This article contains a list of political parties in Italy since Italian unification in 1861.

Throughout history, numerous political parties have been operating in Italy, and since World War II no party has ever gained enough support to govern alone: parties thus form political alliances and coalition governments.

In the 2018 general election three groupings obtained most of the votes and most of the seats in the two houses of the Italian Parliament: a centre-right coalition, composed of Lega, Forza Italia, Brothers of Italy and minor allies; the anti-establishment Five Star Movement; a centre-left coalition, composed of the Democratic Party and minor allies.

Coalition of parties for regional elections can be slightly different from those for general elections, due to different regional conditions (for instance, in some regions the Five Star Movement and the Democratic Party are in coalition, but not in other ones) and the presence of several regional parties, some of which active only at regional level.

History

The first modern political party in Italy was the Italian Socialist Party, founded in 1892.[1] Until then the main political groupings of the country, the Historical Right and the Historical Left, were not classifiable as parties, but as simple groups of notables, each with their own electoral fiefdom, that joined together according to their own ideas.[2] These two political groups were considered the two poles of the liberal area. On the other hand, the far-left was represented, as well as by Socialists and Radicals, also by Republicans,[3] that organized themselves into a party only in 1895.[4]

From the beginning the Italian Socialist Party envisaged itself as a mass party (a form of party that will predominate throughout the twentieth century), and it was followed a few years later by the Italian People's Party, founded by Don Luigi Sturzo in 1919. Both parties obtained notable electoral successes until the advent of fascism, contributing decisively to the loss of strength and authority of the old liberal ruling class, which had not been able to structure itself in a party form capable of facing the new challenges of society. In 1921, from a split of the Socialist Party, another important Italian party was born: the Communist Party of Italy. At the time of its foundation, the Italian Communist Party was no different from the other European communist parties, much smaller than the socialist or social democratic parties, and was lacking effective roots in the masses and in the proletarian class, as they preferred the role of the revolutionary vanguard outlined by Lenin. Also in 1921, Benito Mussolini gave birth to the National Fascist Party, from the transformation of the previous Fasci Italiani di Combattimento movement. In October 1922 Mussolini led the so-called March on Rome, which led him to be appointed Prime Minister. In 1926, through the so-called "very fascist laws", all parties were dissolved except the National Fascist Party, which thus remained the only party active in the Kingdom of Italy until the fall of the fascist regime, which took place on 25 July 1943. On 9 September 1943 the anti-fascist parties (the Christian Democracy, the Italian Communist Party, the Italian Socialist Party, the Action Party, the Labour Democratic Party and the Italian Liberal Party) re-organized themselves into the National Liberation Committee, which gained official recognition as the representative of the Italian resistance movement. The parties of the CLN then led the governments of Italy from the liberation of Rome in 1944 until 1947.

Between 1948 and 1994, Italian politics was dominated by two major parties: the Christian Democracy, the main party of government, and the Italian Communist Party, the main opposition party.[5] During its almost fifty years in government, Christian Democracy chose its coalition partners among four parties: the Italian Socialist Party, the Italian Democratic Socialist Party, the Italian Liberal Party and the Italian Republican Party.[6] On the other hand, along with the Communist Party, the other relevant opposition party was the post-fascist Italian Social Movement.

For 46 consecutive years, the Christian Democrats led the Italian government[7] (except for the periods 1981–82 and 1983–86). Between 1981 and 1991, they led a coalition government with the Socialists, the Social Democrats, the Republicans and the Liberals (named Pentapartito).[8] That was the time when several northern regional parties demanding autonomy organised themselves at the regional level. In 1991 they federated themselves into Lega Nord, which became the country's fourth largest party in the 1992 general election.[9]

In 1992–94, the political system was shaken by a series of corruption scandals known collectively as Tangentopoli. These events led to the disappearance of the five parties of government.[10] Consequently, the Communists, who had evolved to become Democratic Party of the Left in 1991, and the post-fascists, who launched National Alliance in 1994, gained strength. Following the 1994 general election, media tycoon Silvio Berlusconi became Prime Minister at the head of a coalition composed mainly of three parties: his brand-new party Forza Italia (joined by several members of defunct mainstream parties), National Alliance and Lega Nord.[11]

Between 1996 and 2008, Italian political parties were organised into two big coalitions, the centre-right Pole for Freedoms (which was renamed House of Freedoms after the re-entry of Lega Nord in 2000) and The Olive Tree (part of the new, broader coalition The Union in 2005) on the centre-left.[12] The latter governed from 1996 to 2001 and again between 2006 and 2008, while the House of Freedoms was in government between 2001 and 2006. In 2008 The Union ceased to exist as the newly founded Democratic Party decided to break the alliance with its left-wing partners, notably including the Communist Refoundation Party. On the centre-right, Forza Italia and National Alliance merged to form The People of Freedom,[13] which continued the alliance with Lega Nord and won the 2008 general election.[14]

In the 2013 general election the party system was fragmented in four groupings: the centre-left composed of the Democratic Party and Left Ecology Freedom; the traditional centre-right alliance between The People of Freedom and Lega Nord; Beppe Grillo's Five Star Movement; and a new centrist coalition around Mario Monti's Civic Choice.[15] In November 2013 The People of Freedom was dissolved and merged into the new Forza Italia, provoking the split of the New Centre-Right (which became Popular Alternative in 2017).

