Labour Party
Partij van de Arbeid
ChairpersonEsther-Mirjam Sent
Leader in the SenatePaul Rosenmöller (GL–PvdA)
Leader in the House of RepresentativesFrans Timmermans (GL–PvdA)
Leader in the European ParliamentAgnes Jongerius
Founded9 February 1946; 78 years ago (9 February 1946)
Merger ofSDAP
HeadquartersPartijbureau PvdA, Leeghwaterplein 45, The Hague
Youth wingYoung Socialists
Think tankWiardi Beckman Foundation
Membership (2024)Increase 43,675[1]
IdeologySocial democracy
Political positionCentre-left
National affiliationGL–PvdA
Regional affiliationSGD/SVD
European affiliationParty of European Socialists
European Parliament groupProgressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats
International affiliationProgressive Alliance
Colours  Red
47 / 570
75 / 352
Municipal Councils
706 / 7,991
European Parliament
4 / 31
Benelux Parliament
1 / 21

The Labour Party (Dutch: Partij van de Arbeid [pɑrˈtɛi vɑn ˈʔɑrbɛit], abbreviated as PvdA [ˌpeːveːdeːˈjaː, -deːˈʔaː] or P van de A [ˌpeː vɑn ˈʔaː]) is a social democratic[2] political party in the Netherlands.

The party was founded in 1946 as a merger of the Social Democratic Workers' Party, the Free-thinking Democratic League and the Christian Democratic Union. Prime Ministers from the Labour Party have been Willem Drees (1948–1958), Joop den Uyl (1973–1977) and Wim Kok (1994–2002). From 2012 to 2017, the PvdA formed the second-largest party in parliament and was the junior partner in the Second Rutte cabinet with the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy.

The party fell to nine seats in the House of Representatives at the 2017 general election, making it the seventh-largest faction in the chamber—its worst showing ever. However, the party rebounded with a first-place finish in the 2019 European Parliament election in the Netherlands, winning six of 26 seats, with 19% of the vote. The party is a member of the European Party of European Socialists and the global Progressive Alliance. In the European Parliament, where the Labour Party has 6 seats, it is part of the Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats.


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Willem Drees, co-founder, party leader (1946–1958) and Prime Minister (1948–1958)

During the German occupation of the Netherlands in the Second World War, a group of prominent Dutchmen of all democratic political ideologies were interned as hostages in St. Michielsgestel by the German occupation authorities. They came to the consensus that the pre-war fragmentation of Dutch political life, known as "Pillarization", should be overcome after the war in a so-called doorbraak. These people formed the Dutch People's Movement (NVB) immediately after the war ended in 1945. The new movement promoted the foundation of the Labour Party (Partij van de Arbeid – PvdA) on 9 February 1946 through a merger of three pre-war parties, namely the Social Democratic Workers' Party (SDAP), the social-liberal Free-thinking Democratic League (VDB) and the progressive-Protestant Christian Democratic Union (CDU).[3] They were joined by individuals from Catholic resistance group Christofoor, as well as some of the more progressive members of the Protestant parties Christian Historical Union (CHU) and Anti-Revolutionary Party (ARP). The founding Congress was chaired by NVB member Willem Banning.

The founders of the PvdA wanted to create a broad party, breaking with the historic tradition of pillarisation. The party combined socialists with liberal democrats and progressive Christians.[4] However, the party was unable to break pillarisation. Instead the new party renewed the close ties that the SDAP had with other socialist organisations (see linked organisations). In 1948, some of the left-liberal members, led by former VDB leader Pieter Oud, left the PvdA after concluding it had become too socialist for their liking. Together with the Freedom Party, they formed the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD), a conservative-liberal party.

Between 1946 and 1958, the PvdA led centre-left[5][6] coalition governments with the Catholic People's Party (KVP), and combinations of VVD, ARP and CHU, with the PvdA's Willem Drees as prime minister. The KVP and the PvdA together had a large majority in parliament. Under his leadership the Netherlands recovered from the war and began to build its welfare state, and Indonesia became independent.

After the cabinet crisis of 1958, the PvdA was replaced by the VVD. The PvdA was in opposition until 1965. The electoral support of PvdA voters began to decline.


Joop den Uyl, party leader (1966–1986) and Prime Minister (1973–1977)

In 1965, a conflict in the KVP-ARP-CHU-VVD cabinet made continuation of the government impossible. The three confessional, Christian-influenced parties turned towards the PvdA. Together they formed the Cals cabinet, with KVP leader Jo Cals as prime minister. This cabinet too was short-lived and conflict-ridden. The conflicts culminated in the fall of the Cals cabinet over economic policy.

