on the battlefield, but simply by constantly outmaneuvering his opponents and gradually pushing them into a desperate situation.[118] Pompey was a great forward planner, and had tremendous organizational skill, which allowed him to devise grand strategies and operate effectively with large armies.[120] During his campaigns in the east, he relentlessly pursued his enemies, choosing the ground for his battles.[121][122]

Above all, he was often able to adapt to his enemies. On many occasions, he acted very swiftly and decisively, as he did during his campaigns in Sicily and Africa, or against the Cilician pirates. During the Sertorian war, on the other hand, Pompey was beaten several times by Sertorius. Therefore, he decided to resort to a war of attrition, in which he would avoid open battles against his chief opponent but instead try to gradually regain the strategic advantage by capturing his fortresses and cities and defeating his junior officers.[118] In some instances, Sertorius showed up and forced Pompey to abandon a siege, only to see him strike somewhere else.[123] This strategy was not spectacular, but it led to constant territorial gains and did much to demoralize the Sertorian forces. By 72 BC, the year of his assassination, Sertorius was already in a desperate situation and his troops were deserting. Against Perpenna, a tactician far inferior to his former commander-in-chief, Pompey decided to revert to a more aggressive strategy and he scored a decisive victory that effectively ended the war.

Against Caesar too, his strategy was sound. During the campaign in Greece, he managed to regain the initiative, join his forces to that of Metellus Scipio (something that Caesar wanted to avoid) and trap his enemy. His strategic position was hence much better than that of Caesar and he could have starved Caesar's army to death.[120] However, he was finally compelled to fight an open battle by his allies, and his conventional tactics proved no match to those of Caesar (who also commanded the more experienced troops).

Later portrayals and reputation

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The head of Pompey on a denarius minted in 40 BC by his son Sextus Pompeius Magnus Pius
The head of Pompey on a denarius minted in 40 BC by his son Sextus Pompeius Magnus Pius

For the historians of his own and later Roman periods, Pompey fit the trope of the great man who achieved extraordinary triumphs through his own efforts, yet fell from power and was, in the end, murdered through treachery.

He was a hero of the Republic, who once seemed to hold the Roman world in his palm, only to be brought low by Caesar. Pompey was idealized as a tragic hero almost immediately after Pharsalus and his murder.

Plutarch portrayed Pompey as a Roman Alexander the Great, pure of heart and mind, destroyed by the cynical ambitions of those around him. This portrayal of him survived into the Renaissance and Baroque periods, for example, in Pierre Corneille's play The Death of Pompey (1642).

Despite his war against Caesar, Pompey was still widely celebrated during the imperial period as the conqueror of the Orient. For example, pictures of Pompey were carried at Augustus' funeral procession. And, as a triumphator, he had numerous statues in Rome, one of which was on the forum of Augustus. Although the imperial power did not honour Pompey as much as it did his arch enemy, who was considered a god, his reputation among many aristocrats and historians was equal, or even superior, to that of Caesar.[124]

In popular culture

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Comics

Films and theater

Literature

Television

Chronology of Pompey's life and career

Footnotes

  1. ^ Reportedly 6,000 talents for Pompey, with tribunes getting 10,000 drachmas each, centurions 1,000, and enlisted men 50
  2. ^ These were; Cilicia Aspera, Cilicia Campestris, Pamphylia, Pisidia, Isauria, Lycaonia, and Phrygia
  3. ^ The three wreaths on the reverse refer to the three triumphs of Pompey; the top wreath is the corona aurea he received in 62; the globe in the center is a copy of the one paraded during the third triumph; the aplustre on the lower left alludes to his victory against the pirates
  4. ^ A Roman talent was roughly 32 kilograms of gold, making this distribution worth over $32 billion using 2023 prices
  5. ^ The divorce may also have been a factor in the defection of Metellus Nepos, previously one of Pompey's main supporters, although the Metelli had their own political ambitions.[79]
  6. ^ Historian Florus wrote "Pompey could not brook an equal, or Caesar a superior."[92]
  7. ^ Now in Northern Italy, Ravenna was then a federated ally of the Roman Republic
  8. ^ Pompey was based at Petra,[109] a small port north of Dyrrhachium, roughly on the site of modern Shkëmbi i Kavajës in Albania
  9. ^ The exact location of the battle is still disputed