In the 2018 general election the major groupings were reduced to three: the centre-right composed of Lega (which was the coalition's largest party for the first time), Forza Italia, Brothers of Italy and minor allies; the Five Star Movement (which was the most voted party); the centre-left composed of the Democratic Party and minor allies.[16]

Active parties

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Contributor note: Updating the parties represented in the Italian and European Parliaments, as per the results of last elections, basing on the outcome of the RfC's and discussions in the Talk Page. For questions and doubts, please go to the Talk Page.

Parties represented in the Italian or European Parliament

Party Founded Ideology Leader Deputies Senators MEPs
Brothers of Italy
Fratelli d'Italia
2012 National conservatism
Right-wing populism
Giorgia Meloni
118 / 400
66 / 200
8 / 76
Lega[a] 2017 Right-wing populism
Conservatism
Matteo Salvini
66 / 400
28 / 200
24 / 76
Democratic Party
Partito Democratico
2007 Social democracy Enrico Letta
62 / 400
39 / 200
14 / 76
Five Star Movement
Movimento 5 Stelle
2009 Populism
Environmentalism
Giuseppe Conte
52 / 400
28 / 200
5 / 76
Forza Italia 2013 Liberal conservatism
Christian democracy
Silvio Berlusconi
45 / 400
18 / 200
10 / 76
Action
Azione
2019 Liberalism
Pro-Europeanism
Carlo Calenda
11 / 400
4 / 200
1 / 76
Italia Viva 2019 Liberalism
Social liberalism
Matteo Renzi
10 / 400
5 / 200
1 / 76
Green Europe
Europa Verde
2021 Green politics
Progressivism
Angelo Bonelli
Eleonora Evi
7 / 400
1 / 200
1 / 76
Italian Left
Sinistra Italiana
2017 Democratic socialism
Eco-socialism
Nicola Fratoianni
4 / 400
3 / 200
0 / 76
Article One
Articolo Uno
2017 Social democracy
Democratic socialism
Roberto Speranza
4 / 400[b]
0 / 200
0 / 76
Us with Italy
Noi con l'Italia
2017 Liberal conservatism
Christian democracy
Maurizio Lupi
3 / 400
0 / 200
0 / 76
Italy in the Centre[c]
Italia al Centro
2022 Liberal conservatism Giovanni Toti
2 / 400
0 / 200
0 / 76
More Europe[d]
+Europa
2017 Liberalism
Pro-Europeanism
Emma Bonino
2 / 400
0 / 200
0 / 76
Coraggio Italia 2021 Liberal conservatism Luigi Brugnaro
1 / 400
1 / 200
0 / 76
Union of the Centre
Unione di Centro
2002 Christian democracy
Social conservatism
Lorenzo Cesa
1 / 400
1 / 200
0 / 76
Solidary Democracy
Democrazia Solidale
2014 Christian left Paolo Ciani
1 / 400[b]
0 / 200
1 / 76
Democratic Centre
Centro Democratico
2012 Christian left
Social liberalism
Bruno Tabacci
1 / 400
0 / 200
0 / 76
Green Italia 2013 Green politics Annalisa Corrado
Carmine Maturo
1 / 400[b]
0 / 200
0 / 76
New Italian Socialist Party
Nuovo Partito Socialista Italiano
2001 Social democracy
Liberalism
Stefano Caldoro
1 / 400[e]
0 / 200
0 / 76
Centrists for Europe
Centristi per l'Europa
2017 Christian democracy
Pro-Europeanism
Pier Ferdinando Casini
0 / 400
1 / 200[b]
0 / 76
Together for the Future
Insieme per il Futuro
2022 Centrism
Pro-Europeanism
Luigi Di Maio
0 / 400
0 / 200
2 / 76
Regional parties
South Tyrolean People's Party
Südtiroler Volkspartei
1945 Regionalism
German-speaking minority interests
Philipp Achammer
3 / 400
2 / 200
1 / 76
South calls North
Sud chiama Nord
2022 Regionalism
Populism
Cateno De Luca
1 / 400
1 / 200
0 / 76
Valdostan Union
Union Valdôtaine
1945 Regionalism
French-speaking minority interests
Cristina Machet
1 / 400
0 / 200
0 / 76
èViva 2019 Democratic socialism
Pro-Europeanism
Francesco Laforgia
1 / 400[b]
0 / 200
0 / 76
Sardinian Progressives
Progressisti Sardi
2017 Progressivism Massimo Zedda
1 / 400
0 / 200
0 / 76
Diventerà Bellissima 2014 Regionalism Nello Musumeci
0 / 400
1 / 200[f]
0 / 76
Overseas parties
Associative Movement of Italians Abroad
Movimento Associativo Italiani all'Estero
2008 Italians abroad interests Ricardo Antonio Merlo
1 / 400
1 / 200
0 / 76
Notes
  1. ^ In 2020 the Lega replaced politically the Lega Nord, a federalist party established in 1991 and still legally existing. It is composed of the following territorial divisions: Lega Lombarda, Liga Veneta, Lega Vallée d'Aoste, Lega Piemonte, Lega Trentino, Lega Alto Adige Südtirol, Lega Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Lega Emilia, Lega Romagna, Lega Liguria, Lega Toscana, Lega Marche, Lega Umbria, Lega Lazio, Lega Molise, Lega Campania, Lega Puglia, Lega Basilicata, Lega Calabria, Lega Sicilia and Lega Sardegna.
  2. ^ a b c d e Into the PD group.
  3. ^ Including Cambiamo.
  4. ^ Including Forza Europa.
  5. ^ Into the FI group.
  6. ^ Into the FdI group.