Meanwhile, a younger generation was attempting to gain control of the PvdA. A group of young PvdA members, calling themselves the New Left, changed the party. The New Left believed the party should become oriented towards the new social movements, adopting their anti-parliamentary strategies and their issues, such as women's liberation, environmental conservation and Third World development. Prominent New Left members were Jan Nagel, André van der Louw and Bram Peper. One of their early victories followed the fall of the Cals cabinet. The party Congress adopted a motion that made it impossible for the PvdA to govern with the KVP and its Protestant allies. In response to the growing power of the New Left group, a group of older, centrist party members, led by Willem Drees' son, Willem Drees Jr., founded the New Right. They split in 1970, after it was clear that they had lost the conflict with the New Left, and founded a new moderate Social Democratic party, Democratic Socialists '70 (DS70).

Under the New Left, the PvdA started a strategy of polarisation, striving for a cabinet based on a progressive majority in parliament. In order to form that cabinet, the PvdA allied itself with the social-liberal party Democrats 66 (D66) and the progressive Christian Political Party of Radicals (PPR). The alliance was called the Progressive Accord (PAK). In the 1971 and 1972 elections, these three parties promised to form a cabinet with a radical common programme after the elections. They were unable to gain a majority in either election. In 1971, they were kept out of cabinet, and the party of former PvdA members, DS70, became a partner of the First Biesheuvel cabinet.

In the 1972 elections, neither the PvdA and its allies or the KVP and its allies were able to gain a majority. The two sides were forced to work together. Joop den Uyl, the leader of the PvdA, led the cabinet. The cabinet was an extra-parliamentary cabinet and it was composed of members of the three progressive parties and members of the KVP and the ARP. The cabinet attempted to radically reform government, society and the economy, and a wide range of progressive social reforms were enacted during its time in office, such as significant increases in welfare payments and the indexation of benefits and the minimum wage to the cost of living.[7]

The PvdA also faced economic decline and was riddled with personal and ideological conflicts. The relationship between Prime Minister Den Uyl and the KVP Deputy Prime Minister Dries Van Agt was particularly problematic. These conflict culminated when the cabinet fell just before the 1977 general election. The PvdA came first in that election, but the ideological and personal conflict between Van Agt and Den Uyl prevented the formation of a new centre-left cabinet. After very long cabinet formation talks, the Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA), itself a new Christian democratic political formation composed of KVP, CHU and ARP, formed a government, based on a very narrow majority, with the VVD. The PvdA was left in opposition.

In the 1981 general election, the incumbent CDA–VVD cabinet lost its majority. The CDA remained the largest party, but it was forced to co-operate with the PvdA and D66 (the PPR had left the alliance, after losing in the 1977 election). In the new cabinet led by Van Agt, Den Uyl returned to cabinet, now as Deputy Prime Minister. The personal and ideological conflict between Van Agt and Den Uyl culminated in the fall of the cabinet just months after it was formed. The VVD and the CDA together had a majority in the 1982 general election and retained this in the 1986 general election. The PvdA was left in opposition. During this period the party began to reform. Den Uyl left politics in 1986, appointing former trade union leader Wim Kok as his successor.

Wim Kok, Third Way party leader (1986–2001) and Prime Minister (1994–2002)


After the 1989 general election, the PvdA returned to cabinet together with the CDA. Kok became Deputy Prime Minister to CDA leader Ruud Lubbers. The PvdA accepted the major economic reforms the previous Lubbers cabinets made, including privatisation of public enterprises and reform of the welfare state. They continued these policies in this cabinet. The cabinet faced heavy protest from the unions and saw major political conflict within the PvdA itself.

In the 1994 general election, the PvdA–CDA coalition lost its majority in parliament; the PvdA, however, emerged as the biggest party. Kok formed a government together with the conservative-liberal VVD and social-liberal D66. This so-called 'purple government' was a political novelty, because it was the first since 1918 without any ministers from the CDA or its predecessors. The First Kok cabinet continued the Lubbers-era economic reforms, but combined this with a progressive outlook on ethical questions and promises of political reform. Kok became a very popular Prime Minister; he was not a partisan figure but combined successful technocratic policies with the charisma of a national leader. In the 1998 general election, the cabinet was rewarded for its stewardship of the economy. The PvdA and the VVD increased their seats, at the expense of D66; the Second Kok cabinet was formed.

