Terni
Comune di Terni
From top left, anti-clockwise: view of Terni; City Council Hall; Terni Cathedral; Relics of Saint Valentine; Piazza Tacito; and Marmore Waterfalls. In the middle: Anfiteatro Fausto.
Flag of Terni
Coat of arms of Terni
Location of Terni
Map
Terni is located in Italy
Terni
Terni
Location of Terni in Italy
Terni is located in Umbria
Terni
Terni
Terni (Umbria)
Coordinates: 42°33′43″N 12°38′29″E / 42.56194°N 12.64139°E / 42.56194; 12.64139
CountryItaly
RegionUmbria
ProvinceTerni (TR)
FrazioniAcquapalombo, Appecano, Battiferro, Cecalocco, Cesi, Collegiacone, Collescipoli, Collestatte, Giuncano Alto, Giuncano Scalo, Marmore, Miranda, Papigno, Piediluco, Poggio Lavarino, Polenaco, Porzano, Pracchia, Rocca San Zenone, San Carlo, San Liberatore, Titurano, Torreorsina
Government
 • MayorStefano Bandecchi
Area
 • Total211.9 km2 (81.8 sq mi)
Elevation
130 m (430 ft)
Population
 (31 July 2023)[2]
 • Total106,065
 • Density500/km2 (1,300/sq mi)
DemonymTernani
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
05100
Dialing code0744
Patron saintSaint Valentine
Saint dayFebruary 14
WebsiteOfficial website

Terni (/ˈtɛərni/ TAIR-nee, Italian: [ˈtɛrni] ; Latin: Interamna (Nahars)) is a city in the southern portion of the region of Umbria, in Central Italy. It is near the border with Lazio. The city is the capital of the province of Terni, located in the plain of the River Nera. It is 104 kilometres (65 miles) northeast of Rome and 81 km south of the regional capital, Perugia.

The Latin name means "between-two-rivers", in reference to its location on the confluence of the Nera river (Ancient Umbrian Nahar, Latin: Nār, Nahar) and the Serra stream. When disambiguation was needed, it was referred to as Interamna Nahars.[3] Its inhabitants were known in Latin as Interamnātēs Na(ha)rtēs.[4]

Interamna was founded as an Ancient Roman town, albeit settlements in the Terni area well precede this occurrence. During the 19th century, steel mills were introduced and led the city to have a role in the Second Industrial Revolution in Italy. Because of its industrial importance, the city was heavily bombed during World War II by the Allies. It remains an industrial hub and has been nicknamed "The Steel City".

Terni is also known as the "City of Lovers", as its patron saint, Saint Valentine, was born and became a bishop here, and the remains are preserved in the basilica-sanctuary in his honour.

History

Main article: History of Terni, Umbria

The city was founded around the 7th century BC by the Umbrians Nahartes, in a territory inhabited (as testified by archaeological excavations) as early as the Bronze Age. The Iguvine Tablets describe these Nahartes as a strong, numerous people and as the most important enemy of the Umbrian people of Gubbio (Iguvium). In the 3rd century BC, Terni was conquered by the Romans and soon became an important municipium lying on the Via Flaminia and known under the name Interamna, meaning "between-two-rivers".

In 271 BC the Roman consul Manius Curius Dentatus ordered the construction of a canal (the Curiano Trench) to divert the water from the marshes in the Rieti Valley and from Lake Velino over the natural cliff at Marmore, creating the waterfall. This caused flooding in the valley around Terni below. For a long time this became the cause of interminable quarrels between the cities of Rieti and Terni. The issue was so contentious between the two cities that the Roman Senate was forced to address it in 54 BC. Aulus Pompeius represented Terni, and Cicero represented Rieti. The Senate did nothing about the problem, and the problem remained the same for centuries.

After the Lombard conquest in 755, Terni lost prominence when it was reduced to a secondary town in the Duchy of Spoleto. In 1174, it was sacked by Frederick Barbarossa's general, Archbishop Christian of Mainz. In the following century, Terni was one of the sites visited frequently by St. Francis to give sermons.