Parties represented only in Regional Councils

Party Founded Ideology Leader Regional Council
Italian Socialist Party
Partito Socialista Italiano
2017 Social democracy Enzo Maraio Campania
Moderates
Moderati
2005 Liberalism Giacomo Portas Piedmont
Campania
Populars for Italy
Popolari per l'Italia
2014 Christian democracy
Liberal conservatism
Mario Mauro Molise
Possible
Possibile
2015 Social democracy Beatrice Brignone Sardinia
Us of the Centre
Noi di Centro
2021 Christian democracy Clemente Mastella Campania
Apulia
Regional parties
Civic Network
Rete Civica
2019 Regionalism Fabio Protasoni Aosta Valley
Edelweiss
Stella Alpina
2001 Regionalism
Christian democracy
Carlo Marzi Aosta Valley
For Our Valley
Pour Notre Vallée
2019 Regionalism
French-speaking minority interests
Fabio Gradi Aosta Valley
For the Autonomy
Pour l'autonomie
2020 Regionalism
French-speaking minority interests
Augusto Rollandin Aosta Valley
Mouv' 2017 Regionalism Damien Charrance Aosta Valley
Valdostan Alliance
Alliance Valdôtaine
2019 Regionalism
Progressivism
Albert Chatrian Aosta Valley
Fassa Association
Associazione Fassa
2008 Ladin minority interests
Christian democracy
Luca Guglielmi Trentino-Alto Adige
Futura Trentino 2018 Regionalism
Social democracy
Nicola Serra Trentino-Alto Adige
La Civica 2019 Regionalism Mattia Gottardi Trentino-Alto Adige
Ladin Autonomist Union
Union Autonomista Ladina
1983 Ladin minority interests Cristina Donei Trentino-Alto Adige
Popular Autonomists
Autonomisti Popolari
2017 Regionalism
Christian democracy
Walter Kaswalder Trentino-Alto Adige
Trentino Project
Progetto Trentino
2008 Regionalism
Christian democracy
Marino Simoni Trentino-Alto Adige
Trentino Tyrolean Autonomist Party
Partito Autonomista Trentino Tirolese
1988 Regionalism
Christian democracy
Simone Marchiori Trentino-Alto Adige
Union for Trentino
Unione per il Trentino
2008 Regionalism
Christian democracy
Annalisa Caumo Trentino-Alto Adige
Die Freiheitlichen 1992 Separatism
German-speaking minority interests
Andreas Leiter Reber Trentino-Alto Adige
Greens
VerdiGrüneVërc
1978 Green politics Felix Wohlgemuth
Marlene Pernstich
Trentino-Alto Adige
South Tyrolean Freedom
Süd-Tiroler Freiheit
2007 Separatism
German-speaking minority interests
Eva Klotz Trentino-Alto Adige
Team K 2018 Regionalism
Liberalism
Paul Köllensperger Trentino-Alto Adige
Liga Veneta Repubblica 1998 Regionalism Fabrizio Comencini Veneto
Citizens
Cittadini
2003 Regionalism No leader Friuli-Venezia Giulia
FVG Project
Progetto FVG
2018 Regionalism Sergio Bini Friuli-Venezia Giulia
Pact for Autonomy
Patto per l'Autonomia
2015 Regionalism Sergio Cecotti Friuli-Venezia Giulia
Responsible Autonomy
Autonomia Responsabile
2013 Regionalism
Liberal conservatism
Renzo Tondo Friuli-Venezia Giulia
Slovene Union
Slovenska Skupnost
1963 Slovene minority interests Peter Močnik Friuli-Venezia Giulia
Italy is Popular
L'Italia è Popolare
2017 Christian democracy Giuseppe De Mita Campania
Popular Apulia
Puglia Popolare
2017 Regionalism
Christian democracy
Massimo Cassano Apulia
Cantiere Popolare 2012 Christian democracy Francesco Saverio Romano Sicily
Christian Democracy Sicily
Democrazia Cristiana Sicilia
2020 Christian democracy Salvatore Cuffaro Sicily
Movement for Autonomy
Movimento per l'Autonomia
2005 Regionalism
Christian democracy
Roberto Di Mauro Sicily
Civic Sardinia
Sardegna Civica
2018 Regionalism Franco Cuccureddu Sardinia
Fortza Paris 2004 Regionalism
Christian democracy
Gianfranco Scalas Sardinia
Sardinia 20Twenty
Sardegna 20Venti
2013 Regionalism Stefano Tunis Sardinia
Sardinian Action Party
Partito Sardo d'Azione
1921 Regionalism
Sardinian nationalism
Christian Solinas Sardinia
Sardinian Reformers
Riformatori Sardi
1993 Regionalism
Liberal conservatism
Michele Cossa Sardinia
Union of Sardinians
Unione dei Sardi
1998 Regionalism
Christian democracy
Mario Floris Sardinia