Kok left politics, leaving the leadership of the party to his preferred successor Ad Melkert. The PvdA was expected to perform very well in the 2002 general election; however, the political rise of Pim Fortuyn frustrated these hopes. The PvdA lost the 2002 election, and the party's parliamentary representation fell from 45 seats to 23. The loss was blamed on the uncharismatic new leader Melkert, the perceived arrogance of the PvdA and the inability to answer the right-wing populist issues Fortuyn raised, especially immigration and integration. Melkert resigned as party leader and was replaced by Jeltje van Nieuwenhoven. The PvdA was kept out of cabinet. The government formed by CDA, VVD and the Pim Fortuyn List (LPF) fell after a very short period.

Wouter Bos, party leader (2002–2010)

Meanwhile, Wouter Bos, Undersecretary in the Second Kok cabinet, was elected leader of the PvdA in a ballot among PvdA members, being elected closely to Jouke de Vries. He started to democratise the party organisation and began an ideological reorientation. In the 2003 general election, Wouter Bos managed to regain almost all seats lost in the previous election, and the PvdA was once again the second largest party in the Netherlands, only slightly smaller than the CDA. Personal and ideological conflicts between Bos and the CDA leader Jan Peter Balkenende prevented the formation of a CDA–PvdA cabinet. Instead, the PvdA was kept out of government by the formation of cabinet of the CDA, the VVD, and D66, the latter being former allies of PvdA. In the 2006 municipal elections, the renewed PvdA performed very well. The PvdA became by far the largest party nationally, while the three governing parties lost a considerable number of seats in municipal councils.

The PvdA lost the race for Prime Minister to the CDA after suffering a loss of nine seats in the 2006 general election. The PvdA now held only 33 seats, losing many votes to the Socialist Party (SP). The PvdA had previously distanced themselves from the idea of a voting bloc on the left. It did, however, join the fourth Balkenende cabinet on 22 February 2007, in which Wouter Bos became minister of Finance. In the aftermath of the lost elections, the entire party executive stepped down on 26 April 2007. On Saturday 20 February 2010, the Labour Party withdrew from the government after arguments over the Dutch role in Afghanistan.


After withdrawing from the government, Wouter Bos announced he would leave politics to spend more time with his wife and two daughters. The then-mayor of Amsterdam, Job Cohen, took his place as leader of the PvdA. In the 2010 general election, the PvdA won 30 seats, a loss of three, and was narrowly overtaken by the VVD. After the election, a 'purple-plus coalition' was considered, which would have required the participation of GroenLinks, in addition to the VVD, PvdA and D66 – but talks broke down and the PvdA entered opposition.

Lodewijk Asscher, party leader (2016–2021)

Cohen resigned as leader in February 2012.[8] Diederik Samsom was subsequently elected the party leader. In the 2012 general election, the Labour Party won 38 seats, a gain of eight, defying initial predictions that the Socialist Party would overtake it. Following the election the party entered a governing coalition with the VVD under Mark Rutte, with Labour's Lodewijk Asscher becoming Deputy Prime Minister.

Opinion polls suggested that popular support for the PvdA fell into a gradual decline in the years after the 2012 election. The party was polled as low as 5% by Peil on 8 May 2016.[9][10] In December 2016, Samson was defeated by Lodewijk Asscher in a party leadership election.

In the 2017 general election, the PvdA suffered the biggest defeat in Dutch electoral history, receiving only 5.7% of the votes and losing 29 of its 38 seats. Asscher did not resign from his post, claiming the defeat was his predecessor's responsibility. The party experienced a degree of revival in 2019, obtaining the most votes in that year's European Parliament election. This marked the first time the PvdA had finished first in a national election since 1998.

Ahead of the 2021 general election, Asscher resigned from the party leadership due to his part in the childcare benefits scandal.[11] He was replaced as leader and lead candidate by Lilianne Ploumen, who became the party's first permanent female leader.[12] Following the election, the PvdA participated unsuccessfully in the 2021 Dutch cabinet formation in conjunction with Green Left.[13][14] Ploumen later left, claiming she was unsuited for the leadership. Ploumen was replaced as parliamentary leader by Attje Kuiken.

2023–: Co-operation with GroenLinks

Following the 2023 Senate election in 30 May 2023, PvdA and GroenLinks deepened their co-operation by forming a joint parliamentary group in the senate, becoming the second-largest group behind the Farmer–Citizen Movement.[15][16]

On 17 July 2023, the party and Green Left announced that they would contest the upcoming 2023 general election with a common policy programme and joint electoral list.[17]


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The PvdA began as a traditional social-democratic party, committed to building a welfare state. During the 1970s, it included new issues in its programme such as environmental conservation, Third World development and women's liberation. During the 1990s it moderated its programme to include Third Way economic and social positions, including reform of the welfare state and privatisation of public enterprise. The party adopted a new programme of principles in 2005, expressing a centre-left[18][19][20] ideology. Its core issues are employment, social security and welfare as well as investing in public education, health care and public safety.


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Organisational structure

Presentation of the PvdA candidates for the 2012 general election
PvdA activists in an October 2004 demonstration

The highest organ of the PvdA is the Congress, formed by delegates from the municipal branches. It convenes once every year. It appoints the party board, decides the order of candidates on electoral lists for the Senate, House of Representatives and European Parliament and has the final say over the party programme. Since 2002, a referendum of all members has partially replaced the Congress. Both the lead candidate of the House of Representatives candidate list, who is the political leader of the party, and the party chairman, who leads the party organisation, are selected by such a referendum. In 2002, Wouter Bos won the PvdA leadership election.


As of 2024, PvdA has 43,675 members.[1] They are organised in over 500 municipal branches.

Linked organisations

Rood is the party periodical. It appears eight times a year. The Young Socialists is the youth organisation of the PvdA. It is a member of Young European Socialists and the International Union of Socialist Youth. They publish the periodical Lava.

The scientific institute (or think tank) of the PvdA is the Wiardi Beckman Foundation. It publishes the periodical Socialisme & Democratie. The PvdA participates in the Netherlands Institute for Multiparty Democracy, a democracy assistance organisation of seven Dutch political parties.

International organisations

The PvdA is a full member of the Party of European Socialists and was formerly an observer member of the Socialist International until December 2014, having previously downgraded their membership in December 2012.[21] The PvdA joined the Progressive Alliance, a new international network for social democratic political parties, at its founding event on 22 May 2013.[22]

Pillarised organisations

During the period of strong pillarisation the PvdA had strong links with the social democratic broadcasting organisation VARA Broadcasting Association, the Dutch Association of Trade Unions, and the paper Het Vrije Volk.

Relationships to other parties

Historically, the PvdA has co-operated in cabinets with the Christian democratic Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA), Political Party of Radicals (PPR), Catholic People's Party (KVP), Anti-Revolutionary Party (ARP), Christian Historical Union (CHU) and ChristianUnion (CU) parties and the liberal parties Democrats 66 (D66) and People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD). Between 1971 and 1977, PvdA was allied with D66 and the PPR. After 1977 until 1989, it was closely allied to D66. Since 2003, the relationship between the PvdA and D66 has considerably worsened, at first because PvdA was in opposition to the Second Balkenende cabinet, in which D66 had co-operated.

During the governance of the second and third Balkenende cabinet, the Socialist Party and GreenLeft were calling for closer cooperation with the PvdA, calling to form a shadow government against the Balkenende cabinet, PvdA leader Bos held this off.[citation needed]

The PvdA has strong ties with GreenLeft. In the 2021 Dutch cabinet formation, the parties unsuccessfully combined. Prominent members including Frans Timmermans and Marjolein Moorman have called for a deepened collaboration. A merger has also been discussed. The Wiardi Beckman Foundation has voiced its opposition to this.

