Mark Rutte
Rutte in 2023
Prime Minister of the Netherlands
Assumed office
14 October 2010
See list
Preceded byJan Peter Balkenende
Leader of the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy
Assumed office
31 May 2006
Preceded byJozias van Aartsen
State Secretary for Education, Culture and Science
In office
17 June 2004 – 27 June 2006
Prime MinisterJan Peter Balkenende
Preceded byAnnette Nijs
Succeeded byBruno Bruins
State Secretary for Social Affairs and Employment
In office
22 July 2002 – 17 June 2004
Prime MinisterJan Peter Balkenende
Preceded byHans Hoogervorst
Succeeded byHenk van Hoof
Member of the House of Representatives
In office
31 March 2021 – 10 January 2022
In office
23 March 2017 – 26 October 2017
In office
20 September 2012 – 5 November 2012
In office
28 June 2006 – 14 October 2010
In office
30 January 2003 – 27 May 2003
Personal details
Born (1967-02-14) 14 February 1967 (age 56)
The Hague, Netherlands
Political partyVVD
EducationLeiden University (BA, MA)
WebsiteOfficial website

Mark Rutte (Dutch: [ˈmɑr(ə)k ˈrʏtə] (listen); born 14 February 1967) is a Dutch politician who has served as prime minister of the Netherlands since 2010. He was also the leader of the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD) from 2006 through 2023. He is currently acting in a demissionary capacity and will not return to politics following installation of a new cabinet.[1][2]

After a business career working for Unilever, Rutte entered politics in 2002 as a member of Jan Peter Balkenende's cabinets. Rutte won the 2006 VVD leadership election and first led the party to their victory in the 2010 general election. After lengthy coalition negotiations, he became prime minister of the Netherlands. He was the first liberal to be appointed prime minister in 92 years.[3]

An impasse on budget negotiations led to his government's early collapse in April 2012, but the VVD's victory in the subsequent election allowed Rutte to return as prime minister to lead a coalition between the VVD and the Labour Party (PvdA), which became the first cabinet to see out a full four-year term since 1998. Though the VVD lost seats in the 2017 general election, it remained the largest party. After a record-length formation period, Rutte was appointed to lead to a new coalition between the VVD, Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA), Democrats 66 (D66) and Christian Union (CU).

Though Rutte and his cabinet resigned in response to the Dutch childcare benefits scandal,[4][5][6] the VVD won the 2021 general election.[7][8] Rutte began his fourth term in 2022 after another record-length formation period. On 7 July 2023, he announced his government's resignation after his coalition failed to agree on how to handle increasing migration.[9][10] His government will take on a caretaker role until the installation of the next cabinet after the elections in Autumn 2023.[11] Due to his ability to come out of political scandals with his reputation undamaged, Rutte has been referred to as "Teflon Mark".[12]

Early life

Rutte was born in The Hague, in the province of South Holland,[13] in a Dutch Reformed family. He is the youngest child of Izaäk Rutte (5 October 1909 – 22 April 1988), a merchant, and his second wife, Hermina Cornelia Dilling (13 November 1923 – 13 May 2020), a secretary. Izaäk Rutte worked for a trading company; first as an importer in the Dutch East Indies, later as a director in the Netherlands.[citation needed] His second wife was a sister of his first wife, Petronella Hermanna Dilling (17 March 1910 – 20 July 1945), who died while she and he were interned together in Tjideng, a prisoner of war camp in Batavia, now Jakarta, during World War II.[14][15] Rutte has seven siblings as a result of his father's two marriages. One of his elder brothers died from AIDS in the 1980s. Rutte later described the deaths of his brother and later his father as events that changed the course of his life.[16][17]

Rutte attended the Maerlant Lyceum from 1979 until 1985,[18] specialising in the arts. Although Rutte's original ambition was to attend a conservatory and become a concert pianist,[19] he went to study history at Leiden University instead, where he obtained an MA degree in 1992.[20] Rutte combined his studies with a position on the board of the Youth Organisation Freedom and Democracy, the youth organisation of the VVD, of which he was the chair from 1988 to 1991.[21]

After his studies, Rutte entered the business world, working as a manager for Unilever (and its food subsidiary Calvé). Until 1997, Rutte was part of the human resource department of Unilever, and played a leading role in several reorganisations. Between 1997 and 2000, Rutte was staff manager for Van den Bergh Nederland, a subsidiary of Unilever's. In 2000, Rutte became a member of the Corporate Human Resources Group, and in 2002, he became human resource manager for IgloMora Groep, another subsidiary of Unilever's.[22]