In the 14th century Terni issued its own constitution, and from 1353 the walls were enlarged, and new channels were opened. As with many of the Italian communes of the Late Middle Ages, it was beset by civil unrest between the partisans of the Guelphs and Ghibellines, and later between the Nobili and Banderari (Terni's bourgeoisie). It later joined the Papal States. In 1580, an ironwork, the Ferriera, was introduced to work the iron ore mined in Monteleone di Spoleto, starting the traditional industrial connotation of the city. In the 17th century, however, the population of Terni declined further due to plagues and famines.

In the 19th century, Terni took advantage of the Industrial Revolution and of plentiful water sources in the area. New industries included a steelworks, a foundry, as well as weapons, jute and wool factories. In 1927, Terni became capital of the province.

The presence of important industries made the city a favorite target for the Allied bombardments in World War II. On August 11, 1943, a raid by 44 USAAF bombers, which dropped 213 tons of bombs, devastated the city, killing 564 people. It was the first of the 57 airstrikes that destroyed or damaged 40% of Terni's buildings and killed 1,018 civilians. Despite this, industrial environment increased quickly after the war.[5][6][7][8]

Economy

The city has three important industrial hubs: the first one is the Stainless Steel Area, called AST (part of the group ThyssenKrupp) and is a wide area located in the east part of Terni. West of the town, there is a second industrial hub, known as "Area Polymer", with four different chemical multinational industries. The third industrial hub is Italeaf, which controls TerniEnergia, a company listed on STAR segment of Borsa Italiana, that is active in the renewable energy sector, and promotes and develops technological start-ups in the cleantech sector.

Transport

Terni is connected with the A1 motorway, the European route E45 and National Road Flaminia by the RATO, a motorway junction.

Terni railway station is part of the Ancona–Orte railway, and is also a junction station for two secondary lines, the Terni–Sulmona railway (which links Terni with L'Aquila) and the Terni–Sansepolcro railway (FCU) (which serves Perugia). One of the most important national freight stations is located nearby. The local urban and suburban transport service, ATC, runs 90 bus lines. In the north of the city (Colleluna zone), there are works in progress on the line from Perugia to enable it to be used as a Light rail line.

Government

See also: List of mayors of Terni

Monuments and sites of interest

Religious architecture or sites

Terni Cathedral
Palazzo Spada

Secular and civic architecture or sites

Cascata delle Marmore

Sport

Ternana Calcio is the main football club in the city. The club has twice played in Italy's first division Serie A (seasons 1972–1973 and 1974–1975). Ternana is currently playing in Serie B (season 2021–2022). The club plays at the 22,000-seat Stadio Libero Liberati, named after Italian motorcycle racer Libero Liberati, who was born in Terni, won the 500cc World Championship in 1957, and died while he was training with his Gilera Saturno along the Valnerina road near Terni.

Notable natives

Historical

Notable

International relations

Twin towns – sister cities

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Italy

Terni is twinned with:[9]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Superficie di Comuni Province e Regioni italiane al 9 ottobre 2011". Italian National Institute of Statistics. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  2. ^ "Popolazione Residente al 1° Gennaio 2018". Italian National Institute of Statistics. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  3. ^ CIL XI 4213
  4. ^ Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence); Buonocore, Marco (Rome) (2006-10-01). "Interamna". Brill's New Pauly.
  5. ^ "11 agosto 1943, alle 10.29 il primo bombardamento a Terni: il racconto di un tragico evento" [11 August 1943, at 10.29 the first bombing of Terni: the story of a tragic event]. TerniToday (in Italian). Retrieved 2023-05-14.
  6. ^ Gioannini, Marco; Massobrio, Giulio (2007). "Bombardate l'Italia. Storia della guerra di distruzione aerea 1940-45" (PDF). Rizzoli Libri. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-02-02. Retrieved 2023-05-14.
  7. ^ "11 agosto 1943, Terni non dimentica" [August 11, 1943, Terni does not forget]. umbriaON (in Italian). 2018-08-11. Retrieved 2023-05-14.
  8. ^ "TERNI in "Enciclopedia Italiana di Scienze, Lettere e Arti"". Treccani (in Italian). Retrieved 2023-05-14.
  9. ^ "Vieni a Trovarci". amarantoidea.com (in Italian). Amaranto Idea. Retrieved 2019-12-22.