This article lists political parties in the Netherlands, which has a multi-party system with numerous political parties, in which any one party has little chance of gaining power alone, and parties often work with each other to form coalition governments.

The lower house of the legislature, the House of Representatives, is elected by a national party-list system of proportional representation. There is no threshold for getting a seat, making it possible for a party to get a seat with only two-thirds percent of the vote—roughly one seat for every 67,000 votes.

No party has won a majority of seats since the election of 1894,[1] and no party has even approached the seats needed for a majority since the current proportional representation system was implemented in 1918. All Dutch governments since then have been coalitions between two or more parties. However, there is a broad consensus on the basic principles of the political system, and all parties must adjust their goals to some extent in order to have a realistic chance at being part of the government.

General overview

Members of four Dutch political parties (PvdA, D66, CDA and VVD) campaigning in Ulft, shortly before the 2010 municipal elections
Members of four Dutch political parties (PvdA, D66, CDA and VVD) campaigning in Ulft, shortly before the 2010 municipal elections

National political parties

Parties represented in the States General and/or European Parliament

Political party Main ideology Position Leader Affiliation Seats Ref.
Eur. EP group Intl. Senators House reps. MEPs
VVD logo (2020–present).svg
People's Party for Freedom and Democracy,
Volkspartij voor Vrijheid en Democratie
Conservative liberalism Centre-right Mark Rutte ALDE Renew LI
12 / 75
34 / 150
5 / 29
D66 logo (2019–present).svg
Democrats 66,
Democraten 66
Social liberalism Centre Sigrid Kaag ALDE Renew LI
7 / 75
24 / 150
2 / 29
CDA logo 2021.svg
Christian Democratic Appeal,
Christen-Democratisch Appèl
Christian democracy Centre to centre-right Wopke Hoekstra EPP EPP CDI
9 / 75
15 / 150
5 / 29
Party for Freedom,
Partij voor de Vrijheid
Right-wing populism Right-wing to far-right Geert Wilders ID
5 / 75
17 / 150
0 / 29
PvdA Logo small.svg
Labour Party,
Partij van de Arbeid
Social democracy Centre-left TBD PES S&D PA
6 / 75
9 / 150
6 / 29
GroenLinks logo (1994–present).svg
Green politics Centre-left to left-wing Jesse Klaver EGP Greens–EFA GG
8 / 75
8 / 150
3 / 29
Socialistische Partij (nl 2006) Logo.svg
Socialist Party,
Socialistische Partij
Democratic socialism Left-wing Lilian Marijnissen
4 / 75
9 / 150
0 / 29
JA21 logo.svg
Right Answer 2021,
Juiste Antwoord 2021
Conservative liberalism Right-wing Joost Eerdmans ECR ECR
7 / 75
3 / 150
3 / 29
Party for the Animals logo.svg
Party for the Animals,
Partij voor de Dieren
Animal rights Left-wing Esther Ouwehand APEU GUE–NGL
3 / 75
6 / 150
1 / 29
Christian Union,
Christian democracy Centre to centre-right Mirjam Bikker ECPM EPP
4 / 75
5 / 150
1 / 29
Forum for Democracy,
Forum voor Democratie
National conservatism Far-right Thierry Baudet NI
2 / 75
5 / 150
1 / 29
SGP logo (2016–present).svg
Reformed Political Party,
Staatkundig Gereformeerde Partij
Christian right Right-wing Kees van der Staaij ECPM ECR
2 / 75
3 / 150
1 / 29
DENK logo (2020–present).svg
DENK Identity politics Centre-left Farid Azarkan
0 / 75
3 / 150
0 / 29
Logo - Belang van Nederland.svg
Interest of the Netherlands,
Belang van Nederland
Classical liberalism Right-wing Wybren van Haga
0 / 75
3 / 150
0 / 29
Logo of Volt Netherlands.svg
Volt Netherlands,
Volt Nederland
Social liberalism Centre Laurens Dassen Volt Greens–EFA
0 / 75
2 / 150
0 / 29
50PLUS (nl) Logo.svg
50PLUS Pensioners' interests Centre Martin van Rooijen
2 / 75
0 / 150
0 / 29
Otten Group,
Groep Otten
Economic liberalism Centre-right Henk Otten
2 / 75
0 / 150
0 / 29
Pensioners' interests Centre Liane den Haan
0 / 75
1 / 150
0 / 29

BoerBurgerBeweging logo.svg
Farmer–Citizen Movement,
Agrarianism Centre-right Caroline van der Plas
0 / 75
1 / 150
0 / 29
BIJ1 logo.svg
BIJ1 Egalitarianism Left-wing to far-left Sylvana Simons
0 / 75
1 / 150
0 / 29
OPNL Independent Politics Netherlands
Onafhankelijke Politiek Nederland
Regionalism Centre Ton Raven EFA
1 / 75
0 / 150
0 / 29
MDD More Direct Democracy
Meer Directe Democratie
Direct Democracy Centre-right Dorien Rookmaker EAFD ECR
0 / 75
0 / 150
1 / 29