References

  1. ^ Leach, John. Pompey the Great. p. 29.
  2. ^ Leach 1978, p. 13.
  3. ^ Collins 1953, p. 98.
  4. ^ Beesley 1892, pp. 167–170.
  5. ^ a b c Collins 1953, p. 100.
  6. ^ Beard 2015, pp. 241–242.
  7. ^ Boak 1921, pp. 145–146.
  8. ^ Beard 2015, p. 272.
  9. ^ Beard 2015, p. 245.
  10. ^ Haley 1985, p. 49.
  11. ^ Collins 1953, p. 99.
  12. ^ a b Haley 1985, p. 50.
  13. ^ Leach 1978, p. 30.
  14. ^ Gray.
  15. ^ Seager 2002, p. 28.
  16. ^ Leach 1978, pp. 31–32.
  17. ^ Rosenblitt 2014, pp. 415=416.
  18. ^ Collins 1953, p. 101.
  19. ^ Gruen 1995, p. 15.
  20. ^ Gruen 1995, p. 16.
  21. ^ Leach 1978, p. 42.
  22. ^ Leach 1978, pp. 41–43.
  23. ^ Holland 2004, pp. 141–142.
  24. ^ Leach 1978, p. 44.
  25. ^ Leach 1978, p. 45.
  26. ^ Leach 1978, p. 46.
  27. ^ Appian, Bellum Civile, 1.109
  28. ^ a b Plutarch, Life of Sertorius, p. 18
  29. ^ a b Plutarch, Life of Pompey, p. 18
  30. ^ Matyszak 2013, p. 118.
  31. ^ Matyszak 2013, p. 126.
  32. ^ Appian, Bellum Civile, 1.110
  33. ^ Plutarch, Parallel Lives, Life of Pompey, 18-20.1
  34. ^ Plutarch, Life of Sertorius, pp. 19-21
  35. ^ a b Collins 1953, p. 102.
  36. ^ Holland 2004, p. 142.
  37. ^ Plutarch, Life of Crassus, 11.7
  38. ^ Plutarch, Life of Pompey, 21.2
  39. ^ Crawford, Roman Republican Coinage, pp. 412, 413.
  40. ^ a b Livy, Periochae, 97.6
  41. ^ Plutarch, Life of Crassus, 12.1
  42. ^ Plutarch, Life of Crassus, 12.2
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  53. ^ Seager 2002, pp. 47–48.
  54. ^ Plutarch, Parallel Lives, Life of Lucullus, pp. 33-35.
  55. ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History, 36.14.4, 17.1.
  56. ^ Plutarch, Parallel Lives, Life of Pompey, 30.1-5.
  57. ^ Greenhalg 1981, p. 107.
  58. ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History, 36.45-46.
  59. ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History, 36.47.
  60. ^ Plutarch, Parallel Lives, Life of Pompey, 32.1-3.
  61. ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History, 36.48-50.
  62. ^ Plutarch, Parallel Lives, Life of Pompey, 32.3-7.
  63. ^ Appian, The Mithridatic Wars, pp. 101-102.
  64. ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History, 36.54, 37.2-5.1
  65. ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History, 37.5.2-5,6.
  66. ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History, 37.11-14.2.
  67. ^ Leach 1978, p. 93.
  68. ^ Leach 1978, p. 96.
  69. ^ Josephus, Jewish Antiquities, 14.54.79
  70. ^ Morrill 2017, pp. 57–97.
  71. ^ Crawford, Roman Republican Coinage, pp. 449–451, though he only links the aplustre with Pompey's cura annonae of 57.
  72. ^ de Souza, Piracy, p. 174.
  73. ^ Leach 1978, p. 101.
  74. ^ Mitchell 1973, p. 1.
  75. ^ Beard 2015, p. 273.
  76. ^ Leach 1978, p. 118.
  77. ^ Kuritz 1987, p. 48.
  78. ^ a b Haley 1985, p. 53.
  79. ^ Mitchell 1973, p. 6.
  80. ^ Mitchell 1973, p. 2.
  81. ^ Mitchell 1973, p. 3.
  82. ^ Leach 1978, pp. 120–121.
  83. ^ Mitchell 1973, p. 17.
  84. ^ Beard 2015, p. 275.
  85. ^ Beard 2015, p. 282.
  86. ^ Holland 2004, pp. 238–239.
  87. ^ a b Holland 2004, p. 254.
  88. ^ Goldsworthy 2006, p. 253.
  89. ^ a b c Collins 1953, p. 104.
  90. ^ Plutarch, Parallel Lives, Life of Caesar, 23.5-6
  91. ^ Life of Pompey, 53.4-6
  92. ^ Florus, Epitome of Roman History, 2.13.14
  93. ^ Ramsey 2016, pp. 307–308.
  94. ^ Ramsey 2016, p. 299.
  95. ^ Stanton 2003, p. 73.
  96. ^ Stanton 2003, p. 75.
  97. ^ Stanton 2003, p. 67.
  98. ^ Drogula 2019, p. 240.
  99. ^ Drogula 2019, pp. 241–242.
  100. ^ Drogula 2019, p. 243.
  101. ^ a b Wylle 1992, p. 558.
  102. ^ Wylle 1992, pp. 557–558.
  103. ^ Wylle 1992, p. 557.
  104. ^ a b Wylle 1992, pp. 558–559.
  105. ^ Leach 1978, p. 183.
  106. ^ Leach 1978, pp. 173–185.
  107. ^ Wylle 1992, p. 559.
  108. ^ Boak 1921, p. 176.
  109. ^ a b c Wylle 1992, p. 560.
  110. ^ Wylle 1992, p. 561.
  111. ^ Wylle 1992, p. 562.
  112. ^ Keppie 1984, p. 109.
  113. ^ Wylle 1992, p. 563.
  114. ^ Holland 2003, p. 323.
  115. ^ a b Beard 2015, p. 290.
  116. ^ Holland 2003, p. 327.
  117. ^ Plutarch, Life of Sertorius and Life of Lucullus
  118. ^ a b c d John Leach, Pompey the Great
  119. ^ Brice, p. 145
  120. ^ a b Si Sheppard, Pharsalus
  121. ^ History of the Ancient & Medieval World Vol. 6 (Revised ed.). Tarrytown, NY: Marshall Cavendish Corporation. 1996. p. 731. ISBN 0761403574.
  122. ^ Hazel, John (2001). Who's Who in the Roman World (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group. pp. 247–248. ISBN 0415224101.
  123. ^ Appian, Bellum Civile
  124. ^ Teyssier, Éric, Pompey
  125. ^ Goldsworthy, Adrian (2004). In the name of Rome (3rd impr. ed.). London: Orion. p. 174. ISBN 978-0753817896.
  126. ^ a b Goldsworthy, Adrian (2004). In the name of Rome (3rd impr. ed.). London: Orion. p. 179. ISBN 978-0753817896.
  127. ^ Goldsworthy, Adrian (2004). In the name of Rome (3rd impr. ed.). London: Orion. pp. 180, 181. ISBN 978-0753817896.
  128. ^ Abbott, p. 114
  129. ^ Juvenal, Satire X, p. 283

Sources

Bibliography

Secondary sources