Non-represented parties

Countrywide parties

Regional parties

Overseas parties

Defunct parties

Defunct parties represented in the Italian or European Parliament

Countrywide parties

Regional parties

Overseas parties

Defunct parties represented only in Regional Councils

Countrywide parties
Aosta Valley
Piedmont
Lombardy
Trentino-Alto Adige
Veneto
Friuli-Venezia Giulia
Marche
Molise
Campania
Apulia
Calabria
Sicily
Sardinia
Notes
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Active only in Trentino
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Active only in South Tyrol

Defunct non-represented parties

Notes
  1. ^ a b c Active only in Sardinia.
  2. ^ Active only in Piedmont.
  3. ^ Active only in the Ossola Valley.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Active only in Veneto.
  5. ^ Active only in Calabria.
  6. ^ Active only in Lombardy.
  7. ^ Active only in the Province of Sondrio.

See also

References

  1. ^ Maurizio Degl'Innocenti (1983). Geografia e istituzioni del socialismo italiano, 1892-1914. Guida Editori. ISBN 9788870423143.
  2. ^ Ubaldo Comite (2017). Un approccio manageriale alla gestione dei partiti politici. Franco Angeli Edizioni. p. 26. ISBN 9788891749703.
  3. ^ Francesco Leoni (2001). Storia dei partiti politici italiani. A. Guida. p. 254. ISBN 9788871884950.
  4. ^ Corrado Scibilia (2016). Annali della Fondazione Ugo La Malfa XXV - 2010. Gangemi Editore. ISBN 9788849247404.
  5. ^ Robert Leonardi; Douglas A. Wertman (1989). Italian Christian Democracy: The Politics of Dominance. Palgrave Macmillan UK. p. 179. ISBN 9781349088942.
  6. ^ Renato Brunetta (2001). "Italy's Other Left". Daedalus. The MIT Press. 130 (3): 25–45. JSTOR 20027704.
  7. ^ Sondra Z. Koff; Stephen P. Koff (1999). Italy: From the First to the Second Republic. Routledge. p. 65. ISBN 9780415196642.
  8. ^ Martin J. Bull (2015). The Oxford Handbook of Italian Politics. Oxford University Press. p. 295. ISBN 9780199669745.
  9. ^ Anna Cento Bull (2000). Social Identities and Political Cultures in Italy. Berghahn Books. p. 4. ISBN 9781571819444.
  10. ^ Europe Since 1945: An Encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. 2014. p. 663. ISBN 9781135179328.
  11. ^ Nicola Maggini (2016). Young People's Voting Behaviour in Europe: A Comparative Perspective. Palgrave Macmillan UK. p. 55. ISBN 9781137592439.
  12. ^ Gianfranco Pasquino (2019). Italian Democracy: How It Works. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9781351401081.
  13. ^ Erik Jones; Gianfranco Pasquino (2015). The Oxford Handbook of Italian Politics. Oxford University Press. p. 149. ISBN 9780199669745.
  14. ^ B. Turner (2017). The Statesman's Yearbook 2009. Palgrave Macmillan UK. p. 705. ISBN 9781349740277.
  15. ^ European Party Politics in Times of Crisis. European University Institute. 2019. p. 118. ISBN 9781108483797.
  16. ^ Carmelo Lombardo; Christian Ruggiero; Edoardo Novelli (2020). La società nelle urne. Franco Angeli Edizioni. p. 30. ISBN 9788835100645.