Parties without representation in the States General and/or European Parliament

Party Main ideology Position Leader Affiliation Ref.
European International
Alliantie Alliance
New social contract Centre-right Vacant
Code Oranje logo.svg
Code Orange
Code Oranje
Direct democracy Syncretic Bert Blase
NVU logo.svg
Dutch People's Union
Nederlandse Volks-Unie
Ethnic nationalism Far-right Constant Kusters
OPA Elderly Politically Active
Ouderen Politiek Actief
Pensioners' interests Single-issue politics Vacant
Vrij en Sociaal Nederland logo.svg
Free and Social Netherlands
Vrij en Sociaal Nederland
Humanism Centre Bas Filippini
Vrouwenpartij logo.svg
Free-minded Party
Vrijzinnige Partij
Liberalism Centre Vacant
HVV Heart for Freedom
Hart voor Vrijheid
Antivax Syncretic Vacant
Lijst Henk Krol logo.svg
Henk Krol List
Lijst Henk Krol
Progressive conservatism Centre-right Vacant
Jezus Leeft logo.svg
Jesus Lives
Jezus Leeft
Evangelism Right-wing Florens van der Spek
Jong Partij logo.png
Youth politics Centre Jaron Tichelaar
Liberaal Democratische Partij Logo.svg
Liberal Democratic Party (LibDem)
Liberaal Democratische Partij
Social liberalism Centre Sammy van Tuyll
Libertarian Party
Libertaire Partij
Right-libertarianism Right-wing Robert Valentine EPIL LI [46]
Logo of the NLBeter.svg
NLBeter Public sector interests Centre Esther van Fenema
Pacifistisch Socialistische Partij logo.svg
Pacifist Socialist Party '92
Pacifistisch Socialistische Partij '92
Pacifism Left-wing Vacant
PvdR Party for the Republic
Partij voor de Republiek
Republicanism Centre Bruno Braakhuis
PDNM Party The New Human
Partij De Nieuwe Mens
Spiritual left[citation needed] Centre-left[citation needed] Niraï Melis &
Raishrie Gajadin
Pirate Party
Pirate politics Syncretic Matthijs Pontier PPEU PPI [48]
SPL Splinter Social liberalism Centre-left Femke Merel van Kooten
DB The Base
De Basis
Universal basic income Centre-left Dennis Rosenbaum
Partij van de Toekomst logo.svg
The Party Party
De Feestpartij
Joke Party Syncretic Johan Vlemmix
De Groenen logo.svg
The Greens
De Groenen
Green politics Centre Otto ter Haar
Proud of the Netherlands
Trots op Nederland
Conservative liberalism Right-wing Sander van den Raadt
UCF Ubuntu Connected Front Ubuntuism Left-wing Regillio Vaarnold
Logo - Nieuwe Communistische Partij van Nederland (2022).svg
New Communist Party of the Netherlands
Nieuwe Communistische Partij van Nederland
Marxism–Leninism Far-left Rinze Visser IMCWP
VCP logo.svg
United Communist Party
Verenigde Communistische Partij
Communism Far-left Engel Modderman

Regional and local political parties

European Netherlands

Regional parties

Political party Active in Main ideology Position Leader European
FNP Frisian National Party
Fryske Nasjonale Partij
 Friesland Civic nationalism Big tent[49] Sijbe Knol EFA
GB Groninger Interest
Groninger Belang
 Groningen Regionalism Centre Bram Schmaal
OPNH Independent Politics NH
Onafhankelijke Politiek NH
 North Holland Regionalism Centre Jan-Jaap de Kloet
LB Local Brabant
Lokaal Brabant
 North Brabant Regionalism Centre Harold van den Broek
LL Local Limburg
 Limburg Regionalism Centre Raimond Franssen
PvhN Party for the North
Partij voor het Noorden
Regionalism Centre Dries Zwart
PvZ Party for Zeeland
Partij voor Zeeland
 Zeeland Regionalism Centre François Babijn
SL Strong Local Drenthe
Sterk Lokaal Drenthe
 Drenthe Regionalism Centre Alfred Schoenmaker

Local parties

Party Main ideology Position Leader
Forza! Nederland.svg
Forza! Netherlands
Forza! Nederland
Right-wing populism Right-wing Erik Vermeulen
HvDH Heart for The Hague
Hart voor Den Haag/Groep de Mos
Conservative liberalism Right-wing Richard de Mos
Livable Rotterdam
Leefbaar Rotterdam
Fortuynism Right-wing Robert Simons
Verenigde Senioren Partij.svg
United Seniors Party
Verenigde Senioren Partij
Pensioners' interests Single-issue politics Vacant

Water board parties

Political party Main ideology Position Leader
AWP General Water Board Party
Algemene Waterschapspartij
Apoliticism Syncretic Ron van Megen
WN Water Natuurlijk Green politics Centre-left Peter Snoeren

Caribbean Netherlands


Political party Main ideology Position Leader Affiliation
American Intl.
PDB Bonaire Democratic Party
Partido Demokrátiko Boneriano
Social democracy Centre-left Clark Abraham
UPB Bonaire Patriotic Union
Union Patriótiko Boneriano
Christian democracy Centre James Kroon ODCA CDI
MPB Bonaire People's Movement
Movementu di Pueblo Boneriano
Christian socialism Centre Elvis Tjin Asjoe
FSP Social Progressive Front
Frente Sosial Progresivo
Social democracy Centre-left Robby Beukenboom


Political party Main ideology Position Leader American
SLP Saba Labour Party Social democracy Centre-left Monique Wilson
WIPM Windward Islands People's Movement Christian democracy Centre Rolando Wilson ODCA

Sint Eustatius

Political party Main ideology Position Leader
DP Democratic Party Christian democracy Centre Adelka Spanner
PLP Progressive Labour Party Social democracy Centre-left Rechelline Leerdam

Defunct political parties

History and evolution of all Dutch political parties to ever have had seats in the House of Representatives.
History and evolution of all Dutch political parties to ever have had seats in the House of Representatives.

See also


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