This article contains a list of political parties in Italy since Italian unification in 1861.
Throughout history, numerous political parties have been operating in Italy, and since World War II no party has ever gained enough support to govern alone: parties thus form political alliances and coalition governments.
In the 2018 general election three groupings obtained most of the votes and most of the seats in the two houses of the Italian Parliament: a centre-right coalition, composed of Lega, Forza Italia, Brothers of Italy and minor allies; the anti-establishment Five Star Movement; a centre-left coalition, composed of the Democratic Party and minor allies.
Coalition of parties for regional elections can be slightly different from those for general elections, due to different regional conditions (for instance, in some regions the Five Star Movement and the Democratic Party are in coalition, but not in other ones) and the presence of several regional parties, some of which active only at regional level.
Between 1945 and 1994, Italian politics was dominated by two major parties: Christian Democracy, the main party of government, and the Italian Communist Party, the main opposition party. During its almost fifty years in government, Christian Democracy chose its coalition partners among four parties: the Italian Socialist Party, the Italian Democratic Socialist Party, the Italian Republican Party and the Italian Liberal Party. On the other hand, along with the Communist Party, the other relevant opposition party was the post-fascist Italian Social Movement.
For 46 consecutive years, the Christian Democrats led the Italian government (except for the periods 1981–82 and 1983–86). Between 1981 and 1991, they led a coalition government with the Socialists, the Social Democrats, the Republicans and the Liberals (named Pentapartito). That was the time when several northern regional parties demanding autonomy organised themselves at the regional level. In 1991 they federated themselves into Lega Nord, which became the country's fourth largest party in the 1992 general election.
In 1992–94, the political system was shaken by a series of corruption scandals known collectively as Tangentopoli. These events led to the disappearance of the five parties of government. Consequently, the Communists, who had evolved to become Democratic Party of the Left in 1991, and the post-fascists, who launched National Alliance in 1994, gained strength. Following the 1994 general election, media tycoon Silvio Berlusconi became Prime Minister at the head of a coalition composed mainly of three parties: his brand-new party Forza Italia (joined by several members of defunct mainstream parties), National Alliance and Lega Nord.
Between 1996 and 2008, Italian political parties were organised into two big coalitions, the centre-right Pole for Freedoms (which was renamed House of Freedoms after the re-entry of Lega Nord in 2000) and The Olive Tree (part of the new, broader coalition The Union in 2005) on the centre-left. The latter governed from 1996 to 2001 and again between 2006 and 2008, while the House of Freedoms was in government between 2001 and 2006. In 2008 The Union ceased to exist as the newly founded Democratic Party decided to break the alliance with its left-wing partners, notably including the Communist Refoundation Party. On the centre-right, Forza Italia and National Alliance merged to form The People of Freedom, which continued the alliance with Lega Nord and won the 2008 general election.
In the 2013 general election the party system was fragmented in four groupings: the centre-left composed of the Democratic Party and Left Ecology Freedom; the traditional centre-right alliance between The People of Freedom and Lega Nord; Beppe Grillo's Five Star Movement; and a new centrist coalition around Mario Monti's Civic Choice. In November 2013 The People of Freedom was dissolved and merged into the new Forza Italia, provoking the split of the New Centre-Right. In December 2016 Left Ecology Freedom was dissolved in order to take part to the formation of Italian Left. In February 2017 splinters from the Democratic Party and Italian Left launched the Article One, while in March the New Centre-Right was transformed into Popular Alternative.
In the 2018 general election the major groupings were reduced to three: the centre-right composed of Lega (which was the coalition's largest party for the first time), Forza Italia, Brothers of Italy and minor allies; the Five Star Movement (which was the most voted party); the centre-left composed of the Democratic Party and minor allies. Free and Equal, a new left-wing joint list whose main members were Article One and Italian Left, came a distant fourth.
|Five Star Movement||M5S||2009||
155 / 630
73 / 315
8 / 76
133 / 630
62 / 315
24 / 76
97 / 630
40 / 315
14 / 76
80 / 630
48 / 315
10 / 76
|Brothers of Italy||FdI||2012||
37 / 630
21 / 315
8 / 76
|Alliance of the Centre||AdC||2008||Francesco Pionati|
|Article One||Art.1||2017||Roberto Speranza|
|Centrists for Europe||CpE||2017||Pier Ferdinando Casini|
|Communist Party||PC||2009||Marco Rizzo|
|Communist Refoundation Party||PRC||1991||Maurizio Acerbo|
|Coraggio Italia||CI||2021||Luigi Brugnaro|
|Democratic Centre||CD||2012||Bruno Tabacci|
|Green Europe||EV||2019||Angelo Bonelli, Eleonora Evi|
|Identity and Action[a]||IDeA||2015||Gaetano Quagliariello|
|Italia in Comune||IiC||2018||Federico Pizzarotti|
|Italia Viva||IV||2019||Matteo Renzi|
|Italian Animalist Party||PAI||2006||Cristiano Ceriello|
|Italian Left||SI||2017||Nicola Fratoianni|
|Italian Liberal Party||PLI||1997||Stefano De Luca|
|Italian Republican Party||PRI||1895||Corrado De Rinaldis Saponaro|
|Italian Socialist Party||PSI||2007||Enzo Maraio|
|Italy of Values||IdV||1998||Ignazio Messina|
|More Europe[b]||+E||2017||Benedetto Della Vedova|
|New Force||FN||1997||Roberto Fiore|
|New Italian Socialist Party||NPSI||2001||Stefano Caldoro|
|Pensioners' Party||PP||1987||Carlo Fatuzzo|
|Popular Alternative||AP||2017||Paolo Alli|
|Populars for Italy||PpI||2014||Mario Mauro|
|Power to the People||PaP||2017||Giuliano Granato, Marta Collot|
|Solidary Democracy||DemoS||2014||Paolo Ciani|
|The People of Family||2016||Mario Adinolfi|
|Tricolour Flame||FT||1995||Attilio Carelli|
|Union of the Centre||UDC||2002||Lorenzo Cesa|
|Us with Italy||NcI||2017||Maurizio Lupi|
|Workers' Communist Party||PCL||2006||Marco Ferrando|
|Aosta Valley||Valdostan Union||UV||1945|
|Lega Vallée d'Aoste||LNVdA||1991|
|For the Autonomy||PA||2020|
|For Our Valley||PVdA||2016|
|Renaissance Aosta Valley||RvdA||2020|
|Trentino Tyrolean Autonomist Party||PATT||1988|
|Union for Trentino||UpT||2008|
|Ladin Autonomist Union||UAL||1983|
|Loyal to Trentino||LT||2003|
|South Tyrol||South Tyrolean People's Party||SVP||1945|
|Lega Alto Adige Südtirol||LNST||1991|
|Greens of South Tyrol||VGV||1978|
|South Tyrolean Freedom||STF||2007|
|Alto Adige in the Heart||AAC||2013|
|Liga Veneta Repubblica||LVR||1998|
|Independence We Veneto||INV||2014|
|Friuli-Venezia Giulia||Lega Friuli-Venezia Giulia||LNFVG||1991|
|Pact for Autonomy||PpA||2015|
|Campania||Italy is Popular||IP||2017|
|We the South||NS||2010|
|Apulia||Schittulli Political Movement||MPS||2009|
|Southern Action League||LAM||1992|
|Calabria||Io Resto in Calabria||IRC||2010|
|Movement for New Autonomy||MNA||2010s|
|Sardinian Action Party||PSd'Az||1921|
|Party of Sardinians||PdS||2013|
|Project Republic of Sardinia||ProgReS||2011|
|Union of Sardinians||UdS||1998|
|Christian Popular Union||UPC||2009|
|Independence Republic of Sardinia||iRS||2002|
|Sardigna Natzione Indipendentzia||SNI||1994|
|South America||Associative Movement of Italians Abroad||MAIE||2008|
|South American Union of Italian Emigrants||USEI||2006|
Parliamentary groups not directly connected to a political party or formed by a coalition of political parties.