A later (1933) interpretation of Ganj-i-Sawai. The ship is inaccurately depicted as an East Indiaman.
OrderedIn 1614 by Empress Mariam-uz-Zamani[1]
Launched1616 AD
Completed1616 AD
Maiden voyage1617 AD
Out of service1695 AD
FateSeized by pirates
General characteristics
TypeGhanjah sailing ship
Displacement1500[2] to 1600 tons[3][4]
Complement1100–1300 total, 400–500 of which were soldiers[5]
Armament40–80 guns[5]/ 800 guns[6][7][8]

The Ganj-i-Sawai (Persian/Hindustani: گنج سواہی, Ganj-i-Sawai, in English "Exceeding Treasure", often anglicized as Gunsway) was an armed Ghanjah dhow (trading ship) belonging to the Mughals. During Aurangzeb's reign, it was captured on 7 September 1695 by the English pirate Henry Every en route from present-day Mocha, Yemen to Surat, India. It was built on the order of Empress Mariam-uz-Zamani, great grandmother of Aurengzeb, after the capture of her ship named Rahimi.[1]

Capture by pirates

In August 1695, Henry Every, captaining the 46-gun, 5th rate frigate Fancy, reached the Mandab Strait, where he teamed up with five other pirate ships, including Thomas Tew's 8-gun, 46-man sloop-of-war Amity, Richard Want in Dolphin, Joseph Faro in Portsmouth Adventure, Thomas Wake in Susannah, and William Maze in Pearl. Although a Mughal convoy of 25 ships bound for India had eluded the pirate fleet during the night, the following day they encountered Ganj-i-Sawai and her escort Fateh Muhammed, which carried 94 guns herself and was even larger in size than the Ganj-i-Sawai but didn’t have as many crewmen, with both stragglers passing the straits en route to Surat.

Every and his men attacked Fateh Muhammed, which had earlier repulsed an attack by Amity, killing Captain Tew. Perhaps intimidated by Fancy's 46 guns or weakened by their earlier battle with Tew, Fateh Muhammed's crew put up little resistance, and Every's pirates sacked the ship and came away with £40,000 worth of treasure.

Every now sailed in pursuit of Ganj-i-Sawai, overtaking her about eight days out of Surat. Ganj-i-Sawai was a fearsome opponent, mounting 62 guns and carrying four to five hundred guards armed with small arms,[9] as well as six hundred other passengers. But the opening volley evened the odds, as one of the Ganj-i-Sawai's cannons exploded, killing some of its gunners and causing great confusion and demoralization among the crew, while Every's broadside shot his enemy's mainmast by the board. The larger Fancy drew alongside, and a number of her 113-man crew clambered aboard, overpowering the crew, passengers, and slaves of Ganj-i-Sawai.

The victorious pirates then subjected their captives to several days of horror, murdering prisoners at will, and using torture to force them to reveal the location of the ships' treasure.

The loot from Ganj-i-Sawai totaled between £325,000 and £600,000, including "some 500,000 gold and silver pieces, plus numerous jeweled baubles and miscellaneous silver cups, trinkets, and so on."[10] Several crews went home empty-handed: Tew was dead, Want and Wake's ships were too slow and never made it to the battle, Faro made it to the Ganj-i-Sawai but never engaged, and Maze was present but Every took back their share of the loot after Pearl's crew tried to trade clipped coins to Fancy's men.[11] Every had been asked by the other pirate captains to carry the treasure to an agreed upon location where it would be split among the various crews, as Fancy, with her 46 guns, carried the most fire power to guard it. Come nightfall, Every and his crew silently slipped away from the pirate armada, taking all Ganj-i-Sawai's treasure with them.

In response to the capture of Ganj-i-Sawai, the Mughal Emperor, Aurangzeb, sent his army to five key ports for English trade in India — Bombay, Surat, Broach, Agra, and Ahmedabad — to close them. Aurangzeb effectively cut off English trade with India as he refused to reopen the ports until Henry Every was caught and executed for his crimes. The East India Company reconciled with the Mughal Emperor by fully compensating his losses, and filed an insurance claim for £350,000,[12] though Mughal authorities demanded this amount be doubled. The desire to see Every executed led to the first truly global manhunt in history, though he and the majority of his crew would never be caught. Six members of his crew were captured, tried, and executed, though they were not found guilty of seizing Ganj-i-Sawai, but rather a different ship.[13]

In popular culture

The Ganj-i-Sawai heist and its loot feature prominently in the 2016 video game Uncharted 4: A Thief's End.


See also


  1. ^ a b Azam Kalan, Muhammad (1929). "Journal of Indian studies": 186–187. ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  2. ^ Johnson 2020, p. 120.
  3. ^ Baer 2005, p. 101.
  4. ^ "Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency: Tha'na (2 pts.) - Google Books". 1882. Retrieved 20 January 2020.
  5. ^ a b Saletore 1978, p. 54—55.
  6. ^ Kaushik Roy (2015, p. 194)
  7. ^ Kaushik Roy (2011, p. 194)
  8. ^ Atul Chandra Roy (1972, p. XII)
  9. ^ Harris, Graham (2002). Treasure and Intrigue: The Legacy of Captain Kidd. Toronto: Dundurn. p. 88. ISBN 9781550024098. Retrieved 27 June 2017.
  10. ^ Burgess, Douglas R. Jr. (2014). The Politics of Piracy: Crime and Civil Disobedience in Colonial America. Lebanon, NH: ForeEdge. p. 53. ISBN 9781611685275.
  11. ^ Rennie, Neil (2013). Treasure Neverland: Real and Imaginary Pirates. Oxford: OUP Oxford. ISBN 9780191668654. Retrieved 27 June 2017.
  12. ^ Burgess, Douglas (2009). The Pirates' Pact: The Secret Alliances Between History's Most Notorious Buccaneers and Colonial America. New York: McGraw Hill. pp. 143. ISBN 9780071474764.
  13. ^ "The trial of Joseph Dawson, Edward Forseith, William May, Wm. Bishop, James Lewis, and John Sparkes, at the Old-Bailey, for felony and piracy". A Complete Collection of State Trials and Proceedings for High Treason and Other Crimes and Misdemeanors. 13 (392, column 451). 1812.