Between 1993 and 1997, Rutte was a member of the national board of the VVD. Rutte also served as a member of the VVD candidate committee for the general election of 2002. Rutte was elected as Member of Parliament in 2003.[citation needed]

Political career

Rutte served as State Secretary (i.e. Deputy Minister) at the Social Affairs and Employment Ministry from 22 July 2002 to 17 June 2004 in the First and Second Balkenende cabinets. Rutte was responsible for fields including bijstand (municipal welfare) and arbeidsomstandigheden (Occupational safety and health). After the 2003 elections Rutte was briefly also a member of the House of Representatives, from 30 January to 27 May 2003.[citation needed]

In 2003, as State Secretary, Rutte advised municipalities to check, exceptionally, Somali residents for social assistance fraud, after some Somalis working in England were also found to receive social assistance benefits in the Netherlands. A Somali man entitled to benefits was stopped by social investigators and checked for fraud on the basis of his external characteristics, after which he refused the investigators access to his home. The Municipal Executive (College van burgemeester en wethouders) of Haarlem decided to withdraw the right of the man to social benefits. He disagreed with this and his appeal was upheld by the administrative judge. The court ruled that "an investigation aimed exclusively at persons of Somali descent is discriminatory" and contrary to the Constitution because this distinction is "discrimination based on race". Rutte rejected the criticism and stated that a change in the law would then be necessary to be able to combat targeted fraud.[23][24][25]

Rutte later served as State Secretary for Higher Education and Science, within the Education, Culture and Science Ministry, replacing Annette Nijs, from 17 June 2004 to 27 June 2006, in the Second Balkenende cabinet. In office, Rutte showed particular interest in making the Dutch higher education system more competitive internationally, by trying to make it more market oriented (improving the position of students as consumers in the market for education). Rutte would have been succeeded by former The Hague alderman Bruno Bruins. Before Bruins could be sworn into office, the second Balkenende cabinet fell. In the subsequently formed Third Balkenende cabinet Bruins succeeded Rutte as State secretary.[citation needed]

Rutte resigned from his position in government in June 2006 to return to the House of Representatives, and he soon became the parliamentary leader of the VVD. Rutte became an important figure within the VVD leadership. Rutte was campaign manager for the 2006 municipal elections.[citation needed]

Party leadership election

After the resignation of Jozias van Aartsen, the VVD having lost in the 2006 Dutch municipal election, the party held an internal election for a new Lead Candidate, in which Rutte competed against Rita Verdonk and Jelleke Veenendaal. On 31 May 2006, it was announced that Mark Rutte would be the next lijsttrekker of the VVD. He was elected by 51.5% of party members. Rutte's candidacy was backed by the VVD leadership, including the party board, and many prominent politicians such as Frank de Grave, former minister of Defence, Ivo Opstelten, the mayor of Rotterdam and Ed Nijpels, the Queen's Commissioner of Friesland. The Youth Organisation Freedom and Democracy, the VVD's youth wing, of which he had been chair, also backed him. During the elections he promised "to make the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy a party for everyone and not just of the elite". His youthful appearance has been likened to the successful former leader of the Labour Party, Wouter Bos.[citation needed]

Rutte said that the Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA) party was a group that "the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy could do business with".[26] He had also stated that with the social security ideas of the Labour Party, which he called too socialist, it was unlikely that the VVD would cooperate or form a coalition after the elections.[citation needed]

2006 general election

For the 2006 general election, the VVD campaign with Rutte as leader did not get off to a good start; he received criticism from within his own party.[27] Rutte was said to be overshadowed by his own party members Rita Verdonk and Gerrit Zalm, as well as being unable to penetrate between Wouter Bos and Jan Peter Balkenende, who were generally seen as the prime candidates to become the next Prime Minister. On 27 November, it became known that Rita Verdonk, who generally held a more populist view on politics, managed to obtain more votes than Mark Rutte; he obtained 553,200 votes against Verdonk's 620,555.[27][28] After repeated criticisms by Verdonk on VVD policy, Rutte expelled her from the party's parliamentary faction on 13 September 2007.[29]

2010 general election

In the 2010 general election, Rutte was once again the lijsttrekker for the VVD. It won 31 seats to become the largest party in the House of Representatives for the first time ever.[30] A long period of negotiations followed, with several personalities succeeding each other, being appointed by Queen Beatrix in order to find out what coalition could be formed. Efforts to form a broad spectrum coalition between the VVD, CDA and PvdA failed. Instead, the only possibility appeared to be a centre-right coalition of liberals and Christian Democrats (CDA), with the outside support of the Party for Freedom (PVV), led by Geert Wilders.[citation needed]

Prime Minister of The Netherlands

Premiership of Mark Rutte
14 October 2010 – present
Mark Rutte
CabinetFirst Rutte cabinet
Second Rutte cabinet
Third Rutte cabinet
Fourth Rutte cabinet
PartyPeople's Party for Freedom and Democracy
Election2010, 2012, 2017, 2021
Appointed byWillem-Alexander of the Netherlands

Official website

First term

Rutte presenting his first cabinet together with Deputy Prime Minister Maxime Verhagen (CDA) and coalition partner Geert Wilders (PVV)

After securing support for a coalition between the VVD and CDA, Rutte was appointed as formateur on 8 October 2010; Rutte announced his prospective cabinet, including Maxime Verhagen from the CDA as Deputy Prime Minister. On 14 October, Queen Beatrix formally invited Rutte to form a government, and later that day, Rutte presented his first cabinet to Parliament. The government was confirmed in office by a majority of one, and Rutte was sworn in as Prime Minister of the Netherlands, becoming the first Liberal to serve in the role since Pieter Cort van der Linden in 1918.[30] He also became the second-youngest Prime Minister in Dutch history, after Ruud Lubbers.[citation needed]

After the victory at the 2011 provincial elections, the VVD secured its status as the lead party within the government. In March 2012, seeking to comply with European Union requirements to reduce the nation's deficit, Rutte began talks with his coalition partners on a budget which would cut 16 billion euros of spending. However, PVV leader Geert Wilders withdrew his party's informal support from the government on 21 April, stating that the proposed budget would hurt economic growth.[31] This led to the early collapse of the government, and Rutte submitted his resignation to Queen Beatrix on the afternoon of 23 April.[32] His government had lasted for 558 days, making it one of the shortest Dutch cabinets since World War II.[31]

Second term

Ahead of the 2012 general election, Rutte was named the VVD's lijsttrekker for the third time. At the election in September, the VVD won an additional 10 seats, remaining the largest party in the House of Representatives; the CDA and PVV saw their number of seats fall significantly.[33] The VVD quickly negotiated a coalition agreement with the Labour Party, and on 5 November 2012, the Second Rutte cabinet was confirmed by a vote in Parliament, seeing Rutte returned as Prime Minister of a VVD-PvdA coalition government.[citation needed]

In 2014, The Hague held a Group of Seven special meeting after the Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 was shot down in Ukraine with 193 Dutch nationals aboard. During the municipal elections of 2014, the VVD finished third behind local parties and the CDA; at the European Parliament election the same year, it finished fourth. At the 2015 Dutch provincial elections, however, the VVD remained the largest party in the province's legislatures with about 15% of the vote, but lost 23 seats in the States-Provincial.[citation needed]

In April 2016, Rutte was appointed by United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon and President of the World Bank Group Jim Yong Kim to the High-Level Panel on Water. Co-chaired by Mauritius President Ameenah Gurib and Mexican President Enrique Peña Nieto, the joint United Nations-World Bank Group panel was set up to accelerate the implementation of Sustainable Development Goal 6 (SDG 6).[34] That month also saw the 2016 Dutch Ukraine–European Union Association Agreement referendum, which resulted in a rejection. In November 2016 the House of Representatives approved by 132 votes against 18 a ban on the Islamic burqa in some public spaces including schools and hospitals, a bill supported by the VVD.[35]

Rutte's second cabinet completed its full four-year term without collapsing or losing a vote of no confidence, becoming the first cabinet to do so since the First Kok cabinet from 1994 to 1998.[36]

Third term

Rutte with U.S. President Donald Trump in the Oval Office of the White House on 18 July 2019
Rutte with Indonesian Minister of Public Works Basuki Hadimuljono showing off their Nokia phones in 2019

The VVD went into the 2017 general election with a small lead over the PVV in most opinion polls. Rutte was judged to have managed the 2017 Dutch–Turkish diplomatic incident well according to similar polling. While the VVD lost 8 seats in the general election, the PvdA lost 29, and these seats were split between a number of other parties, leaving the VVD the largest party in parliament for the third successive election. After holding coalition discussions, Rutte negotiated a grand coalition with the CDA, D66 and CU; he presented his third cabinet on 26 October 2017, and was sworn in as Prime Minister for a third term. The 225 days between the general election and the installation of the government was the longest such period in Dutch history.[citation needed]

The coalition agreement's plan to abolish the 15% dividend tax (providing the state €1.4 billion per year) proved highly unpopular, as it had not been mentioned in any party's program, and it later appeared that major Dutch companies like Shell and Unilever had secretly been lobbying for that measure.[37]

In July 2018, Rutte became a topic in international news because of what was considered "typical Dutch bluntness", by interrupting and explicitly contradicting the American president Donald Trump during a meeting with the press at the Oval Office in the White House.[38][39]

Rutte's third government provided materials to the Levant Front rebel group in Syria.[40] In September 2018, the Dutch public prosecution department declared the Levant Front to be a "criminal organisation of terrorist intent", describing it as a "salafist and jihadistic" group that "strives for the setting up of the caliphate".[41]

On 21 March 2018, the Dutch Intelligence and Security Services Act referendum was held. It resulted in a rejection. At the 2019 provincial elections, Rutte's VVD suffered a blow following the victory of right-wing populist newcomer Forum for Democracy (FvD).[citation needed]

During the negotiations for the COVID-19 recovery fund in the European Union, Rutte is considered the unofficial leader of the Frugal Four,[42] demanding loans instead of grants and more conditions on them.[citation needed]

During a parliamentary debate on 9 September 2020, Rutte suggested that the EU could be dissolved and re-formed without Poland and Hungary, as he perceives these countries' governments to be dismantling the rule of law.[43][44][45]

On 15 January 2021, the third Rutte cabinet collectively resigned after publications of research around the childcare subsidies scandal in the Netherlands.[46] Rutte offered his resignation to the King, accepting responsibility for the scandal.[47]

Fourth term

Following the 2021 Dutch general election, Rutte's VVD party held 34 of 150 seats and was expected to form a new coalition government.[48] After remaining caretaker Prime Minister for the duration of the longest formation process in Dutch history, on 15 December 2021 he presented a coalition agreement with D66, CDA and CU, the same combination as his previous government.[49]

A scandal during his fourth term was that it was found out that he had been wiping the majority of SMS text messages of his phone for years, in violation of the archival law, personally judging which messages were to be archived and which weren't.[50] His excuse was that his phone memory filled up too quickly. This was not considered a plausible excuse by other ministers.[51] This was also in violation of his campaign promise and coalition accords that stated they wished to restore peoples faith in politics, create a new governance culture and "improve the information provided to the [second] house", that the archival law would be modernized and that information would be made available faster.[52]

On 2 August 2022, he became the longest-serving Prime Minister in Dutch history, overtaking Lubbers, who served from 1982 to 1994.[53][54]

On 10 July 2023, Rutte announced his departure as political leader of the VVD.[55]


Personal life

Rutte is single.[13][60] He is a member of the Dutch Protestant Church.[61] As of 2021, Rutte still taught social studies for two hours a week at the Johan de Witt College, a secondary school in The Hague.[20][62] Rutte is known to be a big fan of the writing of Robert Caro, especially his 1974 book about Robert Moses, The Power Broker.[63] He drives a Saab 9-3 estate.[64]

See also


  1. ^ "Nieuwe verkiezingen vinden op zijn vroegst half november plaats". NU (in Dutch). 7 July 2023. Retrieved 11 July 2023.
  2. ^ Boztas, Senay (10 July 2023). "Dutch PM Mark Rutte to leave politics after collapse of government". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 10 July 2023.
  3. ^ "Mark Rutte: eerste liberale premier sinds 1918" (in Dutch). 7 October 2010. Archived from the original on 26 May 2012. Retrieved 23 April 2012.
  4. ^ "Dutch PM Rutte and his government quit over child welfare scandal". Al Jazeera. 15 January 2021. Retrieved 16 January 2021.
  5. ^ "The buck stops here: Dutch govt quits over welfare scandal". Associated Press. 15 January 2021. Retrieved 16 January 2021.
  6. ^ "Dutch Prime Minister Mark Rutte and his entire Cabinet resign over child welfare scandal". 15 January 2021. Retrieved 16 January 2021.
  7. ^ "Netherlands election: Mark Rutte claims fourth term with 'overwhelming' victory". 18 March 2021.
  8. ^ "Dutch Prime Minister Mark Rutte and his entire Cabinet resign over child welfare scandal". CBS News. 15 January 2021. Retrieved 16 January 2021.
  9. ^ "Mark Rutte resigns as Dutch PM amid migration dispute – National |". Global News. Retrieved 7 July 2023.
  10. ^ Corder, Mike (7 July 2023). "Dutch premier resigns because of deadlock on thorny issue of migration, paving way for new elections". Associated Press. Retrieved 7 July 2023.
  11. ^ Moses, Claire; Dan Bilefsky (7 July 2023). "Dutch Government Collapses Over Plan to Further Limit Immigration". The New York Times. Retrieved 7 July 2023.
  12. ^ "'Teflon' Mark Rutte set for fourth Dutch term after record-breaking talks". 14 December 2021.
  13. ^ a b (in Dutch) Drs. M. (Mark) Rutte, Parlement & Politiek. Retrieved 2 August 2014.
  14. ^ Death of Mark Rutte's mother
  15. ^ Pedigree
  16. ^ "Rutte on Zomergasten: Wilders, multiculturalism and the 'last taboo'". 5 September 2016.
  17. ^ "Mark Rutte: North's quiet rebel". 8 June 2018.
  18. ^ "Rutte opent Maerlant-Lyceum Den Haag". Hart van Nederland. 16 February 2011. Retrieved 10 June 2020.
  19. ^ "Rutte had pianoleraar kunnen zijn". De Pers. Archived from the original on 11 March 2012. Retrieved 23 April 2012.
  20. ^ a b "CV | Mark Rutte". Archived from the original on 20 March 2012. Retrieved 23 April 2012.
  21. ^ "Mark Rutte" (in Dutch). VVD.
  22. ^ "Biografie – Mark Rutte". Archived from the original on 24 May 2012. Retrieved 23 April 2012.
  23. ^ "Rutte: Veroordeling discriminatie onterecht". Elsevier. 19 May 2007.
  24. ^ "Rutte zette aan tot discriminatie". NRC Handelsblad. 21 May 2007.
  25. ^ ECLI:NL:RBHAA:2007:BA5410
  26. ^ "CDA calls for longer working week". 18 August 2006.
  27. ^ a b (in Dutch) "Onvrede binnen VVD over Rutte," Algemeen Dagblad (31 October 2006). Retrieved 14 May 2014.
  28. ^ "Tension mounts as VVD waits for Verdonk's reaction to voters' support". 28 November 2006.
  29. ^ (in Dutch) Oranje, Joost and Guus Valk, "Kamp: VVD moet Rutte nu steunen," Archived 15 May 2014 at the Wayback Machine NRC Handelsblad (15 September 2007). Retrieved 14 May 2014. Literal English translation: "Verdonk was yesterday by Mark Rutte formally expelled from the VVD's parliamentary party in the House of Representatives after she had again voiced criticism of the party in the press." Dutch original: "Verdonk werd gisteren formeel door Mark Rutte uit de Tweede Kamerfractie van de VVD gezet, nadat zij in de pers opnieuw kritiek had geuit op de fractie."
  30. ^ a b "Election 2010 – The Netherlands shifts to the right". NRC Handelsblad. 10 June 2010. Archived from the original on 13 June 2010. Retrieved 10 June 2010.
  31. ^ a b "Dutch government falls in budget crisis". BBC News. 23 April 2012. Retrieved 24 April 2012.
  32. ^ Gilbert Kreijger and Thomas Escritt (23 April 2012). "Dutch Prime Minister resigns in budget cuts row". Reuters. Retrieved 24 April 2012.
  33. ^ "Volg de verkiezingen 2014 live". De Volkskrant. Archived from the original on 15 September 2012.
  34. ^ United Nations Secretary-General, World Bank Group President Appoint High-Level Panel on Water United Nations, a press release of 21 April 2016.
  35. ^ The Netherlands votes for partial restrictions of the burqa in public space,, 29 November 2016.
  36. ^ "Kabinet-Rutte II verslaat Lubbers III: langstzittende kabinet". NOS (in Dutch). 20 August 2017. Retrieved 17 October 2017.
  37. ^ Rutte: effect afschaffen dividendbelasting op bedridden niet bekend Archived 1 December 2017 at the Wayback Machine (in Dutch),
  38. ^ "Trump got a dose of Dutch bluntness from visiting prime minister". The Washington Post. Retrieved 29 January 2021.
  39. ^ Rutte interrupts Trump! 4 Things that happened at the Rutte – Trump meeting
  40. ^ "Dutch govt under fire for Syria opposition support". MSN. 11 September 2018. Archived from the original on 1 February 2019. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
  41. ^ "Dutch funded 'jihadist' group in Syria, terror trial may now falter". Dutch News. 11 September 2018. Retrieved 16 September 2018.
  42. ^ Dodman, Benjamin (20 July 2020). "Dutch PM Mark Rutte, the thrifty europhile holding Europe hostage". France 24. Reuters, AFP. Retrieved 21 July 2020.
  43. ^ "[Opinion] Could we found a new EU without Hungary and Poland?". EUobserver. Retrieved 25 September 2020.
  44. ^ "The frugal blues: An underappreciated threat to the European project". ECFR. 15 September 2020. Retrieved 25 September 2020.
  45. ^ "Plenaire verslagen". (in Dutch). 9 September 2020. Archived from the original on 21 January 2021. Retrieved 25 September 2020. Je moet gaan nadenken: kun je een begroting maken via een intergouvernementeel verdrag of kun je nu een Europese Unie oprichten zonder Hongarije en Polen?
  46. ^ Erdbrink, Thomas (15 January 2021). "Government in Netherlands Resigns After Benefit Scandal". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 28 December 2021. Retrieved 16 January 2021.
  47. ^ van den Berg, Stephanie (15 January 2021). "Dutch government resigns over childcare subsidies scandal". Reuters. Retrieved 15 January 2021.
  48. ^ "Dutch election: PM Mark Rutte claims victory and fourth term". BBC News. 18 March 2021. Retrieved 17 April 2021.
  49. ^ "Coalition agreement presented today after record long formation process". NL Times. ANP. 15 December 2021. Retrieved 15 December 2021.
  50. ^ "Premier Rutte wiste jarenlang iedere dag zijn sms'jes". de Volkskrant (in Dutch). 18 May 2022. Retrieved 10 July 2023.
  51. ^ "Rutte bepaalde zélf welke sms'jes belangrijk waren en welke niet - en dat wringt". NRC (in Dutch). 18 May 2022. Retrieved 10 July 2023.
  52. ^ "Rutte bepaalde zélf welke sms'jes belangrijk waren en welke niet - en dat wringt". NRC (in Dutch). 18 May 2022. Retrieved 10 July 2023.
  53. ^ Sterling, Toby (2 August 2022). "Mark Rutte becomes Netherlands' longest-serving prime minister". Reuters. Retrieved 2 August 2022.
  54. ^ "Mark Rutte becomes longest serving Dutch prime minister". 1 August 2022. Retrieved 2 August 2022.
  55. ^ "VVD-leider Mark Rutte stopt, kondigt vertrek uit politiek aan". (in Dutch). 10 July 2023. Retrieved 10 July 2023.
  56. ^ 2019-S8 – Honorary Companion (AC) in General Division (9 October 2019)
  57. ^ The Royal Correspondent
  58. ^ PPE Agency
  59. ^ Quirinale website
  60. ^ "Ten things you didn't know about prime minister Mark Rutte". Dutch News. 3 November 2015. Retrieved 14 March 2017.
  61. ^ "Rutte: Het geloof blijft een worsteling voor mij". (in Dutch). Retrieved 30 October 2019.
  62. ^ "Mark Rutte als leraar: 'Hij is grappig, beetje streng en neemt nooit zijn telefoon op'". RTL Nieuws (in Dutch). 8 October 2016. Retrieved 10 June 2020.
  63. ^ "The Dutch Prime Minister Is a Big Fan of Robert Caro". The New York Times. 13 May 2016. Retrieved 31 March 2017.
  64. ^ "Mark Rutte (the prime minister of the Netherlands) Continues to Drive Saab". Saab Planet. 1 June 2020. Retrieved 1 June 2020.
Political offices Preceded byHans Hoogervorst State Secretary for Social Affairs and Employment 2002–2004 Succeeded byHenk van Hoof Preceded byAnnette Nijs State Secretary for Education, Culture and Science 2004–2006 Succeeded byBruno Bruins Preceded byJan Peter Balkenende Prime Minister of the Netherlands 2010–present Incumbent Party political offices Preceded byJozias van Aartsen Leader of the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy 2006–present Incumbent