Election results

House of Representatives

Lilianne Ploumen, party leader from January 2021 until April 2022
Election[23] Lead candidate Votes % Seats +/– Government
1946 Willem Drees 1,347,940 28.31 (#2)
29 / 100
New Coalition
1948 1,262,888 25.61 (#2)
27 / 100
Decrease 2 Coalition (1948–1951)
Coalition (1951–1952)
1952 1,545,844 28.97 (#1)
30 / 100
Increase 3 Coalition
1956 1,872,201 32.69 (#1)
50 / 150
Increase 20 Coalition (1956–1958)
Opposition (1958–1959)
1959 Jaap Burger 1,821,285 30.36 (#2)
48 / 150
Decrease 2 Opposition
1963 Anne Vondeling 1,753,025 28.01 (#2)
43 / 150
Decrease 5 Opposition (1963–1965)
Coalition (1965–1966)
Opposition (1966–1967)
1967 Joop den Uyl 1,620,447 23.55 (#2)
37 / 150
Decrease 6 Opposition
1971 1,554,733 24.60 (#1)
39 / 150
Increase 2 Opposition
1972 2,021,454 27.34 (#1)
43 / 150
Increase 4 Coalition
1977 2,813,793 33.83 (#1)
53 / 150
Increase 10 Opposition
1981 2,458,452 28.29 (#2)
44 / 150
Decrease 9 Coalition
1982 2,503,517 30.40 (#1)
47 / 150
Increase 3 Opposition
1986 3,051,678 33.23 (#2)
52 / 150
Increase 5 Opposition
1989 Wim Kok 2,832,739 31.91 (#2)
49 / 150
Decrease 3 Coalition
1994 2,153,135 23.97 (#1)
37 / 150
Decrease 12 Coalition
1998 2,494,555 28.98 (#1)
45 / 150
Increase 8 Coalition
2002 Ad Melkert 1,436,023 15.11 (#4)
23 / 150
Decrease 22 Opposition
2003 Wouter Bos 2,631,363 27.26 (#2)
42 / 150
Increase 19 Opposition
2006 2,085,077 21.19 (#2)
33 / 150
Decrease 9 Coalition (2007–2010)
Opposition (2010)
2010 Job Cohen 1,848,805 19.63 (#2)
30 / 150
Decrease 3 Opposition
2012 Diederik Samsom 2,340,750 24.84 (#2)
38 / 150
Increase 8 Coalition
2017[24] Lodewijk Asscher 599,699 5.70 (#7)
9 / 150
Decrease 29 Opposition
2021 Lilianne Ploumen 595,799 5.73 (#6)
9 / 150
Steady Opposition
2023[a] Frans Timmermans 1,643,073 15.8 (#2)
12 / 150
Increase 3 Opposition
  1. ^ Run as part of GroenLinks–PvdA, a joint list with GL.


Election Votes % Seats +/–
14 / 50
14 / 50
14 / 50
14 / 50
14 / 50
Jun 1956
15 / 75
Increase 1
Oct 1956
22 / 75
Increase 7
23 / 75
Increase 1
25 / 75
Increase 2
22 / 75
Decrease 3
20 / 75
Decrease 2
18 / 75
Decrease 2
21 / 75
Increase 3
25 / 75
Increase 4
26 / 75
Increase 1
28 / 75
Increase 2
17 / 75
Decrease 11
17 / 75
26 / 75
Increase 9
16 / 75
Decrease 10
14 / 75
Decrease 2
1999 30.976 19.7
15 / 75
Increase 1
2003 40,613[25] 25.12[25]
19 / 75
Increase 4
2007 31,032[25] 19.03[25]
14 / 75
Decrease 5
2011 30.078[25] 18.76[25]
14 / 75
2015 17,651[25] 11.05[25]
8 / 75
Decrease 6
2019 14,921[25] 8.62[25]
6 / 75
Decrease 2
2023 15,862 8.86
7 / 75
Increase 1

European Parliament

Paul Tang, leader in the European Parliament since 2014
Election List Votes % Seats +/– EP Group
1979 List 1,722,240 30.39 (#2)
9 / 25
1984 List 1,785,165 33.70 (#1)
9 / 25
Steady 0
1989 List 1,609,626 30.70 (#2)
8 / 25
Decrease 1
1994 List 945,869 22.88 (#2)
8 / 31
Steady 0 PES
1999 List 712,929 20.11 (#2)
6 / 31
Decrease 2
2004 List 1,124,549 23.60 (#2)
7 / 27
Increase 1
2009 List 548,691 12.05 (#3)
3 / 25
Decrease 4 S&D
3 / 26
Steady 0
2014 List 446,763 9.40 (#6)
3 / 26
Steady 0
2019 List 1,045,274 19.01 (#1)
6 / 26
Increase 3
6 / 29
Steady 0
2024[a] List 1,314,428 21.09 (#1)
4 / 31
Decrease 2
  1. ^ Run as part of GroenLinks–PvdA, a joint list with GL.


Members of the House of Representatives

Main article: List of members of the House of Representatives of the Netherlands, 2023–present

Members of the Senate

Main article: List of members of the Senate of the Netherlands, 2023–2027

PvdA has seven members in the Senate. PvdA has formed a parliamentary group with GroenLinks in the Senate.

