Cheung Po Tsai
Cheung Po (張保)
|Died||1822 (aged 38–39)|
|Occupation(s)||Qing naval officer, former pirate|
|Known for||well known Chinese pirate|
|Criminal penalty||death penalty|
|Parent(s)||Cheng I (adoptive father) |
Ching Shih (former adoptive mother)
|Nickname||Cheung Po Tsai|
|Allegiance||Red Flag Fleet|
|Base of operations||South China Sea|
|Commands||Red Flag Fleet|
|Battles/wars||Battle of the Tiger's Mouth |
Naval Battle of Chek Lap Kok
|Later work||naval officer of Qing dynasty (1810–1822)|
|Cheung Po Tsai|
|Literal meaning||Cheung Po the Kid|
Cheung Po Tsai (Chinese: 張保仔; born Cheung Po; 1783–1822) was a navy colonel of the Qing dynasty and former pirate. "Cheung Po Tsai" literally means "Cheung Po the Kid". He was known to the Portuguese Navy as Quan Apon Chay during the Battle of the Tiger's Mouth.
Cheung Po (Chinese: 張保) was born in 1783. He was a son of a Tanka fisherman who lived in Xinhui of Jiangmen.
Around 1798, he was abducted at age 15 by the pirate Cheng I (Chinese: 鄭一), who pressed him into piracy.
His natural talent helped him adapt to his unplanned new career and he rose through the ranks swiftly. Cheung Po Tsai was later adopted by Cheng I and Ching I Sao (Chinese: 鄭一嫂); "wife of Cheng I"; married 1801) as their step-son, making him Cheng's legal heir.
Cheung Po Tsai's piracy mate and lieutenant was Cai Qian (Chinese: 蔡牽) and the two worked together. Cai Qian had strong connections to the Western weapon dealers as his wife Lu Shi (simplified Chinese: 吕氏; traditional Chinese: 呂氏; "Mrs. Lu"), best known by her nickname Cai Qian Ma (Chinese: 蔡牽媽; "wife of Cai Qian"), was fluent in English and was an expert in Western weaponry.
After Cheng I died suddenly in Vietnam on 16 November 1807, his widow Ching Shih acted quickly to solidify the partnership with her step-son Cheung Po Tsai. Their first success came when they were able to secure the loyalty of Cheng's relatives, who were leaders in the fleet. They became lovers within weeks.
As Ching Shih's second-in-command, Cheung Po Tsai was active along the Guangdong coastal area during the Qing dynasty. Their followers were said to have reached 50,000+ and his fleet said to have possessed 600 ships.
The tide began to turn in 1809. The authorities managed to discover that Cai Qian was docked in the coastal town of Wuzhen, Zhejiang province. The new naval leaders, Wang Delu and Qiu Lianggong, blockaded him into the port and attacked, sinking Cai Qian's ship and killing him.
Main article: Battle of the Tiger's Mouth
In September and November 1809, Cheung Po Tsai's pirate fleet suffered a series of defeats inflicted by the Portuguese Navy at the Battle of the Tiger's Mouth.
Main article: Naval Battle of Chek Lap Kok
On 20 April 1810 at Furongsha in Guangdong, Cheung Po Tsai formally delivered his fleet and weapons, which now numbered about 280 ships, 2,000 guns and over 25,000 men. The Portuguese claimed naught, while the governor of Guangdong Zhang Bailingaccepted his surrender.
Cheung and Ching accepted an amnesty offered by the Qing government, ending their career and allowed to keep the loot. Cheung Po Tsai reverted to his former name. Afterwards, he was capitulated to the Qing dynasty government and became a captain in the Qing's Guangdong navy, receiving the rank of navy colonel. He was given a command of a total of 30 ships, allowed to retain 30 private fleets, and an appointment in Penghu. He would spend the rest of his life helping the government to fight other pirates.
Cheung Po and Ching Shih were later married with Governor Bailing as witness.
Cheung Po would make future formal visits to the Leal Senado of Macau to meet several of the Portuguese officers who present at the fighting, among them was Gonçalves Carocha.
In 1813, Ching Shih gave birth to his son, Cheung Yu Lin. She would later have a daughter who was born at an unknown date.
After Cheung Po died at sea in 1822 at age 39, his widow moved the family to Macau and there she opened a gambling house and was involved in the salt trade.
Several places in Hong Kong are linked to Cheung Po Tsai: