This article lists political parties in the Netherlands. The country has a multi-party system with numerous political parties, in which any one party has little chance of gaining power alone; parties often work with each other to form coalition governments.

The lower house of the legislature, the House of Representatives, is elected by a national party-list system of proportional representation. There is no threshold for getting a seat, making it possible for a party to get a seat with only two-thirds percent of the vote—roughly one seat for every 67,000 votes.

No party has won a majority of seats since the 1894 general election;[1] no party has even approached the seats needed for a majority since the current proportional representation system was implemented in the Pacification of 1917. All governments since then have been coalitions between two or more parties. However, there is a broad consensus on the basic principles of the political system, with all parties having to adjust their goals to some extent in order to have a realistic chance at being part of the government.

General overview

Members of four Dutch political parties (PvdA, D66, CDA and VVD) campaigning in Ulft, shortly before the 2010 municipal elections

National political parties

Parties represented in the States General and/or European Parliament

Political party Main ideology Position Leader Affiliation Seats Ref.
Eur. EP group Intl. Senators House reps. MEPs
PvdA Labour Party
Partij van de Arbeid
Social democracy Centre-left Frans Timmermans[41] PES S&D PA
14 / 75
25 / 150
6 / 29
[2][42]
GL GreenLeft
GroenLinks
Green politics Centre-left Frans Timmermans[43] EGP Greens–EFA GG
3 / 29
[42]
PVV Party for Freedom
Partij voor de Vrijheid
Right-wing populism Right-wing to far-right Geert Wilders ID
4 / 75
37 / 150
0 / 29
[44][45][46][47]
VVD People's Party for Freedom and Democracy
Volkspartij voor Vrijheid en Democratie
Conservative liberalism Centre-right Dilan Yeşilgöz ALDE Renew LI
10 / 75
24 / 150
5 / 29
[48][49][50]
BBB Farmer–Citizen Movement
BoerBurgerBeweging
Agrarianism Right-wing Caroline van der Plas
16 / 75
7 / 150
0 / 29
NSC New Social Contract
Nieuw Sociaal Contract
Christian democracy Centre-right Pieter Omtzigt
0 / 75
20 / 150
0 / 29
D66 Democrats 66
Democraten 66
Social liberalism Centre Rob Jetten ALDE Renew LI
5 / 75
9 / 150
2 / 29
[49][48]
CDA Christian Democratic Appeal
Christen-Democratisch Appèl
Christian democracy Centre-right Henri Bontenbal EPP EPP CDI
6 / 75
5 / 150
5 / 29
[51][52][53][54]
SP Socialist Party
Socialistische Partij
Democratic socialism Left-wing Jimmy Dijk
3 / 75
5 / 150
0 / 29
[55][56][57][58]
PvdD Party for the Animals
Partij voor de Dieren
Animal welfare Left-wing Esther Ouwehand APEU GUE–NGL
3 / 75
3 / 150
1 / 29
[59]
CU Christian Union
ChristenUnie
Christian democracy Centre Mirjam Bikker ECPM EPP
3 / 75
3 / 150
1 / 29
[2][42][60][61]
FvD Forum for Democracy
Forum voor Democratie
National conservatism Far-right Thierry Baudet NI
2 / 75
3 / 150
1 / 29
[62][63][64]
SGP Reformed Political Party
Staatkundig Gereformeerde Partij
Christian right Right-wing Chris Stoffer ECPM ECR
2 / 75
3 / 150
1 / 29
[2][42][65]
JA21 Right Answer 2021
Juiste Antwoord 2021
Conservative liberalism Right-wing Joost Eerdmans ECR ECR
3 / 75
1 / 150
1 / 29
Volt Volt Netherlands
Volt Nederland
European federalism Centre Laurens Dassen Volt Greens–EFA
2 / 75
2 / 150
0 / 29
[66]
DENK DENK Minority interests Centre-left Stephan van Baarle
0 / 75
3 / 150
0 / 29
[67][68]
50+ 50PLUS Pensioners' interests Centre Gerard van Hooft EDP
1 / 75
0 / 150
0 / 29
[2][49][48][59]
OPNL Independent Politics Netherlands
Onafhankelijke Politiek Nederland
Regionalism Centre Auke van der Goot EFA
1 / 75
0 / 150
0 / 29
MDD More Direct Democracy
Meer Directe Democratie
Direct Democracy Centre-right Dorien Rookmaker EAFD ECR
0 / 75
0 / 150
1 / 29

Parties without representation in the States General and/or European Parliament

Party Main ideology Position Leader Affiliation Ref.
European International
Alliantie Alliance
Alliantie
Conservatism Centre-right Vacant
BIJ1 BIJ1
Anti-capitalism Left-wing to far-left Edson Olf
CO Code Orange
Code Oranje
Direct democracy Syncretic Bert Blase
NVU Dutch People's Union
Nederlandse Volks-Unie
Ethnic nationalism Far-right Constant Kusters
OPA Elderly Politically Active
Ouderen Politiek Actief
Pensioners' interests Single-issue politics Vacant
GOUD GOUD
Pensioners' interests Centre Vacant
HVV Heart for Freedom
Hart voor Vrijheid
Antivax Syncretic Vacant
LHK Henk Krol List
Lijst Henk Krol
Progressive conservatism Centre-right Vacant
BVNL Interest of the Netherlands
Belang van Nederland
Classical liberalism Right-wing Wybren van Haga
JL Jesus Lives
Jezus Leeft
Evangelism Right-wing Florens van der Spek
LEF LEF - For the New Generation
LEF - Voor de Nieuwe Generatie
Youth politics Daniël van Duijn
LibDem Liberal Democratic Party
Liberaal Democratische Partij
Social liberalism Centre Sammy van Tuyll
LP Libertarian Party
Libertaire Partij
Right-libertarianism Right-wing Tom van Lamoen EPIL LI [69]
NCPN New Communist Party of the Netherlands
Nieuwe Communistische Partij van Nederland
Marxism–Leninism Far-left Rinze Visser IMCWP
NLB NLBeter Public sector interests Centre Esther van Fenema
NLPlan Netherlands with a Plan
Nederland met een PLAN
Participatory democracy Centre Kok Kuen Chan
PSP Pacifist Socialist Party '92
Pacifistisch Socialistische Partij '92
Pacifist socialism Left-wing Vacant
PvdR Party for the Republic
Partij voor de Republiek
Republicanism Centre Bruno Braakhuis
PvdS Party for Sports
PartijvdSport
Health promotion Centre Annemarie van Duivenboden
PDNM Party The New Human
Partij De Nieuwe Mens
Spiritual left Centre-left Niraï Melis &
Raishrie Gajadin
[70]
PPNL Pirate Party
Piratenpartij
Pirate politics Syncretic Mark van Treuren[71] PPEU PPI [72]
PPvB Political Party for Basic Income
Politieke Partij voor Basisinkomen
Universal basic income Single-issue politics Sepp Hannen
TON Proud of the Netherlands
Trots op Nederland
Conservative liberalism Right-wing Sander van den Raadt
SPL Splinter Secular liberalism Centre-left Femke Merel van Kooten
DG The Greens
De Groenen
Green politics Centre-left Mark van Treuren[73]
DFP The Party Party
De Feestpartij
Joke Party Syncretic Johan Vlemmix
SvN Together for the Netherlands
Samen voor Nederland
Right-wing populism Far-right Michel Reijinga
UCF Ubuntu Connected Front Ubuntuism Centre-left Regillio Vaarnold
VCP United Communist Party
Verenigde Communistische Partij
Communism Far-left Engel Modderman

Regional and local political parties

European Netherlands

Regional parties

Political party Active in Main ideology Position European
affiliation
FNP Frisian National Party
Fryske Nasjonale Partij
 Friesland Civic nationalism Big tent[74] EFA
GB Groninger Interest
Groninger Belang
 Groningen Regionalism Centre
LB Local Brabant
Lokaal Brabant
 North Brabant Regionalism Centre
LL Local Limburg
Lokaal-Limburg
 Limburg Regionalism Centre
PvhN Party for the North
Partij voor het Noorden
 Groningen
 Friesland
 Drenthe
Regionalism Centre
PvZ Party for Zeeland
Partij voor Zeeland
 Zeeland Regionalism Centre
PBF Provincial Interest Fryslân
Provinciaal Belang Fryslân
 Friesland Regionalism Centre
SLD Strong Local Drenthe
Sterk Lokaal Drenthe
 Drenthe Regionalism Centre
SLF Strong Local Flevoland
Sterk Lokaal Flevoland
 Flevoland Regionalism Centre

Local parties

Party Main ideology Position
Forza! Forza! Netherlands
Forza! Nederland
Right-wing populism Right-wing
HvDH Heart for The Hague
Hart voor Den Haag/Groep de Mos
Conservative liberalism Right-wing
LR Livable Rotterdam
Leefbaar Rotterdam
Fortuynism Right-wing
VSP United Seniors Party
Verenigde Senioren Partij
Pensioners' interests Single-issue politics

Water board parties

Political party Main ideology Position
AWP General Water Board Party
Algemene Waterschapspartij
Apoliticism Syncretic
WN Water Natuurlijk Green politics Centre-left

Caribbean Netherlands

Bonaire

Political party Main ideology Position Leader Affiliation
American Intl.
PDB Bonaire Democratic Party
Partido Demokrátiko Boneriano
Social democracy Centre-left Clark Abraham
UPB Bonaire Patriotic Union
Union Patriótiko Boneriano
Christian democracy Centre James Kroon ODCA CDI
MPB Bonaire People's Movement
Movementu di Pueblo Boneriano
Christian socialism Centre Elvis Tjin Asjoe
FSP Social Progressive Front
Frente Sosial Progresivo
Social democracy Centre-left Robby Beukenboom

Saba

Political party Main ideology Position Leader American
affiliation
SLP Saba Labour Party Social democracy Centre-left Monique Wilson
WIPM Windward Islands People's Movement Christian democracy Centre Rolando Wilson ODCA

Sint Eustatius

Political party Main ideology Position Leader
DP Democratic Party Christian democracy Centre Adelka Spanner
PLP Progressive Labour Party Social democracy Centre-left Rechelline Leerdam

Defunct political parties

History and evolution of all Dutch political parties to ever have had seats in the House of Representatives.

See also

References

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