Members of the European Parliament

Further information: 2019 European Parliament election in the Netherlands

Further information: List of members of the European Parliament for the Netherlands, 2019–24

Further information: Party lists in the 2019 European Parliament election in the Netherlands § P.v.d.A./European Social Democrats

The six members (four women, two men) of the European Parliament since the European Parliamentary election of 2019 are the following:

  1. Agnes Jongerius
  2. Kati Piri
  3. Paul Tang
  4. Vera Tax
  5. Mohammed Chahim
  6. Lara Wolters


  1. ^ a b "Ledentallen Nederlandse politieke partijen per 1 januari 2024" [Membership of Dutch political parties as of 1 January 2024]. University of Groningen (in Dutch). Documentation Centre Dutch Political Parties. 28 February 2024. Retrieved 28 February 2024.
  2. ^ The PvdA is widely described as a social-democratic political party:
  3. ^ Moldenhauer, Gebhard (1 January 2001). Die Niederlande und Deutschland: einander kennen und verstehen. Waxmann Verlag. p. 113. ISBN 978-3-89325-747-8.
  4. ^ Notermans, Ton (January 2001). Social Democracy and Monetary Union. Berghahn Books. p. 226. ISBN 978-1-57181-806-5.
  5. ^ Decolonising the Caribbean Dutch policies in a Comparative Perspective By Gert Oostindie, Inge Klinkers, P.234
  6. ^ Company Financial Reporting A Historical and Comparative Study of the Dutch Regulatory Process By Stephen A Zeff, Frans van der Wel, C. Camfferman, 2016, P.119
  7. ^ Ferrera, Maurizio; Rhodes, Martin (1 January 2000). Recasting European Welfare States. Psychology Press. ISBN 9780714651040 – via Google Books.
  8. ^ "Dutch Labour Party leader resigns". RNW Media. Archived from the original on 8 August 2014. Retrieved 8 June 2015.
  9. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 May 2017. Retrieved 10 May 2016.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  10. ^ "Tijd voor een revolutie in de politiek: gros burgemeesters heeft niets met het volk". 9 May 2016. Archived from the original on 10 May 2016.
  11. ^ "Labour leader Lodewijk Asscher quits over childcare benefit criticism". 14 January 2021. Retrieved 29 January 2021.
  12. ^ "Lilianne Ploumen succeeds Lodewijk Asscher as Labour party leader". 18 January 2021. Retrieved 29 January 2021.
  13. ^ "Minority coalition looms after Rutte swipes left on PvdA-GL pact". September 2021.
  14. ^ "No breakthrough in cabinet formation talks; "Definitive conclusions" Wednesday".
  15. ^ "Nieuwe Eerste Kamer: coalitie heeft ook met PvdA/GL meerderheid, BBB grootste". NOS (in Dutch). 30 May 2023. Retrieved 31 May 2023.
  16. ^ "Grote stap voor PvdA, GroenLinks: verder samen in Eerste Kamer". NOS (in Dutch). 11 June 2022. Retrieved 26 March 2023.
  17. ^
  18. ^ Colomer, Josep M. (24 July 2008). Comparative European Politics. Taylor & Francis. p. 221f. ISBN 978-0-203-94609-1. Retrieved 13 July 2013.
  19. ^ Score 4.0/10 in 2003 Chapel Hill expert survey, see Hooghe et al. (2003) Chapel Hill Survey Archived 25 July 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  20. ^ "Dutch election: How do you choose between 28 parties?". Sky News. 15 March 2017. Retrieved 4 February 2023.
  21. ^ "PvdA steunt oprichting Progressive Alliance". PvdA – Partij van de Arbeid. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 8 June 2015.
  22. ^ "Progressive Alliance opgericht in Leipzig – PvdA". 24 May 2013. Archived from the original on 24 December 2013.
  23. ^ "Verkiezingsuitslagen Tweede Kamer 1918 – heden Archived 18 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine" (in Dutch), Kiesraad. Retrieved 24 March 2017.
  24. ^ "Uitslag van de verkiezing van de leden van de Tweede Kamer van 15 maart 2017 – Kerngegevens Archived 22 March 2017 at the Wayback Machine" (in Dutch), Kiesraad, 2017. Retrieved 24 March 2017.
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Verkiezingsuitslagen Eerste Kamer 1918 – heden Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine" (in Dutch), Kiesraad. Retrieved 24 March 2017.

Further reading